philosophy and logic

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philosophy and logic

  1. 1. ADELA CORAZON SILVABAMP 1-AWhat is Philosophy?Philosophy = Learning was the Medieval origin of the title "Doctor of Philosophy" (PhD); itoriginally meant a most learned person (or teacher) -- i.e. one who had mastered all the branchesof learning, at a time when it was regarded by many as still possible to do that.Again, the question of what philosophy is -- is itself a philosophical question.Philosophy for the Greeks.."Philosophy. To the Greeks, who coined the word, philosophy was primarily the love of wisdom.Socrates, a master of philosophers, did not profess to have wisdom or knowledge, but he soughtthem. His philosophy was always a quest, never a body of knowledge or doctrine. Some Greekphilosophers, less modest than Socrates, taught what they believed to be truth. What they taughtcame to be known, like the quest for truth, as philosophy. The Greeks were not fond ofdefinitions and did not impose sharp limitations on philosophy. It did not include manual skill orsuch occupational learning as that of the farmer, the sophist, the physician, or the priest. Itcomprised the body of disinterested learning. The word is still used in this sense in the title,doctor of philosophy.Philosophy for the Chinese..Chinese philosophy lays emphasise either on the practical running of society and mores(Confucianism), or a scientific study and interpretation of nature in terms of the interaction andinterchange of a few basic principles, such as yin and yang, the five elements (or wu ching, moreproperly translated as "five states of change"), and eight trigrams and sixty four hexagrams (asexplained in the ancient book of divination known as the I Ching). From the former comes theregulations for running society and human interaction; from the latter, an understanding of thesubtle principles of nature and the human body (as illustrated in the various forms of Chinesemedicine (acupuncture, etc) and "Taoist yoga"). So we could say that the emphasis hasconsistently been "horizontal" rather than "vertical". And this was probably the reason whyChinese civilisation has always been (until the scientific revolution in the West) sotechnologically advanced, producing such inventions as the magnetic compass, gunpowder,printing, etc.
  2. 2. Philosophy for the Hindus..The concept of a divine god is not fundamental to the Hindu philosophy.Is the Hindu god anydifferent? Since Hinduism is not an organized religion, not one founded by a code book, we canonly go by what are the traditional practices and beliefs of the people. These beliefs of thecommon Hindu present a picture of a god not very different from the gods of other religions.Hindu philosophy, thus understood, not only includes the philosophical doctrines present inHindu texts of primary and secondary religious importance, but also the systematic philosophiesof the Hindu schools: Nyāya, Vaiśeṣ ika, Sāṅ khya, Yoga, Pūrvamīmāṃsā and Vedānta. In total,Hindu philosophy has made a sizable contribution to the history of Indian philosophy and its rolehas been far from static: Hindu philosophy was influenced by Buddhist and Jain philosophies,and in turn Hindu philosophy influenced Buddhist philosophy in India in its later stages. Inrecent times, Hindu philosophy evolved into what some scholars call “Neo-Hinduism,” whichcan be understood as an Indian response to the perceived sectarianism and scientism of the West.Hindu philosophy thus has a long history, stretching back from the second millennia B.C.E. tothe present.Philosophy for the Muslims..For a long time Islamic philosophy was under a cloud of doubt and uncertainty. Some peopledenied its existence while others affirmed it. This uncertainty continued all through thenineteenth century. Those who denied the very existence of an Islamic philosophy feignedignorance and maintained that the teachings of Islam opposed all free discussion andinvestigation, and therefore Islam has never risen to the aid of philosophy and science throughoutthe centuries of its existence. The only fruits Islam has borne for its followes have beenintellectual despotism and dogmatism, they said.Islamic philosophy is simply an imitation ofAristotelian philosophy, and Islamic philosophical texts are nothing other than repititions ofGreek ideas in Arabic.Islamic philosophy is unique in the sort of topics and issues with which it deals, the sort ofproblems it attempts to solve and the methods it uses in order to solve themIslamic philosophy concerned itself with such