Social Justice, Equity and Feminism in Planning 1. How do these concepts/values inform planning? 2. What is planning? 3. W...
Social justice: Conceptual origins <ul><li>1. The term &quot;social justice&quot; was coined by the  Jesuit   </li></ul><u...
Essence of Social Justice  (Herbert G. Wells 1866-1946) <ul><li>&quot;Every man is a joint inheritor of all the natural re...
Two key ideological views of social justice <ul><li>Liberal view </li></ul><ul><li>Present day society is highly </li></ul...
Confluence of Left and Right on Social Justice <ul><li>Both left and right wings tend to agree on the </li></ul><ul><li>im...
John Rawls  (1921-2002)  on Social Justice <ul><li>Rawls’ first statement of principle was made in  A </li></ul><ul><li>Th...
Rawls’ argument on social justice <ul><li>All societies have a basic structure of social,  </li></ul><ul><li>economic, and...
Rawls’ basic liberties <ul><li>1. F reedom of thought. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Liberty of conscience as it affects social rel...
Rawls’ basic liberties <ul><li>4. Freedom of association. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Freedoms necessary for the liberty and inte...
Concept of Equity <ul><li>Technically, EQUITY refer to the set of  legal </li></ul><ul><li>principles, which supplement st...
Equity and Law <ul><li>1. In modern practice, the most important distinction </li></ul><ul><li>between law and equity is t...
Equity and Law <ul><li>3. T he unavailability of a jury in equity. Equitable remedies can be dispensed only by a judge as ...
The Core of the Feminist Debate <ul><li>Hayden, 2003:377 alluded to Laura Balbo (1981), who observed that: </li></ul><ul><...
Views of women’s roles <ul><li>Woman in combat </li></ul><ul><li>Women in the security force </li></ul>
Core issues in the feminist debate <ul><li>Historical, traditional or cultural definitions of the roles of women  (univers...
Views of women’s roles <ul><li>Women as sources of income </li></ul><ul><li>Women as sources of power </li></ul>
Causes of injustice and inequity <ul><li>Competition for resources  (power, money, position, land, opportunities, etc.) </...
Class Discussions <ul><li>What is planning? </li></ul><ul><li>How do the referenced values/goals factor into or inform pla...
Key planning roles <ul><li>Planners as advisors to the public  (policy makers, entrepreneurs, non-profits and grassroots)....
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Social Justice, Equity And Feminism In Planning

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Social Justice, Equity And Feminism In Planning

