APPROVAL UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH THESIS Vyavasayi Vidya Pratishthan’s Indubhai Parekh School of Architecture, Rajkot, India.The following study is hereby approved as a creditable work on the approval subject carried out andpresented in a manner sufficiently satisfactory to warrant its acceptance as a pre-requisite to the degreefor which it has been submitted.It is understood that by this approval, the under signed does not necessarily endorse or approve anystatement made, opinion expressed or conclusion drawn here in, and approves the study only for abovepurpose; and satisfies himself to the requirements laid down by the thesis committee.THESIS TITLE: Understanding the factors affecting the house forms. --Study of House form of Gurjar Kshatriya community, Kutch.Student: Zaveri Pratik Guide: Kiran Vagehla.Roll no: 4003 Signature: Date:
CONTENTINTRODUCTION I - VI CHAPTER – 1 Introduction to house1.1 Shelter – basic human need. 011.2 Understanding of culture. 021.3 Factors affecting house – form. 041.4 The Relation of House and Settlement. 07 CHAPTER – 2 About the region2.1 Introduction of the region – Kutch. 08 A. Geographical characteristics. 09 B. Political history. 102.2 Various communities in different parts of Kutch. 12
CHAPTER – 3 About the community3.1 History. 143.2 About people. 17 A. Social belief and lifestyle. a) Life style. b) Ceremonies. c) Caste system. d) Religious belief. B. Occupation.3.3 Community behavior. 233.4 House. 24 CHAPTER – 44.1 Identifying of case studies. 264.2 Case studies. 274.3 Analysis of case studies. 454.4 Conclusion. 58
INTRODUCTION Earth with its hidden forces have buckled the strata, and lifted and shifted the landmasses. And on the surface, the erosion of snow and rain and storm, of stream and ocean, of sun and wind, have carved out a natural architecture.1 Similarly, man has carved out nature and reorganized it according to his needs and requirements and has created wonderful man- made architecture. He has also become an architect of his environment, but he does not command forces as powerful as those of the nature do. Though he has advanced in technologies, he is not able to control the physical environment completely. With evolution, man left caves and started living in groups and communities, and created wonderful primitive and vernacular architecture. With the study of primitive and vernacular buildings, one finds a close relation between house forms, traditions and cultures. For understanding culture and its relation to the house form, one needs to understand first the relation of house form with man and nature and also the cultural and physical surrounding. The primitive buildings were built by people using their wisdom, ability, and resources to their fullest extent. They refer largely to certain technological as well as economical levels of development and also include aspects of social organization. The vernacular house form is the result of collaboration of many people over many generations, as well as collaboration between the maker and user of the building and other artifacts, which is defined by the term "traditional".2 Tradition has the force of a law honored by 1 Bronowski Jacob: THE ASCENT OF MAN, Back Bay books, USA, 1908, Pg. 91 2 Rapoport Amos: HOUSE FORM AND CULTURE, prentice-hall, inc., London, Pg. 6UNDERSTANDING THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE HOUSE FORM I - Study of house form of Gurjar Kshatriya community, Kutch.
INTRODUCTION everyone through collective assent. It is thus accepted and obeyed, since respect for tradition gives collective control, which acts as a discipline. This approach works because there is a shared image of life, an accepted model of buildings, a small number of building types, and finally an accepted hierarchy and hence an accepted settlement pattern.3 As long as tradition is present, the shared and accepted image is workable; when tradition changes, the picture changes. Today man has differentiated himself into various groups and communities based upon various aspects like origin, faith, beliefs and practices etc, and one finds that with passage of time these communities develops a rich and distinctive lifestyle and characteristic of themselves. They have their own peculiar way of living, may that be their celebrations, day-to-day activities, culture, traditions or customs. Building is result of interaction of man and his nature, aspiration, social organizations, worldviews, way of life, social and physiological needs, individual needs and group needs. However, today in our culture, “traditions" – which are the regulators – have started disappearing for various reasons. As houses being the direct expression of changing values, images, perceptions, and way of life, it becomes very necessary to understand this topic.4 3 Ibid, Pg. 6 4 Ibid, Pg. 12UNDERSTANDING THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE HOUSE FORM II - Study of house form of Gurjar Kshatriya community, Kutch.
INTRODUCTION A community evolves from the act of living to share a common culture and share a common collective image of life. According to condition prevalent in each region and the size of the settlements therein, each culture acquires certain types of form and concepts in their settlement patterns. Evolving out of the socio-physical and socio-cultural context and due to local acceptance of its validity over a period of time, they have become the traditional type of habitat of the people. As long as the main features of the context remain unchanged, the settlement pattern also retains its validity. The major contextual forces shaping these settlements can be enumerated as climate, available materials, technology and culture. These forces not only contribute to the form of the habitat, but at times to the development of the lifestyle of the people as well. Every community has something very special and unique about themselves, which cannot be found within other communities. The differences between the types of buildings in different area are result of differences in culture, rituals, ways of life, social organization, climates, and materials and technology available, while the similarities are the evidence not only of areas where some or all of these factors have coincided, but also of some basic constancies in man’s needs and desires.5 Hence one needs to study in respect to various viewpoints rather than only one constant which helps in understanding the change in culture, expressed in behavior, relating to changes in the environment, as shown by physical form. 5 Ibid, Pg. 15UNDERSTANDING THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE HOUSE FORM III - Study of house form of Gurjar Kshatriya community, Kutch.
