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ARM CoAP Tutorial

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zdshelby

Zach Shelby, Director of Technology for IoT at ARM and previously the co-founder of Sensinode gives and an in-depth tutrorial of the Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) for the Internet of Things. Updates to this tutorial made on April 30th, 2014.

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1
ARM IoT Tutorial
Zach Shelby
April 30th, 2014
CoAP: The Web of Things Protocol
2
Introduction
3
3
M2M Internet of Things
Little Data
Big Data
Web
Evolution from M2M to IoT
The Web
Things
Services
4
CoAP:The Web of Things Protocol
§  Open IETF Standard
§  Compact 4-byte Header
§  UDP, SMS, (TCP) Support
§  Strong DTLS Security
§  Asynchronous Subscription
§  Built-in Discovery
5
From Web Applications to IoT Nodes
Web Application
1000s of bytes
HTTP
IP
TLS / TCP
DTLS / UDP
Binary Web Object
CoAP
IP
100s bytes
10s of bytes
IoT Backhaul
IoT Node Network
Proxy Router
Web Object
DTLS / UDP
Binary Web Object
CoAP
6LoWPAN
6
CoAP is One Key IoT Standard
Local
Network
Protocols,
Security
Application
ZigBee IP ZigBee NANBT Smart IP
TLS Based SecurityWeb: CoAP & HTTP
Lightweight M2M Application Objects ZigBee Web Objects
Mature New
ZigBee IP 1.X
CoRE
6LoWPAN