  1. 1. Social Justice, Equity and Feminism in Planning 1. How do these concepts/values inform planning? 2. What is planning? 3. What do planners do? 4. How do planning roles address the 3 values?
  2. 2. Social justice: Conceptual origins <ul><li>1. The term &quot;social justice&quot; was coined by the Jesuit </li></ul><ul><li>Luigi Taparelli in the 1840s , based on the teachings of </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Aquinas . </li></ul><ul><li>2. Taparelli argued that the rival economic theories </li></ul><ul><li>(capitalism, socialism, communism) undermined the </li></ul><ul><li>unity of society </li></ul><ul><li>3. Cooperation and not class conflict and competition is key to the unity and welfare of society. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Essence of Social Justice (Herbert G. Wells 1866-1946) <ul><li>&quot;Every man is a joint inheritor of all the natural resources and of the </li></ul><ul><li>powers, inventions and possibilities accumulated by our forerunners. He </li></ul><ul><li>is entitled, within the measure of these resources and without distinction </li></ul><ul><li>of race, colour or professed beliefs or opinions, to the nourishment, </li></ul><ul><li>covering and medical care needed to realise his full possibilities of </li></ul><ul><li>physical and mental development from birth to death. Notwithstanding </li></ul><ul><li>the various and unequal qualities of individuals, all men shall be </li></ul><ul><li>deemed absolutely equal in the eyes of the law, equally important in </li></ul><ul><li>social life and equally entitled to the respect of their fellow-men.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>(Later used as basis for UN Declaration on Human Rights) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Two key ideological views of social justice <ul><li>Liberal view </li></ul><ul><li>Present day society is highly </li></ul><ul><li>unjust. There is need for a more </li></ul><ul><li>extensive use of democracy and </li></ul><ul><li>income redistribution , a more </li></ul><ul><li>egalitarian society and either a </li></ul><ul><li>mixed economy or a non-market- </li></ul><ul><li>based economic model. </li></ul><ul><li>Conservative view </li></ul><ul><li>Generally believes that social </li></ul><ul><li>justice is best achieved through </li></ul><ul><li>embracing meritocracy , the </li></ul><ul><li>operation of a free market , and the </li></ul><ul><li>promotion of philanthropy and </li></ul><ul><li>charity . </li></ul>
  5. 5. Confluence of Left and Right on Social Justice <ul><li>Both left and right wings tend to agree on the </li></ul><ul><li>importance of: </li></ul><ul><li>Rule of law </li></ul><ul><li>Human rights </li></ul><ul><li>Some form of a welfare safety net </li></ul>
  6. 6. John Rawls (1921-2002) on Social Justice <ul><li>Rawls’ first statement of principle was made in A </li></ul><ul><li>Theory of Justice (1971:3). </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Each person possesses an inviolability founded on </li></ul><ul><li>justice that even the welfare of society as a whole </li></ul><ul><li>cannot override. For this reason justice denies that the </li></ul><ul><li>loss of freedom for some is made right by a greater </li></ul><ul><li>good shared by others.&quot; </li></ul>
  7. 7. Rawls’ argument on social justice <ul><li>All societies have a basic structure of social, </li></ul><ul><li>economic, and political institutions, both formal and </li></ul><ul><li>informal. In testing how well these elements fit and </li></ul><ul><li>work together, Rawls based a key test of legitimacy on </li></ul><ul><li>the theories of social contract . To determine whether </li></ul><ul><li>any particular system of collectively enforced social </li></ul><ul><li>arrangements is legitimate , he argued that one must look for </li></ul><ul><li>agreement by the people who are subject to it. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Rawls’ basic liberties <ul><li>1. F reedom of thought. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Liberty of conscience as it affects social relationships on the grounds of religion, philosophy, and morality. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Political liberties (e.g. representative democratic institutions, freedom of speech and the press, and freedom of assembly). </li></ul>
  9. 9. Rawls’ basic liberties <ul><li>4. Freedom of association. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Freedoms necessary for the liberty and integrity of the person (mainly: freedom from slavery, freedom of movement and a reasonable degree of freedom to choose one's occupation). </li></ul><ul><li>6. Rights and liberties covered by the rule of law. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Concept of Equity <ul><li>Technically, EQUITY refer to the set of legal </li></ul><ul><li>principles, which supplement strict rules of law where </li></ul><ul><li>their application would operate harshly, so as to </li></ul><ul><li>achieve what is sometimes referred to as &quot;natural </li></ul><ul><li>justice.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>(This view applies more in countries following the English </li></ul><ul><li>common law tradition). </li></ul>
  11. 11. Equity and Law <ul><li>1. In modern practice, the most important distinction </li></ul><ul><li>between law and equity is the set of remedies each </li></ul><ul><li>offers. </li></ul><ul><li>2. The most common remedy a court of law can award </li></ul><ul><li>is money damages. Equity, however, enters </li></ul><ul><li>injunctions or decrees directing someone either to act </li></ul><ul><li>or to forbear from acting. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Equity and Law <ul><li>3. T he unavailability of a jury in equity. Equitable remedies can be dispensed only by a judge as it is a matter of law and not subject to the intervention of the jury as trier of fact . </li></ul><ul><li>4. The source of the rules governing the decisions. In law, decisions are made by reference to legal doctrines or statutes . In contrast, equity, with its emphasis on fairness and flexibility, has only general guides known as the maxims of equity . </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Core of the Feminist Debate <ul><li>Hayden, 2003:377 alluded to Laura Balbo (1981), who observed that: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Not only do homemakers make the bridge between </li></ul><ul><li>commercial services, government bureaucracies, and </li></ul><ul><li>the family, they are also low-paid providers of service </li></ul><ul><li>performing heroic feats of overtime in the commercial </li></ul><ul><li>or state sectors.” </li></ul>
  14. 14. Views of women’s roles <ul><li>Woman in combat </li></ul><ul><li>Women in the security force </li></ul>
  15. 15. Core issues in the feminist debate <ul><li>Historical, traditional or cultural definitions of the roles of women (universal vs. contextual views). </li></ul><ul><li>Distorted, biased and/or misinformed views of the roles of women. </li></ul><ul><li>Suppression of the rights and views of women. </li></ul><ul><li>Unequal treatment (in language, at work, in the provision of amenities, etc.). </li></ul><ul><li>Devaluation of the roles of women. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Views of women’s roles <ul><li>Women as sources of income </li></ul><ul><li>Women as sources of power </li></ul>
  17. 17. Causes of injustice and inequity <ul><li>Competition for resources (power, money, position, land, opportunities, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Ignorance </li></ul><ul><li>Fear </li></ul><ul><li>Self-doubt/insecurity/complex </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict of interests </li></ul><ul><li>Attitude ( envy, distrust, greed, selfishness, sheer wickedness, vengeance, etc. ) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Class Discussions <ul><li>What is planning? </li></ul><ul><li>How do the referenced values/goals factor into or inform planning? </li></ul><ul><li>What do planners do? </li></ul><ul><li>How can planners, through their roles, address the three referenced values/goals? </li></ul>
  19. 19. Key planning roles <ul><li>Planners as advisors to the public (policy makers, entrepreneurs, non-profits and grassroots). </li></ul><ul><li>Planners as advocates, custodians and lobbyists of and for the public interest. </li></ul><ul><li>Planners as technicians (research, design/plan, enforce regulations, etc.). </li></ul><ul><li>Planners as visionaries (development guidance) </li></ul>

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