INTRODUCTION AIM: The aim of this study is to understand the major factors affecting the house form of ‘GURJAR KSHATRIYA’ community in Kutch region. OBJECTIVES: • To study the culture, tradition, religious beliefs, life style, occupation and other factors and to understand there reflection in their built form. • Identify various different house forms, if any. • To study the peculiar characteristic of community houses. • To study and analyze the spatial organization of various spaces and to identify the element that constitute. • To study house form at various place and to understand the constant and the variable factors. • An overview of the facade and ornamentation of the house. • Understand the material and construction techniques, and their importance.UNDERSTANDING THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE HOUSE FORM IV - Study of house form of Gurjar Kshatriya community, Kutch.
INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY OF STUDY: • Collection of available data and literature. • Verbal interaction with people. • Understanding and correlating the available data. • To understand the distribution of community and mapping it. • Identify their settlement and their location in the town. • Studying the built form by analyzing it and identifying the factors affecting the built form. • Identifying various special features of built form. • Study the cases in detail by documenting them. • Finding constant and variable found in house form of different places. • Common house form characters are tested against the cases studied in order to arrive at specific generator.UNDERSTANDING THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE HOUSE FORM V - Study of house form of Gurjar Kshatriya community, Kutch.
INTRODUCTION SCOPE AND LIMITATION: This dissertation is limited to the study of factors affecting the house form of ‘GURJAR KSHATRIYA’ community in Kutch region only. The study is limited to house form only and not any other type of community structure. While pursuing the dissertation I realized that there are various scopes of taking forward this research and continue the search by studying the community structures such as bridges, schools etc, also one can study the influence of colonial architecture on the house form of the Gurjar Kshatriya community and its façade details. RESEARCH QUESTION: • Which are the factors that affect the house form of the community and understand how they influence the house form? • Find out the missing link between old design process and new design process. • Upto which extent traditional house form has its contemporary validations.UNDERSTANDING THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE HOUSE FORM VI - Study of house form of Gurjar Kshatriya community, Kutch.
CHAPTER – 1 Introduction to house1.1 Shelter – basic human need.1.2 Understanding of culture.1.3 Factors affecting house – form.1.4 The Relation of House and Settlement.
CHAPTER - 1 1.1 ‘SHELTER’ – BASIC HUMAN NEED: Shelter or house has always been the basic need of humankind, today and throughout history. In the past, nomad used to first live in open air, near to source of food and water. They choose location that could be defended against predators and rivals and that were shielded from the worst weather. Later with understanding due to evolution, they started living in caves or in the open air, with little of formal structures for living in, such as tents and huts. Due to various factors, later they started living in the small groups. Because of which a community living started, where all people developed and followed peculiar ways of beliefs, religion, festivals, rites, and rituals,FIG: 1 Cave man customs and traditions. With this, came into existence of occupation and culture. In order to survive and earn livelihood, people started commercial activities, by dividing work according to individual capabilities. People belonging to same group or sub – group and/or the occupation find it convenient to live in close proximity, thus forming an identifiable group or society. Society can be thus defined as a group of people occupying a specific locality that are dependent on each other for survival and who share a common culture. Hence, a peculiar way of life develops in a society among the people. Culture and society are two closely related concepts. There can be no culture without a society, just as there can be no society without individuals.FIG: 2 Primitive shelterUNDERSTANDING THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE HOUSE FORM 1 - Study of house form of Gurjar Kshatriya community, Kutch.
CHAPTER - 1 1.2 UNDERSTANDING OF CULTURE: Culture and society are not the same thing. While cultures are complexes of learned behavior patterns and perceptions, societies are groups of interacting organisms. They are inextricably connected because culture is created and transmitted to others in a society. Culture consists of the values, beliefs, and perceptions of the world that lie behind peoples behavior and which are reflected in their lifestyle. They are shared by members of a society and when acted upon, they produced behavior considered acceptable within that society.6 People maintain cultures to deal with problems or matters that concern them. To survive, a culture must satisfy the basic needs of those who live by its rules, provide for its own continuity, and provide an orderly existence for the members of a society. In doing so, a culture must strike a balance between the self – interests of individuals and the needs of society as a whole. Also, a culture must have the capacity to change in order to adopt the new circumstances or to altered perceptions of existing circumstances in order to survive.7 Changes take place in response to events as environmental crises, intrusion of outsiders, or modification of behavior and values within the culture. Although cultures must be able to change to remain adaptive, sometimes cultural changes can also bring unexpected and often disastrous results.8 6 Havilland William: ANTHROPOLOGY, Harcourt brace & company, USA, 1997, Pg. 345 7 Ibid, Pg. 345 8 Ibid, Pg. 361UNDERSTANDING THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE HOUSE FORM 2 - Study of house form of Gurjar Kshatriya community, Kutch.
CHAPTER - 1 CULTURE – That complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, customs, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society. - British anthropologist sir Edward Burnett Tylor – 1871 Society is the union of individuals, all of whom have their own special needs and interests and share a common culture. Large societies often have subcultures, or groups of people with distinct sets of behavior and beliefs that differentiate them from a larger culture of which they are a part. The subculture may be distinctive because of the age of its members, or by their race, ethnicity, class, or gender. The qualities that determine a subculture as distinct may be aesthetic, religious, occupational, political, sexual or a combination of these factors.UNDERSTANDING THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE HOUSE FORM 3 - Study of house form of Gurjar Kshatriya community, Kutch.
