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Eden oxford 2014


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Technology can be the great equalizer in a classroom with diverse learners. Whereas teachers can find it difficult to differentiate instruction for 30+ students in one class, all with different needs and abilities, “assistive technology” (devices and software to assist students with disabilities) can often help teachers personalize lessons and skills enhancement to each child. Children with learning disabilities often have better technology skills than their teachers and are drawn to computers and other gadgets, so using them in the classroom makes perfect sense. For children with physical disabilities, technology can give access to learning opportunities previously closed to them. E-readers help students turn book pages without applying dexterity, and voice adaptive software can help students answer questions without needing to write. Computers are engaging and more advanced than the typical modified lesson allows. The widely-used teacher education textbook Educating Exceptional Children has a special section in each chapter focused on assistive technology explaining how it is used with exceptionalities ranging from giftedness to autism.

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Eden oxford 2014

  1. 1. What do we know about the teacher in the Open World Learning at home and in the hospital Special Needs Teacher at home The public school system works for many, many people, but it's not the only model of education. Learning at home can be just as effective, because of the flexibility in where students learn and what they learn. How students learn can be very different too. In classes with large numbers of students, teachers must focus time and energy on classroom management and individual students can become lost. At home, parents can work with kids one-on-one and take their family's goals and interests into account. Here's a look at how homeschooling lends itself to different teaching methods and ways of organizing the year.
  2. 2. 1. Every child gets an "individualized education plan." In public school, a special needs child is entitled by law to an Individualized Educational Plan, or IEP. It lays out the student's strengths and weaknesses and proposes ways to help the student accomplish the necessary tasks. A parent once told me she wished every student could have an IEP, a plan designed around their specific needs. When you homeschool, they can. 2. Parents can set their own school year schedule. While it varies by state, many homeschoolers are able to devise their own schedules. That means school can take place in the evenings, on the weekends, or over the summer. Homeschooling gives you the flexibility to take time off for a trip or a family emergency without the fear of missing anything. 3. Younger kids are not forced to sit quietly all day. Schools sometimes seem like they weren't designed for real-life children. Little ones fidget, they get distracted, they need to run and sing and jump around. Yet schools expect even kindergartners to sit still and work. At home, learning can be an unstructured, active experience. Desk work can be saved until an age when kids are ready for it. And tasks that requires quiet concentration can be scheduled around the child's most receptive time, leaving the rest of the day for more energetic activities. 4. Kids can get hands-on experiences. Learn engineering from an engineer, or weaving from a weaver? Study biology in the field, go on a fossil expedition and get credit for it? Devote yourself to putting together your own car, or building your own robot? Sure, if you're homeschooling. School children can do these things during their time off, but homeschoolers can make them part of their everyday learning. 5. Great teachers don't need a license. People who are passionate about their work or hobby often make the best educators. But if you're in school, even a highly-skilled professional or experienced artisan needs to pick up a teaching certificate first. Being able to learn from great teachers wherever you find them is one of the best parts of homeschooling. Special Needs Teacher in the hospital Special needs teachers work primarily with children who require special instructional services to help them learn and develop to their potential.
  3. 3. Duties Special needs teachers spend most of their working day providing instruction and dealing with unexpected as well as routine situations. They work with children who have: physical or developmental disabilities hearing, visual, speech or language disabilities learning disabilities behaviour disorders or mental illness high intelligence or talent. Special needs teachers must understand the unique characteristics of each student and choose or develop appropriate instructional programs and methods. Teaching techniques and methods vary with the particular disability or special talent but, in general, special needs teachers: work closely with parents and professionals from community agencies perform diagnostic assessments to determine student strengths and areas of need develop educational goals, objectives and individualized program plans choose or develop specially designed instructional methods and materials prepare and present lessons monitor student performance and assess each student's progress work with teaching assistants. Their working environments and responsibilities may vary considerably. For example, special needs teachers may: teach all or most subjects for a class of children who have a variety of disabilities or a particular type of difficulty meet with students from regular school classrooms on an individual basis or in small groups, and work in co-operation with classroom teachers to help children who have learning disabilities, language deficiencies or academic deficiencies travel from school to school providing tutorial services for students who are hearing or vision impaired, and provide consultative services for classroom teachers work with therapists in special clinics which children visit for assessments, therapy or instruction work with other teachers to adapt educational programs for students with special needs in regular classrooms. Special needs teachers also may work in: special schools with many classes of children with disabilities hospitals for children with short and long term disabilities or illnesses the homes of children who are homebound due to sickness, rehabilitation needs or severe physical disabilities institutional schools for children who have neuropsychiatric, emotional or social