matters as the problem of unity and multiplicity,the relationship between God and the world, both of which had been subjects of heatedcontroversies and discussions among the theologians for a long time.Another aim of this philosophy was to reconcile revelation with reason, knowledge with faith,and religion with philosophy, and to show that reason and revelation do not contradict eachother, and that religion would be accepted by the pagan when it is illuminated by the light ofphilosophic wisdom. It aimed to prove also that when religion embraces philosophy it takes onphilosophical qualities just as philosophy too assumes the colour of religion. In all, Islamicphilosophy is a creature of the environment in which it grew and flourished, and as is quiteobvious, it is a religious and spiritual philosophy.
  3. 3. Origin of Philosophy..Originally [by the time of Socrates] the word Philosophy meant Learning (the noun) and aphilosopher was a lover of [or one who thirsts for] learning. Learning is our languages highestand broadest [i.e. all-inclusive] category -- it subsumes [includes] all the subject-matters ofeducation [or culture].What are the Branches or Divisions of Philosophy?Logic is the study of the ideal method in thought and research: observation and introspection,deduction and induction, hypothesis and experiment, analysis and synthesis. It contains rules forformulating arguments and ordering thought so as to come to sound conclusions.Aesthetics is the study of, or expressions of theories of reasoned thought regarding the idealform, or beauty; it is the philosophy of art.Ethics is the study of ideal conduct, right and wrong; it attempts to deal with questions of "whatought to be" in regards to our behavior.Politics is the study of the ideal organization of society and government; justice, monarchy,aristocracy, democracy, socialism, anarchism, feminism: these are some of the possible elementsof political philosophy.Metaphysics is the study of, or expressions of theories of those things that are above or beyondnature or physics; beyond the five senses, the "ultimate reality" of all things. It includes twoother distinctive categories within its pale:Ontology , the study of being, of what is; the ultimate reality of and behind existence andmatter; andEpistemology , from two Greek words: episteme (knowledge) and logos (speech, reasoning).The subject explores How we know, or the nature and limitations of knowledge.Meaning of Logic..Dialectic (logic) is "the study of the art of reasoning". Dialectic is the method of philosophy,although some are willing to apply the word philosopher to those who "reject logic". (Note.--The word dialectic is also used to mean the method of question and answer.)Based on the definition of Matt Slick,Logic is the process of proper inference. It is the system ofthinking properly, of arriving at proper conclusions. It is the process of proper thinking basedupon principles that govern the validity of arguments.
  4. 4. Material and Formal objects of Logic.Formal logic concerns itself primarily to the correctness rather than the truth of a logical process.material logic on the other hand,is the truth of a material content.My Philosophy,Then and Now.Basically, my philosophy is just to be happy. Being happy means youre contented,and beingcontented is having a peace of mind. Since there is a "Great Depression" in the late 30s why nothave the opposite one?If only the world knows what would happen if everyone is happy,then it would be a greatdifference.No Wars,No Negative vibes. Its having the simple thought of"Everything will fall intoplace" and worrying less about whats gonna happen tomorrow. Just Believe you can and yourehalfway there. Happiness is like a perfume that you cant pour on others without getting a fewdrops on yourself. I dont have any things to believe in rather than being happy,because I can saythat its the root cause of positivity. Also,I believe that everything will follow once you startliving it.References:http://www.roangelo.net/logwitt/philosophy-origin.htmlThe Columbia Encyclopedia, 1946 Edition.http://www.kheper.net/topics/eastern/Chinese_philosophy.htmhttp://www.whatrain.com/shukla/index.htm&sa=U&ei=qqKwULvzCK60iQfvnYHIAw&ved=0CC8QFjAJ&usg=AFQjCNHSE0iI4Si8XZTkgW0tYyINQNo03ghttp://www.al-islam.org/al-tawhid/study-philosophy.htmhttp://www.angelfire.com/az/experiment/phildiv.htmlhttp://carm.org/questions-logichttp://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_are_the_material_and_formal_objects_of_logic

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