CHAPTER - 1 1.3 FACTORS AFFECTING HOUSE – FORM: Houses that were built in past, were based on several factors ranging from socio-culture, economics to physical factors, where as today house form are based on different set of ideas/factors such as world views, rationalization and fashion. Modern man has lost the mythological and cosmological orientations, which was so important to primitive man, or has substituted new mythologies in place of old.9 Its not that house built today are illogical or irrelevant, but at the same time they are questionable. Rejections of old design process or modifying them according to contemporary time, shows that form still reflect old concerns. In past people were more concern about holistic orientations, were highly responsive to site, climate, topography for physical comfort and peaceful microclimate within the house. Today we have advance in technology that we can overcome several of these factors according to our need and desire. Today choices are excessive and vocabulary is not limited, which has given rise to new factors affecting the house form, which in the end seems to dominate our traditional values and cultural ideas. Phenomenal urban growth has put man into a very unprecedented environmental situation, to the extent that he is unable to relate himself with his habitat. Slower rate of changes in the past allowed sufficient contextual factors to come into play in the shaping of human environment. These contextual factors varied according to the 9 Rapoport Amos: HOUSE FORM AND CULTURE, prentice-hall, inc., London, Pg. 126UNDERSTANDING THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE HOUSE FORM 4 - Study of house form of Gurjar Kshatriya community, Kutch.
CHAPTER - 1 variation in the regional situation. Major forces acting upon the form were climatic, constructional, and social. Normally one or other force become predominant depending upon the context and found expressions in the form. These factors contributing to the life style of the people, also affected the form of the settlement. With the shortage of time today, a person appoints architects and designers to design their house that has his own myths and ideas. In the past, an individual himself possessed sufficient knowledge for construction of his house, while today we are depending on various agencies for providing various services. The old/traditional house represents certain values which may be different in architects designed house/building and which tells something about life style, which explains their acceptance and success. The house that people buy today or get built, reflects popular values and goals more closely than do they relates to culture or traditions. In general, one can argue that modern symbols related to house are as strong as those of the past and still take precedence over physical aspect ----- they are only different. 10 Modern man may still have his own myths and the form of house, while very different in their specifications, may be motivations, which are not completely different from those of the past, and still primarily be socio- cultural.11 The physical setting provides the possibilities among which choices are made through the taboos, customs, and traditional way of the culture. Even when the physical possibilities are numerous, the actual choices may be 10 Rapoport Amos: HOUSE FORM AND CULTURE, prentice-hall, inc., London, Pg. 133 11 Ibid, Pg. 127UNDERSTANDING THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE HOUSE FORM 5 - Study of house form of Gurjar Kshatriya community, Kutch.
CHAPTER - 1 severely limited by the cultural matrix.12 Please refer the annexure for understanding how various physical and social factors have affected various communities and cultures all around the world. 12 Ibid, Pg. 47UNDERSTANDING THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE HOUSE FORM 6 - Study of house form of Gurjar Kshatriya community, Kutch.
CHAPTER - 1 1.4 THE RELATION OF HOUSE AND SETTLEMENT: As we all know that living pattern always extend beyond the house to some extent, it is necessary to see house as part of total social system, and not in isolation, which helps in understanding the relation of man to his settlement and landscape. House is only a small part of large settlement, and the way one uses the settlement affects the house form. Moreover, each of the settlements has its own customs, traditions, ideas, and different man – women relations. These differences can be seen in their houses, their forms and space allocation in them, even if direct casual relations cannot be traced. The use of public spaces and buildings, interaction spaces for each gender, ceremonial spaces, and educational spaces forms the part of settlement and affect its surrounding and settlement in total. Thus, it is important to see house not only in relation to the basic dichotomy of settlement types as settings for life and in relation to their variants along the total space use scale, but also as part of the specific system to which it belongs. It should be understood in its relation to the town, its monumental parts, non-domestic areas, and social meeting places, and the way they and the urban spaces are used. One should also consider the movement from the house, through the various transitions to the street, and then to the other parts of the settlements. 13 13 Adopted from Rapoport Amos: HOUSE FORM AND CULTURE, prentice-hall, inc., London, Pg. 73UNDERSTANDING THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE HOUSE FORM 7 - Study of house form of Gurjar Kshatriya community, Kutch.
CHAPTER - 2 2.1 INTRODUCTION OF REGION - KUTCH: Kutch is very peculiarly geographically located in the northwestern region of Gujarat, the western most state of India. Kutch is a princely state of India. It is the largest district of the state of Gujarat and the second largest district in India covering an area of 45,612 sq. kms. Kutch is very sparsely populated. Being a draught prone area, intense agriculture is not possible. Many communities in past came and settled in kutch adapting themselves to the physical surrounding and carrying forward their culture, out of which Gurjar Kshatriya community was one. Kutch literally means something that intermittently becomes wet andFIG: 3 Location of Kutch. dry; large part of this district known as Rann of Kachchh is shallow wetland that submerges in water during the rainy season and becomes dry during other seasons. The same word is also used in the language of Sanskrit origin for a tortoise and garments to be worn while having a bath. It is interesting to note that when its map viewed upside down, it resembles a tortoise, and henceforth it takes its name from the word ‘kutchua’. and so kutch was also know as ‘kutchdweep’ or ‘Kutchbet’ , as it looks like an island in monsoon time as water of sea entered to the rann, the desert.FIG: 4 Map showing Kutch as an island.UNDERSTANDING THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE HOUSE FORM 8 - Study of house form of Gurjar Kshatriya community, Kutch.