  4. 4. disabilities. Working Conditions Working with children who have special needs requires considerable physical, mental and emotional energy. Other working conditions for special needs teachers vary depending on student needs, the type of facility and the philosophy of the facility. For example, some special needs teachers may lift over 20 kilograms when helping children move to and from wheelchairs. Personal Characteristics In addition to the qualities required by other teachers, special needs teachers must be able to: work closely and co-operatively with other teachers, parents and consultants maintain a positive attitude and focus on student capabilities, not limitations. They should enjoy finding different ways to solve questions and present information, and organizing and co-ordinating the work of others. How Online Learning Is Revolutionizing K-12 Education and Benefiting Students Historically, students' learning opportunities have been limited and shaped by factors beyond their control. Geography has been an important factor. Does the child live near a good school? If not, do her parents have the financial means to place her in a quality learning environment? Access to quality instruction has been another factor. Was the child placed in a class with the best teacher? Are the teacher's lessons--designed to instruct a classroom of 16 or more students-- tailored to her level, learning style, and interests? The development and proliferation of online learning and virtual learning options is beginning to break down these barriers. In the future, students will be able to receive customized instruction from teachers anywhere in the world. The best teachers will use technology to reach many more students. Virtual and blended-learning programs will enable mass customization in education, allowing students to learn at their own pace in ways that are tailored to their learning styles and interests. Students appear to be benefiting from online learning programs. While evidence about the effectiveness of K-12 online learning programs is limited, there is reason to believe that students
  5. 5. can learn effectively online. In 2009, the U.S. Department of Education published a meta- analysis of evidence-based studies of K-12 and postsecondary online learning programs.The study reported that "students who took all or part of their class online performed better, on average, than those taking the same course through traditional face-to-face instruction." In addition, online learning has the potential to improve productivity and lower the cost of education, reducing the burden on taxpayers. What Is Online or Virtual Learning? Online learning is quite different from the traditional concept of education, which involves a school building, a classroom with rows of desks, and a teacher standing next to a chalkboard. What does it mean to say that a child is being taught through an online or virtual education program? How would a child interact with a teacher online, and how would such an online program be funded or governed? Existing online or virtual learning programs differ from traditional education in a number of significant ways: Scope. Online programs can be either comprehensive or supplementary to a child's education. Some online learning programs are full-time. The students enrolled in a full- time online learning program do not attend a traditional brick-and-mortar school, but learn almost entirely online. Supplemental programs offer students the opportunity to take individual courses in an online setting to complement their instruction in a traditional school. For example, a student who wishes to take a class that is not offered by his or her school, such as an advanced placement course, could enroll in an online learning program in that subject. Teacher interaction. Online learning can be delivered in multiple ways. Students can participate in online learning through either synchronous or asynchronous instruction. In synchronous instruction, students and instructors interact in real time. In asynchronous instruction, students learn at their own pace and on their own time schedules. Teachers evaluate their performance and provide feedback, such as grading performance on assignments and answering questions. In both settings, online learning programs generally require regular communication between teachers and students by phone, e-mail, instant messaging, and video conferencing. Physical location. Some online learning programs allow students to learn exclusively from home, essentially on their own. Other online learning programs are housed in a physical location like a school. In addition, some schools offer "blended learning," which combines online learning with face-to-face instruction. Jurisdiction. Online learning programs can be funded publicly or privately. Among the public programs, online learning programs can be funded and governed by the state or school district. Many states now offer statewide online learning programs or virtual schools, which allow students to enroll in individual classes. Some states have "cyber schools" or virtual charter schools that students can "attend" full-time. In addition, many school districts and schools offer their own online learning options within the traditional
