Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

C:\Documents And Settings\Zacthoma\Desktop\Edci 5377\Weeks 5 6\Is Your Stream Clean

525 views

Published on

EDCI 5377 Weeks 5-6 Assignment. PowerPoint entitled "Is Your Stream Clean?" Authored by Zack Thomas

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

C:\Documents And Settings\Zacthoma\Desktop\Edci 5377\Weeks 5 6\Is Your Stream Clean

  1. 1. Is Your Stream Clean? Using Data-Mining to assess the health of a stream<br />Zack Thomas<br />Doctoral Student<br />Texas Tech University-Junction<br />http://www.ttu.edu/traditions/doublet.phpViewed 2/22/10<br />http://www.copusproject.org/participants/participants.php?organization_id=480Viewed 2/22/10<br />
  2. 2. Water Quality “Check-up”<br />How do you know if a stream is healthy?<br />To do this, I utilized data-mining on the internet to assess the “health” of Schooner Creek in Lincoln City Oregon with the past year.<br />So, how do you determine stream “health” you ask? By searching for…<br />Benthic macroinvertebrates!<br />www.graphicshunt.com viewed 2/19/10<br />All photos from www.epa.gov/bioindicators/html/benthosclean.html Viewed 2/19/10 <br />
  3. 3. Before we talk about data mining for macroinvertebrates, let’s<br />Define macroinvertebrate<br />Discuss why macroinvertebrates are important<br />Discuss what macroinvertebrates can tell us about a stream’s “health”<br />www.clker.comViewed 2/20/10<br />
  4. 4. Benthic Macroinvertebrates?<br />BENTHIC: Living or near the bottom of an aquatic environment.<br />MACRO: Large enough to see without any aid.<br />INVERTEBRATE: Lacking a backbone or vertebrate.<br />So, a macroinvertebrate is a large spineless aquatic organism that likes to hang-<br /> out near the bottom.<br />Great! So why are they important?<br />http://edu-connect.com/science.cfm?subpage=1055550 Viewed 2/19/10<br />
  5. 5. Indicator Species!<br />Benthic macroinvertebrates or “benthos” are great “indicators” of stream “health” or better know as water-quality.<br />To do this, scientists (or students) sample a stream habitat and examine the quantity and diversity of macroinvertebrates they find.<br />All photos came from Audubon Naturalist Society www.audobon natrualist.org Viewed 2/19/10<br />
  6. 6. What makes macroinvertebrates good indicators?<br />Aquatic macroinvertebrates:<br /><ul><li>spend the majority of their life-cycle in water
  7. 7. live in habitat suited for their survival
  8. 8. easy to collect
  9. 9. differ in the amount and type of pollutant they can tolerate
  10. 10. easy to identify
  11. 11. have limited mobility</li></ul>Information referenced from http://www.epa.gov/bioindicators/html/invertebrate.html<br />
  12. 12. What do macroinvertebrates tell us?<br />Macroinvertebrates are also important with regards to assessing biological diversity.<br />Biodiversity has both economic and aesthetic<br /> value, and is an important indicator of the <br /> overall health of the environment.<br />(http://www.epa.gov/bioindicators/aquatic/index.html)<br /> However,<br />There are several threats to biological<br /> diversity!<br />http://reslife.tamu.edu/diversity/ Viewed 2/19/10<br />
  13. 13. Threats to Biological Diversity<br />Photos from top to bottom:http://swittersb.wordpress.com/2008/12/16/snakehead-fish-invasive-freakazoid-ban-the-sale-of-live-snakeheads-in-us/, http: //wonkroom.thinkprogress.org/tag/epa/, http://msrivertn.blogspot.com/2009/01/loosahatchie-bar.html Viewed on2/19/10. Information referenced from http://www.epa.gov/bioindicators/aquatic/index.html<br />
  14. 14. So, why is pollution highlighted?<br />Macroinvertebrates differ in the amount and type of pollutant they can tolerate.<br /> If we find benthos that can only live in clean water, then we know that stream “health” is good or excellent.<br /> If we find benthos that can live in polluted water, then we know that the stream “health” is fair or poor. <br />