CHAPTER - 2A. GEOGRAPHICAL CHARACTRISTICS: Kutch stretches from 22o 44’ to 24o 41’ north latitude and 68o 09’ to 71o 54’ east longitude. Bounded by the Arabian Sea on the west and the southwest, by the Gulf of Kutch to the south, it meets the border of Sindh, which becomes a part of Pakistan after the partition of India in 1947, in the north. To the northeast, it runs along Rajasthan and in the east and southeast, it links up with other parts of Gujarat. Kutch is connected with the other part of the country only through a bridge called ‘SURAJ BARI’. The Kutch region can be divided into three parts running more or less horizontally in an east – west direction. The northwest part of the Kutch is the desert, which is divided in two parts - ‘MOTU RANN’ and ‘NANU RANN’. Motu rann is also known as ‘Great rann of Kutch’,FIG: 5 Map showing Kutch as an island. which is completely barren. The central belt known as ‘Banni’, which was fertile grassland, is sparsely populated.The southern belt of the district is a coastal belt and is most fertile and relatively densely populated. Many parts of Kutchwere fertile in the past, but because of shortage of water, these areas became dry. The main water source for the Kutch wasthe Sindhu River, which changed its path after the earthquake that happened in 1819 A.d. Kutch is the only region where weget variations in landform and climate because it has desert on one side and sea on the other three sides. As a result ofwhich, it has numerous ecology forming distinct ecosystem in each place, which in turn gave rise to distinct cultures todevelop in each zone. The coastal area is humid right through the year where as the central and northern parts of the regionare dry. Kutch as a region is characterized by its extreme intensities, the geographical space, the topographical formations,the climate, the vegetation – Its flora and fauna, and of course its people.UNDERSTANDING THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE HOUSE FORM 9 - Study of house form of Gurjar Kshatriya community, Kutch.
CHAPTER - 2B. POLITICAL HISTORY: Due to variety in ecosystem and ecology of place, distinct cultures have emerged with each having specialcharacteristics. Kutch is divided into several parts based on the cultures residing in that area. These parts are known as‘PARGANA’. These divisions are as follows:FIG: 6 Map of Kutch as divided into various ‘PARGANA’.UNDERSTANDING THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE HOUSE FORM 10 - Study of house form of Gurjar Kshatriya community, Kutch.
CHAPTER - 2 The human history of Kutch goes back to the time of Prehistory. The dry bed of the river Surkhi at a few miles in the northeast direction of Nakhatrana has revealed large flakes, hand-axes, and scrappers of the Paleolithic era made from local dikes and basalt. The people who lived here were hunter-gatherers. Around 2,600 BC, the Indus Valley Civilization made its way to Kutch with people settling down at Dholavira, an island city, located at Khadir Island to the northeast of Bhuj. Sakas were first to rule Kutch between 1st and 3rd century, and also did the Buddhism and Jainism did spread in Kutch. Followed by abhirs and guptas, Arabs attacked Kutch, through which Muslim came to Kutch. In 1304 Mogul sultan Allahuddin Khilji came on rule. From the available data, it is found that Muslim rule was limited only to the costal tract on the west and north. Defeating Jam Raval, Khengarji became the first ‘Rao’ king of Kutch in 1548. Ruling until 1585, Rav Bharmal came to throne. Following several centuries, Rao rule continued in Kutch. In 1819, Rav Desalji becomes the ruler while still and infant; regency council then managed the affairs. Pragmal II (1860 – 1875), Khengarji III (1876 – 1942), Vijayraji (1942 – 1948) were the success ding rulers with Madansinghji (1948) being the last ruler who signed the treaty of accession to the Indian union in 1948.UNDERSTANDING THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE HOUSE FORM 11 - Study of house form of Gurjar Kshatriya community, Kutch.
CHAPTER - 2 2.2 VARIOUS COMMUNITIES IN DIFFERENT PARTS OF KUTCH: Kutch as in the history was been invaded by variety of invaders and ruled for many centuries as a result we find a lot of diverse communities and cultures. According to condition prevalent in each region and the size of the settlements, therein each culture acquired certain form concepts in their settlement patterns. As long as the main features of the context remain unchanged, the settlement pattern also retains its validity. Due to variation in landform and climate, every community has evolved its house form according to the needs and comfort, which also varies from place to place. Various major communities residing in Kutch are Rabaries, Aahirs, Jats, and Harijans. Other minor communities include Maldharis, Raisipotra, Halepotra, Wankars, Sammas, Kodis, and Kanbhi etc. These communities have actually migrated from Pakistan, Afghanistan, Russia, Turkey, Iran and other area in Middle East and Central Asia.UNDERSTANDING THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE HOUSE FORM 12 - Study of house form of Gurjar Kshatriya community, Kutch.
CHAPTER - 2 VARIOUS COMMUNITIES IN KUTCH AHIR COMMUNITY FIG: 10 Also known as ABHIRA, they are cow herders and shepherds. They areJAT COMMUNITY principally farmers who once sole milk and ghee but have changed their occupation because of irregularity of rain in Kutch. JAT RABARI COMMUNITYFIG: 7 They are originallyherders from Iran and arebasically Sunni Muslims. Mennormally look after animalsand women look after fields.HARIJAN COMMUNITY BHATIA COMMUNITY FIG: 13 Bhatia’s are the FIG: 11 - 12 They are camel trading community, are quite breeders, cattle herders and FIG: 8 – 9 They originally brave, and adventures. move from place to place by came from Marwar in Originally, they were warriors carrying their household on Rajasthan. They are good in of Jaiselmer. In the past, they camels back. They live in leatherwork, weaving wool also used to do farming. They circular mud house know as and cotton. They always live belong to ‘vaishnav’ sect of bhunga due to their climatic in groups. They were former Hindu religion. and social factors. suspicious as untouchables.UNDERSTANDING THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE HOUSE FORM 13 - Study of house form of Gurjar Kshatriya community, Kutch.