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ARM CoAP Tutorial

  • 1. 1 ARM IoT Tutorial Zach Shelby April 30th, 2014 CoAP: The Web of Things Protocol
  • 3. 3 3 M2M Internet of Things Little Data Big Data Web Evolution from M2M to IoT The Web Things Services
  • 4. 4 CoAP:The Web of Things Protocol §  Open IETF Standard §  Compact 4-byte Header §  UDP, SMS, (TCP) Support §  Strong DTLS Security §  Asynchronous Subscription §  Built-in Discovery
  • 5. 5 From Web Applications to IoT Nodes Web Application 1000s of bytes HTTP IP TLS / TCP DTLS / UDP Binary Web Object CoAP IP 100s bytes 10s of bytes IoT Backhaul IoT Node Network Proxy Router Web Object DTLS / UDP Binary Web Object CoAP 6LoWPAN
  • 6. 6 CoAP is One Key IoT Standard Local Network Protocols, Security Application ZigBee IP ZigBee NANBT Smart IP TLS Based SecurityWeb: CoAP & HTTP Lightweight M2M Application Objects ZigBee Web Objects Mature New ZigBee IP 1.X CoRE 6LoWPAN
  • 11. 11 An HTTP Request See RFC2616 - Hypertext Transfer Protocol v1.1
  • 17. 17 What CoAP is (and is not) §  Sure, CoAP is §  A very efficient RESTful protocol §  Ideal for constrained devices and networks §  Specialized for M2M applications §  Easy to proxy to/from HTTP §  But hey, CoAP is not §  A general replacement for HTTP §  HTTP compression §  Restricted to isolated “automation” networks
  • 18. 18 CoAP Features §  Embedded web transfer protocol (coap://) §  Asynchronous transaction model §  UDP binding with reliability and multicast support §  GET, POST, PUT, DELETE methods §  URI support §  Small, simple 4 byte header §  DTLS based PSK, RPK and Certificate security §  Subset of MIME types and HTTP response codes §  Built-in discovery §  Optional observation and block transfer
  • 19. 19 Transaction Model §  Transport §  CoAP currently defines: §  UDP binding with DTLS security §  CoAP over SMS or TCP possible §  Base Messaging §  Simple message exchange between endpoints §  Confirmable or Non-Confirmable Message answered by Acknowledgement or Reset Message §  REST Semantics §  REST Request/Response piggybacked on CoAP Messages §  Method, Response Code and Options (URI, content-type etc.)
  • 27. 27 Caching §  CoAP includes a simple caching model §  Cacheability determined by response code §  An option number mask determines if it is a cache key §  Freshness model §  Max-Age option indicates cache lifetime §  Validation model §  Validity checked using the Etag Option §  A proxy often supports caching §  Usually on behalf of a constrained node, §  a sleeping node, §  or to reduce network load
  • 31. 31 Getting Started with CoAP §  There are many open source implementations available §  mbed includes CoAP support §  Java CoAP Library Californium §  C CoAP Library Erbium §  libCoAP C Library §  jCoAP Java Library §  OpenCoAP C Library §  TinyOS and Contiki include CoAP support §  CoAP is already part of many commercial products/systems §  ARM Sensinode NanoService §  RTX 4100 WiFi Module §  Firefox has a CoAP plugin called Copper §  Wireshark has CoAP dissector support §  Implement CoAP yourself, it is not that hard!
  • 33. 33 What is Web Linking? §  Links have been around a long time §  Web Linking formalizes links with defined relations, typed links §  HTML and Atom have allow links §  RFC5988 defines a framework for Web Linking §  Combines and expands the Atom and HTML relation types §  Defines a unified typed link concept §  A link can be serialized in any number of formats §  RFC5988 revives the HTTP Link Header and defines its format §  Atom and HTML are equivalent serializations
  • 34. 34 What is Web Linking? §  A type link consists of: §  Context URI – What the link is from §  Relation Type – Indicates the semantics of the link §  Target URI – What the link is too §  Attributes – Key value pairs describing the link or its target §  Relations include e.g. copyright, author, chapter, service etc. §  Attributes include e.g. language, media type, title etc. §  Example in HTTP Link Header format: Link: <http://example.com/TheBook/chapter2>; rel="previous"; title="previous chapter" !
  • 35. 35 Resource Discovery §  Service Discovery §  What services are available in the first place? §  Goal of finding the IP address, port and protocol §  Usually performed by e.g. DNS-SD when DNS is available §  Resource Discovery §  What are the Web resources I am interested in? §  Goal of finding URIs §  Performed using Web Linking or some REST interface §  CoRE Link Format is designed to enable resource discovery
  • 36. 36 CoRE Link Format §  RFC6690 is aimed at Resource Discovery for M2M §  Defines a link serialization suitable for M2M §  Defines a well-known resource where links are stored §  Enables query string parameters for filtered GETs §  Can be used with unicast or multicast (CoAP) §  Resource Discovery with RFC6690 §  Discovering the links hosted by CoAP (or HTTP) servers §  GET /.well-known/core?optional_query_string §  Returns a link-header style format §  URL, relation, type, interface, content-type etc.
  • 38. 38 Resource Directory §  CoRE Link Format only defines §  The link format §  Peer-to-peer discovery §  A directory approach is also useful §  Supports sleeping nodes §  No multicast traffic, longer battery life §  Remote lookup, hierarchical and federated distribution §  The CoRE Link Format can be used to build Resource Directories §  Nodes POST (register) their link-format to an RD §  Nodes PUT (refresh) to the RD periodically §  Nodes may DELETE (remove) their RD entry §  Nodes may GET (lookup) the RD or resource of other nodes See draft-ietf-core-resource-directory
  • 40. 40 How to get Semantic? §  So how to use CoRE in real applications? §  Resources need meaningful naming (rt=) §  A resource needs an interface (if=) §  See [draft-vial-core-link-format-wadl] on using WADL for this §  A payload needs a format (EXI, JSON etc.) §  Deployment or industry specific today §  oBIX, SensorML, EEML, sMAP etc. §  SenML is a promising format [draft-jennings-senml] §  CBOR is a standard for binary JSON [RFC7049] §  Promising data semantics for use with CoAP §  OMA Lightweight M2M [http://j.mp/lwm2m] §  IPSO Objects [http://www.ipso-alliance.org/smart-object-committee-charter] §  CoRE Interfaces [draft-ietf-core-interfaces]
  • 41. 41 CoRE Link Format Semantics §  RFC6690 = Simple semantics for machines §  IANA registry for rt= and if= parameters §  Resource Type (rt=) §  What is this resource and what is it for? §  e.g. Device Model could be rt=“ipso.dev.mdl” §  Interface Description (if=) §  How do I access this resource? §  e.g. Sensor resource accessible with GET if=“core.s” §  Content Type (ct=) §  What is the data format of the resource payloads? §  e.g. text/plain (0)
  • 42. 42 CoRE Interfaces §  CoRE Interfaces [draft-ietf-core-interfaces] §  A paradigm for REST profiles made up of function sets §  Simple interface types !

Editor's Notes

  1. Explain the core idea of the REST paradigm and how that differs from RPC realized with e.g. SOAP. The role of WSDL and WADL in the description of web-service interfaces is also important. See Book Sections 5.3.4 and 5.4.1 for more information on web-services and 6LoWPAN.