Mktg. zcharina


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Mktg. zcharina

  2. 2. Company Objectives and Resources<br /><ul><li>Evaluation of a company’s objectives and resources is crucial in all stages of planning for international operations. Each new market can require a complete evaluation, including existing commitments, relative to the parent company’s objectives and resource. As market grow increasingly competitive, as companies find opportunities, and the cost of entering the foreign markets increases, the companies need such planning.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Defining objectives clarifies the orientation of the domestic and international divisions, permitting consistent policies. The lack of well-defined objectives has found companies rushing into promising foreign markets only to find activities that conflict with or detract from the companies’ primary objectives.
  3. 3. Foreign market opportunities do not always parallel corporate objectives, it may be necessary to change the objectives, alter scale of international plan, or abandon them.
  4. 4. One market may offer immediate profit but have a poor long run outlook, while another may offer the reverse. Only when corporate objectives are clear can such differences be reconciled effectively.</li></li></ul><li>International Commitment<br /><ul><li>The planning approach taking by the international firm affects the degree of the internationalization to which the management is philosophically committed. Such commitment affects the specific international strategies and decisions of the firm. After company objectives have been identified, management needs to determine whether it is prepared to make the level of commitment required for successful international operations-commitment in terms of dollars to be invested, personnel for managing international organization, and determination to stay in the market long enough to realized a return on these investments.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>The degree of commitment to an international marketing can cause reflects to the extents of a company’s involvement. A company uncertain of its prospects is likely to enter the market timidly, using inefficient marketing methods, channels, or organizational forms thus setting the stage for the failure of a venture that might have succeeded with full commitment and support by the parent company. Any long-term marketing plan should be fully supported by senior management and have realistic time goals set for sales growth. Occasionally, causal market entry is successful, but more often than not, market success requires long-term commitment.</li></li></ul><li>The Planning Process<br /><ul><li>Whether a company is marketing in several countries or is entering a foreign market for the first time, planning is essential to success. The first time foreign marketer must decide what product to develop, in which markets, and with what level of resource commitment. For the company the company that is already committed, the key decisions involve allocating effort and resources among countries and product(s), deciding on new markets to develop or old ones to withdraw from, and determining which product to develop or drop. Guidelines and systematic procedures are necessary for evaluating international opportunities and risks and for developing strategic plans to take advantage of such opportunities.</li></li></ul><li>Information derived from each phase, market research,and evaluation of program performance <br />
  5. 5. PHASE 1: Preliminary Analysis and Screening – Matching Company and Country Needs.<br />Environmental factors, company character, and screening criteria <br /> Company character<br /><ul><li>Philosophy
  6. 6. Objectives
  7. 7. Resources
  8. 8. Management style
  9. 9. Organization
  10. 10. Financial limitations
  11. 11. Management and marketing skills
  12. 12. Products
  13. 13. Others</li></li></ul><li> Home-country constraints <br /><ul><li>Political
  14. 14. Legal
  15. 15. Economic
  16. 16. Other</li></ul>Host-country constraints<br /><ul><li>Economic
  17. 17. Political/ Legal
  18. 18. Competitive
  19. 19. Level of technology
  20. 20. Culture
  21. 21. Structures of distribution
  22. 22. Geography
  23. 23. Competition </li></li></ul><li>PHASE 2: Adapting the marketing mix to target marketsMatching mix requirements<br />Product <br /><ul><li>Adaptation
  24. 24. Brand name
  25. 25. Features
  26. 26. Packaging
  27. 27. Service
  28. 28. Warranty
  29. 29. Style
  30. 30. Standards</li></ul>Price <br /><ul><li>Credit
  31. 31. Discounts </li></ul>Promotion<br /><ul><li>Advertising
  32. 32. Personal Selling
  33. 33. Media
  34. 34. Message
  35. 35. Sales promotion</li></ul>Distribution<br /><ul><li>Logistics
  36. 36. Channels</li></li></ul><li>PHASE 3:Developing the marketing planMarketing Plan Development<br /><ul><li>Situation Analysis
  37. 37. Objectives and goals
  38. 38. Strategy and tactics
  39. 39. Selecting mode of entry
  40. 40. Budgets
  41. 41. Action programs</li></li></ul><li>PHASE 4: Implementation and controlImplementation, evaluation and control<br /><ul><li>Objectives
  42. 42. Standards
  43. 43. Assign responsibility
  44. 44. Measure performance
  45. 45. Correct for error</li>