  6. 6. school setting. In these respects, online learning programs can be funded or governed by the levels of government that traditionally oversee American public education: states, school districts, and chartering authorities. However, these jurisdictions, which are largely based on geography, are beginning to change because online learning allows students to receive instruction across district, state, and even national boundaries. Range of students served. Online learning programs can serve students of all ages and learning backgrounds. Most online learning programs focus on serving older or high school students. A survey of school district administrators about online learning reported that an estimated 64 percent of students participating in fully online programs are in grades 9-12. Elementary students (grades K-5) comprise 21 percent and middle school and junior high school students (grades 6-8) account for the remaining 15 percent. The survey also revealed that online learning programs are serving a diverse range of student needs from advanced coursework to remedial education. For example, a majority of respondents agreed that each of the following were important reasons for online learning: "Offering courses not otherwise available at the school"; "Meeting the needs of specific groups of students"; "Offering Advanced Placement or college-level courses"; and "Permitting students who failed a course to take it again." Therefore, it is reasonable to expect virtual education to improve learning opportunities for American students in a number of ways: Increased access to high-quality teachers. Online learning could address main discrepancies in American education--the disparate access to high-quality teachers and instruction caused by socioeconomic and geographic differences. A child's chances of attending a school with high-quality teachers largely depend on where she lives, which is shaped by her parents' financial means. Online learning could give all students, regardless of where they live, access to the best instructors. It could also address teacher shortages. In some subjects, such as science and mathematics, some schools have difficulty employing skilled teachers and therefore cannot offer students instruction in certain subjects. However, through online learning, a student attending a school without a physics teacher, for example, could learn physics from a teacher in another school district or even in another state. Mass customization and optimization. Public education in the United States generally treats students in a standardized manner. For example, students are typically grouped by age, rather than by achievement level or learning style. Online learning has the potential to provide all children with customized education. Students can receive instruction at their own pace and in ways tailored to their unique learning styles and interests. Increased customization can make the learning process more enjoyable and productive. Moreover, it will also allow for more accurate feedback on students' progress, enabling parents to monitor their children's progress more closely and to hone accountability. Increased flexibility. Online learning can provide students with greater flexibility in when and how they learn. Most instruction in American schools occurs each year between fall and spring and on weekdays between 8 am and 4 pm. Virtual learning allows students to learn anytime at their own pace. This allows students and families to use their time more efficiently to pursue other interests and activities. In addition, the flexibility of online learning can particularly benefit students who have specific challenges in their
  7. 7. education, such as those who must change schools frequently and those who have fallen behind in their studies. Improved flexibility for teachers. Online learning will also provide teachers with new career options and increasingly give teachers more freedom to instruct students in more productive ways. This has the potential to expand the talent pool of the teacher workforce and improve teacher quality overall. For example, teachers who are parents could value the flexibility of teaching from home, which allows them to balance their career more easily with their parental responsibilities. Improved productivity and efficiency.Online learning has the potential to improve productivity and lower the cost of education, thereby reducing the burden on taxpayers. Moe and Chubb made this point in Liberating Learning: "Schools can be operated at lower cost, relying more on technology (which is relatively cheap) and less on labor (which is relatively expensive)." They estimate that a school could reduce its teaching staff by approximately one-sixth if elementary school students spent one hour per day learning electronically. The cost savings could be used in a number of ways, such as investing more in teacher training or teacher pay to improve teacher quality and effectiveness. Innovation. The increasing use of online learning will provide instructors and online learning operators with incentives to innovate and develop new learning tools that could improve students' learning options in ways unimaginable today. The Empirical Evidence The report included other findings that may help policymakers understand how online learning affects students' learning. For example, the report stated that instruction combining online learning with face-to-face elements produced better results than purely online instruction. Moreover, the researchers reported that students who participated in online learning and who spent more time on task benefited the most. Many of these studies involved older students, and the researchers suggest caution when interpreting their findings, but the preliminary evidence suggests that online learning can provide a quality educational experience. This should give policymakers the confidence to expand the opportunities for online learning. Conclusion Online learning has the potential to revolutionize education. School districts are increasingly offering virtual learning options, such as supplemental instruction or blended-learning programs that combine online learning with face-to-face instruction. Enrollment in online learning programs is expected to grow over the next decade. One analysis estimates that half of high school classes will be online within a decade.