CHAPTER – 3 About the community3.1 History.3.2 About people. A. Social belief and lifestyle. a) Life style. b) Ceremonies. c) Caste system. d) Religious belief. B. Occupation.3.3 Communal behavior.3.4 House.
CHAPTER - 3 3.1 HISTORY: According to Sanskrit dictionary GURJAR means defeating enemies, gur – means enemy and jar – means defeating. They belong to north western part of India such as Gujarat, Rajasthan, Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Punjab etc. This community also resides in other countries such as Pakistan, Iran, Afghanistan, Russia etc. In different countries they are known as gurjar, gojar, gorjar, godar, gorj, etc. They are mostly Hindus and very few are Muslims or Sikhs. They mostly belong to Kshatriya cast, and ruled over gurjara - pratihara kingdom i.e. 60% of south Asia during 8th and 9th century. Arrival of Gurjars in India has two opinions. According to one, it is believed that Gurjars migrated in India in 476 AD, with the white hunas and quickly assimilated into the local population as Kshatriya. They are believed to have originated from Georgia. In Persian it is pronounced as "Gurjiya". Gujarat is said to be named after them as they settled there in the 6th century. While from the books of great scholars, it is found that they belong to Aryan dynasty and were always a part of this country and were not outsiders. Historian believes that they had migrated to India from central Asia. It is also said that they probably might have settled in the Indian green territory during 5th and 6th century A.D. The gurjar traveled to India via Rajputana crossing Punjab and finally settling in Gurjratra, which they ruled for many centuries. They resisted the Arabian invasion successfully for 300 years till the fall of their kingdom, when the Muslim invasion arrived. In 1697 al-ud-din khiljiUNDERSTANDING THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE HOUSE FORM 14 - Study of house form of Gurjar Kshatriya community, Kutch.
CHAPTER - 3 destroyed the last rule of Gurjars in India. During the Muslim invasion, their rule in India converted some and forced many Hindus community to migrate in all directions from north India and especially some of the politically affected Rajputs and Kshatriya communities of Rajasthan also migrated southward. After that Gurjars were ruthlessly suppressed and persecuted. Numerous plots began to be hatched against Gurjars. Under these bad and hostile conditions some Gurjars ran away for safety while other disliked to be called "Gurjars" and hence they converted themselves into communities, other than Gurjars. Instead of saying Kshatriya KUMAR, they recognized themselves as KHUMBHAR (PORTAR) to save their life from harassment and cruelty of Muslim (Mogals) rulers. After Muslim invasion the Gurjars turned to farming as their occupation. From the available information of certain researchers and very old preserved documents of barots (bhats), their ancestors arrived into Kutch from Rajasthan in 7th century to fight and repel the unwanted aliens attack from the Middle East to save the dignity of our motherland. In the 12th century, 1178 – 79, they made entry into village called Dhaneti, in between Anjar and Bhuj of Kutch district but they had to face harassment and were repelled by the local public, as a result they migrated further and started their livelihood at places where they were welcomed and accepted. Maintain their core identity of Kshatriya, they settled in Kutch, Halar and other parts of Saurastra region. Many of these people have migrated from villages to other places for better prospects and got themselves engaged in various other occupations as agriculture was not sufficient to survive.UNDERSTANDING THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE HOUSE FORM 15 - Study of house form of Gurjar Kshatriya community, Kutch.
CHAPTER - 3 Migration from Kutch and Saurastra continued to places such as Bihar, Bengal, and Maharastra and from Halar region people migrated to East Africa, from where they further migrated to United kingdoms due to political changes and upheavals. At that time, 18 main centers of the ancestors in Kutch were Anjar, Vidi Meghpar, Galpadar, Nagalpar, Sinogara, Khambhara, Chandia, Lovaria, Kumbharia and Devalia. All these villages are near and around Anjar. These areas are relatively on the eastern side and are generally plain and called Ugamana pat. Regarding Dungra pat (area of small hills), there are 7FIG: 14 Villages in Ugamana pat. villages named Nagher, Kukma, Hajapar, Jambudi, Reha and Madhapar, where their ancestor settled. FIG: 15 Villages in Dungra pat.UNDERSTANDING THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE HOUSE FORM 16 - Study of house form of Gurjar Kshatriya community, Kutch.
CHAPTER - 3 3.2 PEOPLE: As the name suggests, people of gurjar Kshatriya community are very brave and skillful. Evolved with the time and need, they took interest in activity like agriculture, mason and construction activities to suit with the situation. Believing in brotherhood and community development, this people are very co – operative and helpful in nature. A. SOCIAL BELIEFS AND LIFESTYLE: a) LIFESTYLE: As people generally live in joint family system, generally man do all the work for earning livelihood, while women are mostly house wife, taking care of family and children. Very few examples are there where women, in the past, had step out of household activities and worked in the societies. “LAAJ” system still prevails at some place, i.e. women has to cover her head below eyes in front of elders of the family as sign of respect. A system of ‘LAAJ LANI’ used to take place in past, which has almost disappeared in the present days. In past man used to have second wife, if the first dies and also many times they used to have two wives.UNDERSTANDING THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE HOUSE FORM 17 - Study of house form of Gurjar Kshatriya community, Kutch.
