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Guide project in uk

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Guide project in uk

  1. 1. Experiences of Developing and Deploying a Context-Aware Tourist Guide: The GUIDE Project Keith Cheverst, Nigel Davies, Keith Mitchell and Adrian Friday Lancaster University, Lancaster Presenter: Jim Cai
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>GUIDE is </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Real World vs. prototype </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Context-based =/= Location-Based </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GUIDE involves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requirement Engineering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human Computer Interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless infrastructure </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Application Requirement <ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Passive (following), active (exploring) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Context-Aware </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal (location, preference), environmental (weather, opening time) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Support for Dynamic Information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opening/closing time, special menus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Support for interactive Services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bookings </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. End-System <ul><li>Fujitsu TeamPad 7600 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large screen size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Light </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power/performance (166MHZ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows!!! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In real world? </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. User Interface <ul><li>Browser like </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Notion of following hyperlink </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive transfer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Friendly Personality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good for novice user </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Single-modality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>distraction </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Application functionality <ul><li>Access context-aware information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tap the info button </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not all information are based on current context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keyword search </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nearby attractions sorted by openness/close </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Application functionality
  8. 9. Application functionality
  9. 10. Application functionality <ul><li>Create a Tailored Tour of the City </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 1: Determine a set of attractions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>System: historic, recreation, popular </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Or User customization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 2: Determine the order of the tour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is recommended by the system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be modified, overwritten. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flexibility -- drawbacks: complicated interface </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Application functionality <ul><li>Access Interactive Services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation: avoid going to TIC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hotel bookings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Query films / Book ticket </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others (not mentioned) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Application functionality <ul><li>Send or receive messages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation: group tour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To keep in touch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Request info from the TIC staff </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Architectural Approach
  13. 14. The cell-based communications infrastructure <ul><li>Broadband (2Mbps) </li></ul><ul><li>Cell server broadcasting </li></ul><ul><li>Small non-overlapping cells between buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Provide more accurate positioning info </li></ul><ul><li>Disable WaveLAN roaming </li></ul>
  14. 15. Design of Information Model <ul><li>To represent (GOALS): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Context info </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Raining / outside castle / interest in history </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geographic info </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinate vs. symbolic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypertext info </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Global vs. local </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State info </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Visitor’s preference </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 16. GUIDE information Model <ul><li>Object types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Location objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attractions with its location, open time etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GetImmediateNeighbours() </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ProvideDescription() </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Navigation point objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Way points between location objects </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relationship objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distance between navigations point/location objects by different mean </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 17. GUIDE INFORMATION MODEL (CON’T) <ul><li>Augment pages with special tags </li></ul><ul><ul><li><GUIDETAG INSERT POSITION> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li><GUIDETAG INSERT ((HISTORY > 50) AND (ARCHITECTURE > 50)) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li><GUIDETAG INSERT NEIGBOURS> </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. GUIDE INFORMATION MODEL (CON’T)
  18. 19. GUIDE INFORMATION MODEL (CON’T) <ul><li>Total of 400 objects (400 html) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>120 location/navigation objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>280 relationship objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Store all in local clients (300k) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow off-line calculation of routes guidance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is scalability a problem? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>City Editor application (portable) </li></ul>
  19. 20. The GUIDE Software Architecture
  20. 21. Disconnected Operation <ul><li>Power matters! </li></ul><ul><li>Interface solution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Metaphor used to provide connectivity (2 level ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Showing the status of location updates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use the visitor’s assistance </li></ul>
  21. 22. Evaluation <ul><li>Expert Walk Through </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 experts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Talk aloud </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviewed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feedbacks: progress bar while downloading; button layout need to be consistent as other browsers </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Evaluation (Cont’d) <ul><li>Field Trial </li></ul>
  23. 24. Evaluation (Cont’d) <ul><li>Results: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive feedbacks on navigation and information retrievals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Happy with the dimension and weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Degree of connectivity is helpful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location-sensitive is helpful </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. Current & Future work <ul><li>Current </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employ staff to update information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of bluetooth and GPS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Future </li></ul><ul><ul><li>increase diversity of interactive services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>adaptive vs. predictable </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. Discussion <ul><li>Are all the design decisions being justified by the user study? What are the potential bias? What about a controlled experiment? </li></ul>
  26. 27. Discussion <ul><li>Is a tablet PC reasonable for a tour guide application? </li></ul>
  27. 28. Discussion <ul><li>Is scalability a problem, if all objects are stored locally? </li></ul>
  28. 29. Discussion <ul><li>What could be improved in the current system? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information model </li></ul></ul>

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