  15. 15. Examples of Benthic Macroinvertebrates <br />http://www.epa.gov/bioindicators/html/stoneflies.htmlw Viewed 2/19/10<br />Stoneflies<br /><ul><li> Immature life-cycle of the aquatic insect, “nymph”</li></ul>Stoneflies are sensitive to pollution, and are found in clean water. Thus, if we find stoneflies that typically mean that the stream is in good “health.”<br />Adult<br />Information referenced from http://www.epa.gov/bioindicators/html/stoneflies.html<br />www.audubonnaturalist.org Viewed 2/19/10<br />
  16. 16. Examples of Benthic Macroinvertebrates <br />http://www.epa.gov/bioindicators/html/rifflebeetles.html Viewed 2/19/10<br />Riffle Beetles<br /><ul><li> Immature life-cycle of the aquatic insect, “nymph”</li></ul>Riffle beetles are sensitive to pollution, and are found in oxygen-rich fast moving water. Thus, if we find riffle beetles that typically means that the stream is in good “health.”<br />Adult<br />Information referenced from http://www.epa.gov/bioindicators/html/rifflebeetles.html<br />http://www.epa.gov/bioindicators/html/rifflebeetles.html Viewed 2/19/10<br />
  17. 17. Examples of Benthic Macroinvertebrates <br />http://www.epa.gov/bioindicators/html/dragonflies.html Viewed 2/19/10<br />Dragonflies<br /><ul><li> Immature life-cycle of the aquatic insect, “nymph”</li></ul>Dragonflies are moderately tolerant to pollutionand found in slower moving water, typically indicative of lower oxygen levels. Thus, if we find dragonflies that typically means that the stream is in fair “health.”<br />Adult<br />Information referenced from http://www.epa.gov/bioindicators/html/dragonflies.html <br />http://www.epa.gov/bioindicators/html/dragonflies.html Viewed 2/19/10<br />
  18. 18. Examples of Benthic Macroinvertebrates <br />http://www.epa.gov/bioindicators/html/blackflies.html Viewed 2/19/10<br />Blackflies<br /><ul><li> Immature life-cycle of the aquatic insect, “nymph”</li></ul>Blackflies are moderately tolerant to pollutionand found in fast moving water, and are typically indicative of high nutrient levels. Thus, if we find blackflies that typically means that the stream is in fair “health.”<br />Adult<br />Information referenced from http://www.epa.gov/bioindicators/html/blackflies.html<br />http://www.epa.gov/bioindicators/html/blackflies.html Viewed 2/19/10<br />
  19. 19. Examples of Benthic Macroinvertebrates <br />http://www.epa.gov/bioindicators/html/leeches.html Viewed 2/19/10<br /> Leeches<br />Leeches are pollution tolerant. Thus, if we find leeches it is indicative that a stream is in poor “health.”<br />Information referenced from http://www.epa.gov/bioindicators/html/leeches.html<br />
  20. 20. Examples of Benthic Macroinvertebrates <br />http://www.epa.gov/bioindicators/html/midgeflies.html Viewed 2/19/10<br />Midge Flies (a.k.a. blood worms)<br /><ul><li> Immature life-cycle of the aquatic insect, “nymph” </li></ul>Midge flies are pollution tolerant. Thus, if we find midge flies it is indicative that a stream is in poor “health.”<br />Adult<br />Information referenced from http://www.epa.gov/bioindicators/html/midgeflies.html <br />http://www.southforkoutfitters.com/HatchChart.htmlViewed 2/19/10<br />
  21. 21. So, how do we collect macroinvertebrates?<br />Waders Water Dipnet<br />But in our case, we will skip the outdoor experience and use data mining to collect macroinvertebrates and answer our question.<br />http://www.auburn.edu/projects/sustainability/newsletter/020909.html 2/20/10<br />http://www.envcoglobal.com/catalog/product/invertebrate-nets/collapsible-dip-nets.html 2/20/10<br />http://www.riverbum.com/Simms-G3-Guide-Stockingfoot-Waders/ 2/20/10<br />
  22. 22. What is Data Mining?<br />The concept of data mining was first introduced by Bernie Dodge and Tom March by way of WebQuest (1995) (Smith, 2010).<br />The idea is for students to use the internet to collect, analyze, and apply raw data found on the internet to answer a given question (Smith, 2010).<br />Through hands-on, inquiry-based learning, data mining affords students the opportunity to practice various skills sets to answer questions that have real-world application (Smith, 2010) <br />
  23. 23. Question<br />Ok, now that you know what macroinvertebrates are, why they are important, and what they can tell us about the “health” of our streams, I ask you this question (and myself):<br />Is Schooner Creek in Lincoln City, Oregon a healthy stream?<br />http://edu-connect.com/science.cfm?subpage=1055550Viewed 2/20/10<br />Photo of Schooner Creek, Lincoln City, Oregon. http://outdoors.webshots.com/photo/1092865661012208939mvy Viewded 2/21/10<br />