CHAPTER - 3 b) CEREMONIES: CHATHI: In their families a child born and on the 6th day, the CHATTHI ceremony is conducted on a low stool (BAJOTH) along with lighted deep, pen and ink- pot. Pen and ink signifies that the child is entitled to education. Some say that pen and ink are kept, as there is belief that on this day "vidhata" comes and writes the fortune of the child on the basis of his past’s good and bad deeds. A statue of horse rider with a sword in his hand is also placed on the bajoth. Horse rider with sword symbolizes that the child is from the Kshtriya family. MARRIAGE: When the young male Kshtriya is getting married, he is holding a sword in his right hand. Sword is Kshtriya’s weapon that is one of the identity symbols within Hindu social fabric as a warrior, protector and administrator of the community and society. There is no "DAHEJ" system in this community. Chunri, hero, sankda, choiyu, and a pair of dress are the minimum gift one should give to girl at time of marriage. From the available information’s, it is known that they were the first to start ‘SAMUH LAGNA’ system in India. In 1972 they organized first SAMUH LAGNA in village called Raipur in Madhya Pradesh.UNDERSTANDING THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE HOUSE FORM 18 - Study of house form of Gurjar Kshatriya community, Kutch.
CHAPTER - 3 DEATH: Any female, if dies without having any child, then the parents of the dead (female) gets all the jewellery that were made in her in–laws house, when they visits for the rituals. If the female dies having a child, parents ask for the jewellery that were made by them from the in-laws family, which they claim to return after the child gets mature enough. Sometimes parents ask for nothing if the female leaves the boy child behind, whereas many times other even breaks the relations with in-laws family. If the dead person is girl, than the expanses occurred on the ceremony of 11th and 12th day are to be paid by her parents side. NAVRATRI: On the 8th and 9th day of NAVRATRI, there is family get together. All the people from that family around the world meet on these days and have havans and pujas and have Samuah Prasad. In this ceremony people of other community are not allowed. Prasad consist of different types of eatables depending on the ‘Gotra’ type. PADIAS: All the families have historical records of some outstanding persons who died defending their villages and are remembered as SHURAPURAS and have their PADIAS either in the public Chowk of villages or far out atUNDERSTANDING THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE HOUSE FORM 19 - Study of house form of Gurjar Kshatriya community, Kutch.
CHAPTER - 3 periphery of the villages, where today proper structures have been developed around them and have become place of worship. GOTRAS AND KULDEVIES: As other Kshtriya communities, each family of communities have their GOTRA named after one of seven rishis such as GAUTTAM, KAUSHIK, KASHYAP, BHARDWAJ, VSHIST, VISHVAMITRA and other. They also have KULDEVIS such as CHAMUNDA, KHODIAYR, BRAHMANI, BHAWANI, MOMAI, BAHUCHARA and others attached to the families whom they worship and these symbolizes Kshtriya character.FIG: 16 Kuldevi – FIG: 17 Kuldevi –Chavalma Chauhan – Brahmani Chauhan – ASADHI BIJ:Reha. Reha. As ‘Asadhi bij’ is the New Year for kutchi people, there is a community celebration. People get together on this day at specific place and have lunch together. MUNDAN: This ceremony of child has to be taken place at their native place where they have their ‘kuldevi’. After the ceremony all family members are invited for ‘PRASAD’. Prasad consists of different number of eatable items depending on the Gotras of the person.UNDERSTANDING THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE HOUSE FORM 20 - Study of house form of Gurjar Kshatriya community, Kutch.
CHAPTER - 3 SHASTRA PUJAN: As Kshatriya’s are warrior by nature, they pay a due respect to their weapon, and hence they incorporate weapon in many of their activities e.g. in marriage. On the day of ‘VIJYA DASHMI’, they carry out ‘SHASTRA PUJAN’ i.e. worship of weapons. c) CASTE SYSTEM: The community is further divided into various sub groups such as 1) Maru, 2) ladva, 3) Khodiyar, 4) Makvana, 5) Vegad, 6) Unevar, 7) Kacha, 8) Solanki, 9) Parmar, 10) Bhalsoda, 11) Jethva, 12) Rathod, 13) Varu, 14) Chavada, 15) Savariya, 16) Vadher, 17) Vadav, 18) Gohil, 19) Dhokiya, 20) Tank, 21) Chauhan, 22) Bhardva, 23) Bhatti, 24) Kukadiya, 25) Vagehla, which are residing into kutch. d) RELIGIOUS BELIEFS: Basically Hindus, they follow lord Ram or lord Krishna. Some of them also follow Swaminarayan sect. Every house has a specific place for worship.UNDERSTANDING THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE HOUSE FORM 21 - Study of house form of Gurjar Kshatriya community, Kutch.
CHAPTER - 3 B. OCCUPATION: After migrating from Rajasthan, community was in need of new occupation for livelihood for which they opted for construction. For the need of food and milk they did rain-fed farming for ¼ duration around year. Some also reached upto international trading and mining occupation. Due to skillfulness and enterprising nature of community, they acquired the special preference by Britishers in the construction of railway industries and hence became the pioneers of railway construction in India. Due to occupation of construction many people of this community have spread all over India in places such Orrisa, Bihar, and Bengal in east, Karnataka and Tamilnadu in south and else where. Being in contact with Britishers and working with them, community earned very well and was considered as one of the rich communities. Today people of this community have spread all over India and engaged in various other fields for better job prospects. But yet many families are still engaged in construction work and few are yet attached with farming activities.UNDERSTANDING THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE HOUSE FORM 22 - Study of house form of Gurjar Kshatriya community, Kutch.
CHAPTER - 3 3.3 COMMUNITY BEHAVIOUR: People of this community have always believed in community progress along with individual growth. Believing so, in 18 of their exclusive villages, they have invited other communities in order to fulfill their social and occupational needs and allow them to reside with them and grow together with mutual sharing of skill and knowledge. Mobilizing their own resources, they have constructed several village facility structures such as pond, temple, school, bird feeder, guest house etc in all the villages. Moreover on ‘Bhim Agiyaras’ all villagers contribute in process of cleaning of pond according to their own strength. Also one finds a social fencing all around the pond. Pond is always kept clean and protected from entry of animals.UNDERSTANDING THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE HOUSE FORM 23 - Study of house form of Gurjar Kshatriya community, Kutch.
