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By:Farah Adibah Kasmin         2008402312
CONTENTS Definition of elderly… Epidemiology of aging Changes during process of aging and how does it occur What is ge...
Definition WHO: People who are 65 years old or more. MALAYSIA : Elderly those with the age of 60          and above “el...
Epidemiology In 2006, almost 500 million people worldwide were 65 and older. By 2030 1 billion (1 in every 8 of the eart...
MALAYSIA  Population of Malaysian >60 years in     1995 5.9%,     2000  6.6%     2009  7.1% (2.03M) Projected perce...
THE AGING PROCESS  A process of gradual and spontaneous change, resulting in maturation throughchildhood, puberty, and you...
CHANGES OCCURING DURINGAGINGOverview Alter the older person’s response to illness show great variability among individua...
General Increase body fat     Prone to get obesity    Prone to get weight bearing disease(arthritis)    Higher chance...
Age-Associated Respiratory              changes          CHANGES                      IMPLICATIONS Decreased respiratory ...
Age-Associated Cardiovascular                Changes            CHANGES                          IMPLICATIONS             ...
Age-Associated Gastrointestinal              changes            CHANGES                              IMPLICATIONS Decreas...
Age Associated Changes in Musculoskeletal                   System          CHANGES                      IMPLICATIONS Dec...
Age associated changes in CNS           CHANGES                          IMPLICATIONS                                     ...
Age associated changes in            endocrine function           CHANGES                       IMPLICATIONS Impaired glu...
Age associated changes in urinary             system          CHANGES                         IMPLICATIONS Decreases in k...
References: Geriatrics & Gerontology International, Volume 6 Primary Care Geriatrics 5th Edition. Ham, Sloane, Warshaw, ...
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Care for elderly

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Care for elderly

  1. 1. By:Farah Adibah Kasmin 2008402312
  2. 2. CONTENTS Definition of elderly… Epidemiology of aging Changes during process of aging and how does it occur What is geriatrics? Giant of Geriatric?
  3. 3. Definition WHO: People who are 65 years old or more. MALAYSIA : Elderly those with the age of 60 and above “elderly” a chronological age of 65 years old or older, 65 ->74 years old “early elderly” and those over 75 years old “late elderly. Geriatrics & Gerontology International, Volume 6, Issue 3,pages 149–158, September 2006
  4. 4. Epidemiology In 2006, almost 500 million people worldwide were 65 and older. By 2030 1 billion (1 in every 8 of the earth’s inhabitants.)
  5. 5. MALAYSIA  Population of Malaysian >60 years in  1995 5.9%,  2000  6.6%  2009  7.1% (2.03M) Projected percentage of elderly in 2020  9.8% Department of Statistics Malaysia. 2010
  6. 6. THE AGING PROCESS A process of gradual and spontaneous change, resulting in maturation throughchildhood, puberty, and young adulthoodand then decline through middle and late age
  7. 7. CHANGES OCCURING DURINGAGINGOverview Alter the older person’s response to illness show great variability among individuals often impacted by genetic and long-term lifestyle factors commonly involve a decline in functional reserve with reduced response to stressors.
  8. 8. General Increase body fat   Prone to get obesity  Prone to get weight bearing disease(arthritis)  Higher chances to get chronic diseases eg: Diabetes and Hypertension Reduce total body water   Risk of dehydration
  9. 9. Age-Associated Respiratory changes CHANGES IMPLICATIONS Decreased respiratory muscle  Decreased efficiency of strength; stiffer chest wall ventilatory exchange. with reduced compliance.  Decreased cough & airway ciliary action -> Diminished ciliary & mucus/foreign matter macrophage activity, drier clearance reduced-> mucus membranes. Increased risk of infection and bronchospasm with airway obstruction. Decreased cough reflex.  Increased risk of aspiration
  10. 10. Age-Associated Cardiovascular Changes CHANGES IMPLICATIONS  Decreased exercise tolerance- Arterial wall thickening and > fatigue, SOB stiffening, decreased compliance.  Risk of arrhythmias Left ventricular and atrial hypertrophy. Sclerosis of atrial and mitral  Diminished peripheral valves. pulses, cold extremities. Reduced arterial compliance Reduced β-adrenergic response  Increased blood pressure Reduced baroreceptor sensitivity Reduced SA node automaticity  postural hypotension
  11. 11. Age-Associated Gastrointestinal changes CHANGES IMPLICATIONS Decreases in strength of muscles of  Risk of malabsorption, fluid/electrolyte imbalances, poor mastication, taste, and thirst nutrition. perception.  Gastric changes: Increased risk Decreased gastric motility with (GERD), maldigestion, NSAID- delayed emptying. Atrophy of induced ulcers. protective mucosa.  Constipation. Risk of fecal incontinence. Colonic contraction less effective & impaired sensation to defecate.  Decreased metabolism of drugs. Risk of adverse drug reactions. Liver size and blood flow are reduced -> hepatic reserve decrease.
  12. 12. Age Associated Changes in Musculoskeletal System CHANGES IMPLICATIONS Decreased muscle mass  Sarcopenia: increased risk of disability, falls, unstable gait. Decreased myosin adenosine  Risk of osteopenia and triphosphatase activity osteoporosis. Deterioration and drying of  Limited range of motion, joint joint cartilage. instability, risk of osteoarthritis.  Muscle weakness/ muscle Decreased bone mass and fatigue osteoblastic activity
  13. 13. Age associated changes in CNS CHANGES IMPLICATIONS  Impairments general muscle strength; reflexes; nerve Decrease in neurons, conduction velocity, slowed motor neurotransmitters, dendrites skills and deficits in balance and and synapses  brain atrophy coordination. Changes in autonomic  Decreased temperature sensitivity. hypo/hyperthermia regulation -> Compromised thermoregulation.  Slowed speed of cognitive processing. Reduced :  Brain catecholamine synthesis  Increased risk of sleep disorders, delirium, neurodegenerative  Brain dopamine synthesis diseases.
  14. 14. Age associated changes in endocrine function CHANGES IMPLICATIONS Impaired glucose  DM homeostasis  Thyroid dysfunction Reduced thyroxine clearance  Metabolic abnormalities Increase ADH, reduce renin (Low Na+, high K+) and aldosterone  impotence Reduce testosterone  fracture production Reduce vitamin D absorption and activation  osteopenia
  15. 15. Age associated changes in urinary system CHANGES IMPLICATIONS Decreases in kidney mass, blood  Reduced renal functional flow, GFR reserve; risk of renal complications in illness. Reduced bladder elasticity, muscle tone, capacity.  Risk of nephrotoxic injury and adverse reactions from Increased post-void residual, drugs. nocturnal urine production.  Increased risk of urinary In males, prostate enlargement urgency, incontinence, UTI, with risk of (BPH). nocturnal polyuria.
  16. 16. References: Geriatrics & Gerontology International, Volume 6 Primary Care Geriatrics 5th Edition. Ham, Sloane, Warshaw, Bernard, Flaherty. 2007. Mosby Encyclopedia of Aging And Public Health By Sana Loue, Martha Sajatovic  Thank you

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