  8. 8. Students appear to be benefiting from online learning programs. A meta-analysis of empirical evidence on online learning programs found that students learn as well or better online as in a traditional school setting. Other potential benefits included expanded access to talented teachers, customized learning, more flexibility for families, and improved school productivity. Technology can be the great equalizer in a classroom with diverse learners. Whereas teachers can find it difficult to differentiate instruction for 30+ students in one class, all with different needs and abilities, “assistive technology” (devices and software to assist students with disabilities) can often help teachers personalize lessons and skills enhancement to each child. Children with learning disabilities often have better technology skills than their teachers and are drawn to computers and other gadgets, so using them in the classroom makes perfect sense. For children with physical disabilities, technology can give access to learning opportunities previously closed to them. E-readers help students turn book pages without applying dexterity, and voice adaptive software can help students answer questions without needing to write. Computers are engaging and more advanced than the typical modified lesson allows. The widely-used teacher education textbook Educating Exceptional Children has a special section in each chapter focused on assistive technology explaining how it is used with exceptionalities ranging from giftedness to autism. Assistive technology is not always just for students with disabilities; it can be used to help any student with motivation, academic skills, and social development. Here are some helpful resources for teachers looking for assistive technology for their students: UNC’s Center for Literacy and Disability Studies uses technology in their mission to promote literacy and communication for individuals of all ages with disabilities. The Centerhas developed a three-part video on reading assessment and assistive technology that explains evidence-based practices of improving literacy through technology. Additionally, the Center has developed “alternative pencils” for students with disabilities who cannot hold a traditional pencil or see a page, including children with deaf- blindness. These technologies include alphabet eye gaze frames allowing children to “point” to letters with their eyes, onscreen keyboards that are controlled by switches, and electronic flipcharts. LEARN NC offers an extensive set of resources to help teachers meet the needs of all learners, including “Reaching Every Learner: Differentiating Instruction in Theory and Practice,” a series of articles and web conferences about differentiation. In addition, LEARN NC’s technology integration page provides links to web resources, lesson plans, articles, and online courses designed to help educators incorporate technology into their teaching VoiceThread is a free software program that captures student voices and photos in order to collaborate on a topic. It is a technological substitute for written papers and allows students freedom to narrate their own projects. Sounding Board is an iPad/iPod Touch app that lets a student turn their device into a story board communicator. Students with writing disabilities and communication disorders can use the symbols to create their own messages in the same way that traditional symbol boards work, but easily and with a limitless supply of symbols.
  9. 9. TechMatrix offers consumer guides and links to software and assistive technology devices for students with disabilities. The site is sponsored by the National Center for Technology Innovation and the Center for Implementing Technology in Education. TechMatrix gives information and links to resources for teaching science, math, reading, and writing using technology with special education students. Samobor, 13.04.2014. References: 1.Angelle, P. (2006). Instructional leadership and monitoring: Increasing teacher intent to stay through socialization. NASSP Bulletin, 90(4), 318–334. 2.Berry, B., Daughtrey, A., & Wieder, A. (2010). A better system for schools: Developing, supporting and retaining effective teachers. New York and Hillsborough, NC: Teachers Network and the Center for Teaching Quality. Retrieved from 3.Boyd, D., Lankford, H., Loeb, S., Ronfeldt, M., & Wyckoff, J. (2011). The role of teacher quality in retention and hiring: Using applications-to-transfer to uncover preferences of teachers and schools. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 30(1), 88–110. 4.Feiman-Nemser, S. (2001). Helping novices learn to teach: The role of an exemplary support teacher. Journal of Teacher Education, 52(1), 17–30. 5.Fletcher, S. H., Strong, M., & Villar, A. (2008). An investigation of the effects of variations in mentor-based induction on the performance of students in California. Teachers College Record, 110, 2271–2289. 6.Flowers, N., & Mertens, S. B. (2003). Professional development for middle-grades teachers: Does one size fit all? In P. G. Andrews & V. A. Anfara, Jr. (Eds.), Leaders for a movement:
  10. 10. Professional preparation and development of middle level teachers and administrators (pp. 145– 160). Greenwich, CT: Information Age. 7.Gabriel, R. (2010). The case for differentiated professional support: Toward a phase theory of professional development. Journal of Curriculum and Instruction, 4(1), 84–93. 8.Hord, S. M., & Sommers, W. A. (2008). Leading professional learning communities: Voices from research and practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. 9.Ingersoll, R. M. (2001). Teacher turnover and teacher shortages: An organizational analysis. American Educational Research Journal, 38(3), 499–534. 10.Ingersoll, R., & Merrill, L. (2010). Who's teaching our children? Educational Leadership. 67(8), 14–20. 11.Ingersoll, R., & Perda, D. (2010). How high is teacher turnover and is it a problem? Philadelphia: Consortium for Policy Research in Education, University of Pennsylvania. 12.Ingersoll, R., & Strong, M. (2011). The impact of induction and mentoring programs for beginning teachers: A critical review of the research. Review of Education Research. Summer 2011. Links: 1. Getting to Know Megan Olivia Hall, 2013 Minnesota Teacher of the 2. Google gives teachers and learners access to the world's informatio 3. How to use Facebook to get better MOOC results 4. Expedition Beruf - Lehrer/in 5. Le nuove frontiere aperte dagli strumenti mobili: didattica multicana