  24. 24. The GLOBE Program<br />The GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) Program launched on Earth Day, 1995. It is a global hands-on, inquiry-based education program aimed towards primary and secondary science learning (www.globe.gov). <br />http://www.ciser.ttu.edu/outreach/globe.aspx Viewed 2/20/10<br />http://www.globe.gov Viewed 2/20/10<br />
  25. 25. GLOBE Program Mission<br />The GLOBE Program mission is to:<br /> “To promote the teaching and learning of science, enhance environmental literacy and stewardship, and promote scientific discovery.” (www.globe.gov). <br />http://www.sthilda.ca/environmental.html Viewed 2/20/10<br />
  26. 26. GLOBE Program Goals<br />The GLOBE Program goals are to:<br /><ul><li>“Improve student achievement across the curriculum with the focus on student research in environmental and Earth system science.”
  27. 27. “Enhance awareness and support activities of individuals throughout the world to benefit the environment.”
  28. 28. “Contribute to scientific understanding of Earth as a system.”
  29. 29. “Connect and inspire the next generation of global scientists.”</li></ul> (www.globe.gov)<br />http://www.bisconsulting.ca/seminars/goal_setting.php Viewed 2/20/10<br />
  30. 30. GLOBE Program Vision<br />The GLOBE Program vision is:<br />“A worldwide community of students, teachers, scientists, and citizens working together to better understand, sustain, and improve Earth’s environment at local, regional, and global scales” (www.globe.gov).<br />As a result, this vision promotes and supports all participants to collaborate on hands-on, inquiry-based studies on the environment (www.globe.gov).<br />http://thegreennews.net/issues/0806.htm Viewed 2/20/10<br />
  31. 31. Value to students<br />GLOBE allows students to:<br /><ul><li> Take scientific measurements in various disciplines (atmosphere, hydrology, soils, and land cover/phenology (depends on their local curriculum).
  32. 32. Report data through the internet (this is where data-mining to answer our question comes into play!!!).
  33. 33. Publish research projects.
  34. 34. Can create maps and graphs using the GLOBE website to analyze data.
  35. 35. Collaborate with other students and scientists from around the globe (social-networking component too!!)</li></ul>http://kwork-aok.ning.com/ Viewed 2/20/10<br />
  36. 36. Who’s involved and how does it work?<br />The GLOBE Program currently has 111 participating countries, including 140 U.S. partners.<br />Partners integrate GLOBE activities into their local and regional schools.<br />As a result, more than 50,000 teachers in over 20,000 schools have been certified to teach GLOBE curriculum.<br />Consequently, GLOBE students (with the help of their certified teachers of course), have submitted over 20 million measurements to the GLOBE database for use in a variety of science projects.<br />(www.globe.gov)<br />
  37. 37. Accessing macroinvertebrate data from GLOBE<br />So, going back to my question, I accessed raw data from the investigations table under the hydrology section, checking the freshwater macroinvertebrates box. It looks like this:<br />www.globe.gov<br />
  38. 38. Accessing macroinvertebrate data from GLOBE<br />Next, I clicked on “get the data now!” and then and the following screen appeared:<br />www.globe.gove Viewed 2/21/10<br />
  39. 39. Accessing macroinvertebrate data from GLOBE<br />Next, I selected Taft elementary, Lincoln, City OR, (Taft had a decent amount of benthos data collected compared to others) and then worked my magic (simply put, I cleaned up the data) and placed:<br />into<br />Microsoft Excel<br />GLOBE benthos data<br />
  40. 40. Statistics calculated from raw GLOBE data<br /><ul><li> As you can see, based on the graph The most obvious graphic is the number of caddisflies. Followed by the water striders.
  41. 41. Next in line are the mollusks, aquatic worms, crustaceans, and water the water penny beetles