CHAPTER - 3 3.4 HOUSE: A typical Gurjar Kshtriya house is identified by its hierarchy of spaces, use of rich materials and high sense of details and construction techniques. Apart from a typical space use pattern discriminating between private and semi – private domain, it generally follows patterns of row houses, sharing two walls with the adjoining units. In a Gurjar Kshtriya dwelling the typical space organization is described below: At ground level, the house starts right outside, on the street, where one interact first at ‘OTLAS’ which forms a very important junction for social interaction. Moving further one enters the house through street with raised plinth of 1 or 2 steps from the street level. Through the main entrance, one enters the anteroom known as ‘DELI’, which is semi – covered place used for informal sitting. Beside it, there is another room known as ‘BETHAK’ which is generally used for sitting of male members of family and limiting the entry of outsiders. Next is open to sky courtyard known as ‘CHOWK’, which generally house all the services of house. It consists of underground tank, drain line of dwelling, a special semi – covered space known as ‘AKELDHARIO’ for cows and storage of their fodder. Many a times, courtyard also consists of well. The space immediately after the court is semi – covered space called ‘CHAALI’. This is followed by a room known as ‘OSARI’, which finally lead to last room of the house known as ‘ORDO’, which is sanctum of Gurjar Kshtriya family’s life.FIG: 18 Typical layout of dwellingUNDERSTANDING THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE HOUSE FORM 24 - Study of house form of Gurjar Kshatriya community, Kutch.
CHAPTER - 3 Generally staircase is located in the courtyard, which helps to lead to first floor space over Deli and Bethak space. Staircase leading to first floor over Osari and Ordo is generally housed in the Osari itself. Several times dwelling have double highted space, which helps to create a loft above which is known as ‘MEDO’, which helps for storage purpose. This type of layout of 1 Osari + 2 Ordo is called ‘1JOTO’, with loft over head is basic layout and afforded by average income group owner.FIG: 19-20 Showing various spaces in dwelling.UNDERSTANDING THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE HOUSE FORM 25 - Study of house form of Gurjar Kshatriya community, Kutch.
CHAPTER – 44.1 Identifying case studies.4.2 Case studies.4.3 Analysis of case studies.4.4 Conclusion.
CHAPTER - 4 4.1 IDENTIFIYING THE CASE STUDIES: Five houses are selected from 3 regions for detail study. Selections of case studies are based on: • Variation in sizes – area and volume • Economic conditions • Spatial organization • Material explorationUNDERSTANDING THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE HOUSE FORM 26 - Study of house form of Gurjar Kshatriya community, Kutch.
CHAPTER - 4 4.2 CASE STUDIES:UNDERSTANDING THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE HOUSE FORM 27 - Study of house form of Gurjar Kshatriya community, Kutch.
CHAPTER - 4CASE STUDY - I: OWNER: Kishorbhai Maru VILLAGE: Devaliya – Anjar (Kutch) NO. OF FAMILY MEMBERS: 3 AGE OF BUILDING: approx. 100 years USE: Residential OCCUPATION: Past - Farming and coal mining Present - Repairing of electronics goods and farming FLOORS: TwoFIG: 21 FIG: 22 Main entrance of the house.UNDERSTANDING THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE HOUSE FORM 28 - Study of house form of Gurjar Kshatriya community, Kutch.
CHAPTER - 4 STRUCTURE AND MATERIAL: House is a load bearing structure with random rubble stone masonry. Walls are 45 cms thick with mud plaster finish. Floors are also mud finished known as ‘LIPPAN’. The residents themselves do Lippan 2-3 times per year – holi, satam, diwali, on the floors and once a year on walls. Intermediate floors are made up of stone slabs with Lippan finishing and are supported on wooden planks and beams. In Chaali, iron I-sections, supported on wooden columns, are used for high strength, which acknowledges their knowledge of railway line construction. 2 – Way sloping roof resting on wooden beams is covered with Mangalore tile in front units of house and with countryFIG: 23 Mud flooring. FIG: 24 Floor supported on tiles on the rear unit of building. wooden planks & beams. DISTRIBUTION OF SPACE: House consists of two units, with common courtyard for all domestic and other activities. As one family has shifted to Madhapar, one unit remains close, and house is solely occupied by 3 family members themselves. The occupants of the house were in occupation of coal mining and hence were economically rich in nature. As a result, proportions of spaces are relatively large and have minor changes in the basic layout fulfilling the requirements. Starting with the street, one enters the house passing through the social interacting Otlas, where any passerby can sit and rest. House consists of very elaborate facade details, with fine stonework and details of the opening. MovingFIG: 25 - 26 Use of I – section for strength, supported on inside, one enters the anteroom known as Deli where elders sit andwooden column.UNDERSTANDING THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE HOUSE FORM 29 - Study of house form of Gurjar Kshatriya community, Kutch.
