Atherosclerosis
 Atherosclerosis is a specific form of arteriosclerosis

(thickening & hardening of arterial walls) affec...
Aetiology and Pathogenesis:
Signs and symptoms
 Sometimes the first sign of atherosclerosis can be a

medical emergency such as a heart attack or a s...
Coronary Arteries
 Supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart.
 Plaque build-up in the major arteries - ‘Coronary Artery Dise...
Carotid arteries
 Supply blood enriched with oxygen to the brain.
 Narrowed or blocked carotid arteries - ‘Cerebrovascul...
Peripheral arteries
 Supply oxygen rich blood to the arms and legs.
 Common symptoms include:
Pain, cramps, aching, num...
Renal Arteries
 Supply oxygen-rich blood to the kidneys.
 Plaque build-up - ‘chronic kidney disease’
 Early kidney dise...
Prognosis
 Atherosclerosis leads to coronary artery disease -

number one cause of death in the United States and
many ot...
Current research in Atherosclerosis

Currently atherosclerosis research is targeted at
finding new effective treatments to...
 The novel approach of developing medicine using

natural sources such as plants is the current trend in
the field of ath...
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  1. 1. Atherosclerosis  Atherosclerosis is a specific form of arteriosclerosis (thickening & hardening of arterial walls) affecting primarily the intima of large and medium-sized muscular arteries and is characterized by the presence of fibrofatty plaques or atheromas.  Most commonly affected arteries by atherosclerosis include large and medium sized arteries like aorta, coronary, popliteal and cerebral arteries.  Less common complications include peripheral vascular disease, aneurysmal dilatation due to weakened arterial wall, chronic ischemic heart disease, ischaemic encephalopathy and mesenteric occlusion.
  2. 2. Aetiology and Pathogenesis:
  3. 3. Signs and symptoms  Sometimes the first sign of atherosclerosis can be a medical emergency such as a heart attack or a stroke.  Signs and symptoms of the disease vary depending upon which arteries are affected:  Coronary Arteries  Carotid Arteries  Peripheral Arteries  Renal Arteries
  4. 4. Coronary Arteries  Supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart.  Plaque build-up in the major arteries - ‘Coronary Artery Disease’ or ‘Coronary Heart Disease’.  Plaque build-up in the smallest arteries of the heart - ‘Coronary Micro vascular Disease’.  Symptoms include:  Chest pain or discomfort  Neck, back, shoulder, arm or jaw pain  Feeling of indigestion  Shortness of breath  Fatigue  Dizziness  Restlessness  Weakness  Perspiration  Arrhythmias http://cardiac.surgery.ucsf.edu/conditons--procedures/coronary-artery-disease.aspx
  5. 5. Carotid arteries  Supply blood enriched with oxygen to the brain.  Narrowed or blocked carotid arteries - ‘Cerebrovascular Disease’ aka ‘Carotid Artery Disease’.  Experience symptoms of stroke or a transient ischemic attack.  Symptoms include:  Sudden weakness  Paralysis or numbness of the face, arms or legs on one side of the body  Trouble speaking or understanding speech  Loss of vision in one eye  Dizziness  Trouble walking  Loss of balance or coordination  Sudden and severe headache  Loss of consciousness  Problems breathing http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/catd/
  6. 6. Peripheral arteries  Supply oxygen rich blood to the arms and legs.  Common symptoms include: Pain, cramps, aching, numbness or weakness in the legs Hair loss on legs or feet Thickened toenails Sores on feet or legs that never heal A change in the colour of the skin on the legs http://www.nycva.org/cardio/cardiology/pad-testing/
  7. 7. Renal Arteries  Supply oxygen-rich blood to the kidneys.  Plaque build-up - ‘chronic kidney disease’  Early kidney disease often has no signs or symptoms but as the disease worsens, following symptoms may occur:  Tiredness  Changes in the urination frequency  Loss of appetite  Nausea  Swelling in the hands or feet; itchiness or numbness  Trouble concentrating http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=182831
  8. 8. Prognosis  Atherosclerosis leads to coronary artery disease - number one cause of death in the United States and many other countries for both men and women.  Hardening of the arteries cannot be reversed once it has occurred.  However, lifestyle changes can prevent or slow down the process from becoming worse.  Healthy lifestyle; eating healthy, medication to lower LDL cholesterol, stopping smoking and limiting alcohol consumption, losing weight, and staying physically active.
  9. 9. Current research in Atherosclerosis Currently atherosclerosis research is targeted at finding new effective treatments to tackle the growing number of deaths caused by atherosclerosis around the world.
  10. 10.  The novel approach of developing medicine using natural sources such as plants is the current trend in the field of atherosclerosis. This approach will help to decrease the amount of people affected by atherosclerosis, as the treatments are focused on creating low cost treatment in comparison with the former treatments such as statins.  Current research interprets Atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases can be prevented by healthy lifestyle choices such as exercise, a healthy diet and to quit smoking which can have positive results on reducing the risks of getting atherosclerosis.

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