  42. 42. Lastly, the damselflies, dragonflies, mayflies, midges, stoneflies, and true water bugs round out our data.</li></ul>http://www.epa.gov/bioindicators/html/caddisflies.htmlViewed 2/22/10<br />Data was collected during winter months<br />
  43. 43. Comparison of macroinvertebrates collected from Schooner Creek<br />Sensitive species<br />Mayflies (n=1)<br />Mollusks (n=7)<br />Water penny beetles (n=2)<br />Stoneflies (n=1)<br />True water bugs (n=1)<br />Water striders (n=9)<br />Moderately tolerant species<br />Damselflies/Dragonflies (n=1)<br />Crustaceans (n=2)<br />Caddisflies (n=46)<br />Pollution Tolerant Species<br />Aquatic worms (n=3)<br />Midges (n=1)<br />n= number of macroinvertebrates sampled from creek population<br />
  44. 44. Conclusions<br />So if we look at the data a bit closer, with regards to species *diversity (richness) we see:<br /><ul><li> 6 macroinvertebrate species were collected that are considered sensitive to pollution.
  45. 45. 3 macroinvertebrate species were collected that are considered moderately tolerant to pollution.
  46. 46. 2 macroinvertebrate species were collected that are considered tolerant to pollution.</li></ul>*Diversity refers t the variety of species collected<br />https://rundle10.wikispaces.com/BiodiversityViewed 2/22/10<br />
  47. 47. Conclusions<br />So if we look at the data a bit closer, with regards to species *abundance we see:<br /><ul><li> 21 macroinvertebrate species were collected that are considered sensitive to pollution.
  48. 48. 49 macroinvertebrate species were collected that are considered moderately tolerant to pollution.
  49. 49. 4 macroinvertebrate species were collected that are considered tolerant to pollution.</li></ul>*Abundance refers to the number or amount of a certain species collected<br />http://www.global-greenhouse-warming.com/biodiversity.htmlViewed 2/22/10<br />
  50. 50. Conclusions<br />So, from the data we can conclude that:<br /> We have the mostdiversity amongst the sensitive species. <br />The least diversity amongst the tolerant species. <br />While the moderately tolerant species are sandwiched between the two.<br />We have the most abundance amongst the moderately tolerant species<br />The least abundance amongst the tolerant species<br />While the sensitive species are sandwiched between the two<br />
  51. 51. Conclusions<br />So, now the question is:<br /> Which is more important, species diversity or species abundance?<br />The answer is…<br />BOTH!<br />Healthy ecosystem!<br />+<br />=<br />http://www.global-greenhouse-warming.com/biodiversity.htmlViewed 2/22/10<br />https://rundle10.wikispaces.com/BiodiversityViewed 2/22/10<br />
  52. 52. Conclusions<br />So, finally we can answer our question and say that based on the raw data we collected from The GLOBE Program, that Schooner Creek, although not excellent, is in good health<br /> Based on the species diversity and abundance of macroinvertebrates students from Taft Elementary School collected from Schooner Creek indicates that the creek currently has good water-quality<br />
  53. 53. Conclusions<br />Based on the species diversity and abundance of macroinvertebrates students from Taft Elementary School collected from Schooner Creek indicates that the creek currently has good water-quality<br /> Job well done students of Taft Elemetary! You all deserve a round of <br />http://www.philebrity.com/2009/10/08/happy-100th-day-state-budget-impasse-and-thank-you-for-killing-the-arts-tax-in-its-sleep/Viewed 2/22/10<br />
  54. 54. References<br />Environmental Protection Agency (2010, February 22). Invertebrates as indicators. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/bioindicators/html/invertebrate.html<br />Environmental Protection Agency (2010, February 22). Aquatic biodiversity-the variety of life. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/bioindicators/aquatic/index.html<br />Globing Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) (2010, February 22). The GLOBE Program. Retrieved from http://www.globe.gov/fsl/html/aboutglobe.cgi?intro&lang=en<br />Smith, W. S. (2010). Weeks 5-6 of technology in science education [PowerPoint slides]. W. Smith, personal communication, February 16, 2010. <br />

×