CHAPTER - 4 while their time, beside which there is Bethak consisting of 3 rooms and 1 semi – covered Chaali. Deli also consists of the staircase leading to first floor above which consists of 4 rooms. Next is open to sky courtyard, which encompass the services of dwelling, such as water services – inlet and outlet, storage and drying of fodder in summer. It consists of huge Akeldhario for cattle to stay and storage of their fodder. To provide further comfort to livestock wooden louvers are used for shade. Emphasizing on the point of privacy, it also consists of different W.C of guests in the courtyard itself. Moving ahead one passes semi covered Chaali, with W.C. at the end, and enters the large Osari, with Paniara and Rasodu at the end.FIG: 27 - 28 Deli with its transition window and woodenstaircase leading to first floor. Finally, one reaches the dark and cool Ordo, which is the sanctum of the house. Upper floor can be reached with the staircase located in the osari and has same layout as the ground floor.FIG: 29 Viewing courtyard FIG: 30 Akeldhario with woodenfrom Chaali. louvers for shading.UNDERSTANDING THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE HOUSE FORM 30 - Study of house form of Gurjar Kshatriya community, Kutch.
CHAPTER - 4 SPECIAL FEATURES & OBSERVATIONS: As compared to other case studies, the occupants are economical rich, which is reflected in variation in basic layout of house. The bethak space, which is generally of single room, here consists of 3 rooms and a semi covered Chaali. In addition, the Rasodo is located in line of Osari creating an extra room behind it. Moreover, Rasodo is of double height having loft above, which is used for storage of organic fuel used in kitchen. Courtyard consists of Danki, which is used to draw water from the well below. A very fine quality of painting is found on the ceiling of first floor depicting the initials of the residents. With construction as occupational background, a very proper sense of construction is found in the dwelling unit with very fine details. Windows are of different layers depending on its location and requirement. Even sill has very fine detail for drain of water, leaving wooden frame intact from decaying.FIG: 33 Window with wooden FIG: 34 Window used forlouvers and panel. storage.UNDERSTANDING THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE HOUSE FORM 31 - Study of house form of Gurjar Kshatriya community, Kutch.
CHAPTER - 4 Very intricate carving is found on the wooden members such as eave boards, column capitals, window frames, railing and cupboards etc. Parapet wall are made of single stone piece with carving details.FIG: 35 Stone carving over deli.FIG: 36 - 37 Carving on window lintel, eaves, and column.FIG: 38 Wooden railing detail.UNDERSTANDING THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE HOUSE FORM 32 - Study of house form of Gurjar Kshatriya community, Kutch.
CHAPTER - 4CASE STUDY - II: OWNER: Muktaben Liladhar Chauhan. VILLAGE: Reha – Bhuj (Kutch). NO. OF FAMILY MEMBERS: 5. AGE OF BUILDING: approx. 75 years. USE: Residential. OCCUPATION: Past - Farming Present - Lab assistance in china Clay factory and farming.FIG: 39 Location plan of house FLOORS: Single floor.FIG: 40. FIG: 41 Main entrance to the houseUNDERSTANDING THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE HOUSE FORM 33 - Study of house form of Gurjar Kshatriya community, Kutch.
CHAPTER - 4 STRUCTURE AND MATERIAL: House consists of double highted ground floor, with 45 cms. thick load bearing wall made up random rubble stone masonry. Ground floor has I.P.S flooring while the loft is supported on load bearing walls with wooden beam as structural member, with bamboo strips and Lippan as finishing material. 2 – Way sloping roof resting on wooden beams is covered with Mangalore tile in front units of house and with FIG: 43 Wooden loft with country tiles on the rear unit of building.FIG: 42 Wooden beams used inOsari to support pitch roof. mud covering. DISTRIBUTION OF SPACE: This is the most typical layout of house of the community. Comparing to other case studies, occupants belong to average income group. House is relatively small. Starting with the street outside, Otlas become social interacting juncture. The façade behind is quite blank and lacks any type of ornamentation or articulation. The Deli space is replaced with service block and a small water tank. Bethak besides consists of single room, which consists of loft due to its double highted space. Moving further, Chowk accommodates the services of the house such as underground water tank, drainage channel of the house and place for cleaning cloths and washing utensils. Akeldhario is now used for cooking and storage of fuel such as wood and cows dung. Tulsi kyaro is hanged on the wall. Chaali is used for domestic purpose such as cutting vegetables, cleaningFIG: 44 View of Akeldhario FIG: 45 Use of Chaali forand Bethak from courtyard. domestic purpose.UNDERSTANDING THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE HOUSE FORM 34 - Study of house form of Gurjar Kshatriya community, Kutch.
CHAPTER - 4 grains, stitching cloths etc. Osari serves as dining space and lounge, while inner Ordo is used for sleeping and storage. SPECIAL FEATURES & OBSERVATIONS: Belonging to average income group, house lacks the intricate carving work of stone or wooden elements, such as Paniara. The kitchen is recently modified to platform according to requirement, but still the owner herself prefers cooking on ‘Chula’ for which she sits out in Akeldhario and cooks her own food. Bethak is used as sleeping space. The loft created is used as storage while it also act as buffer insulating the space below and keeping it cool and prevent dust from the roof. Good quality of construction knowledge is present, which can be found construction of lofts and roofs.FIG: 46 Owner preparing FIG: 47 Wooden loft.food on Chula.UNDERSTANDING THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE HOUSE FORM 35 - Study of house form of Gurjar Kshatriya community, Kutch.
CHAPTER - 4CASE STUDY - III: OWNER: Lalji Mavji Chauhan. VILLAGE: Reha – Bhuj (Kutch). NO. OF FAMILY MEMBERS: AGE OF BUILDING: approx. 93 years. USE: Residential. OCCUPATION: Past - Contractor.FIG: 48 Location plan of house FLOORS: Two.FIG: 49 Main entry to house. FIG: 50 Main entry to house. FIG: 51 External entry to Bethak.UNDERSTANDING THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE HOUSE FORM 36 - Study of house form of Gurjar Kshatriya community, Kutch.