Smart Growth


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Smart Growth, urban planning

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Smart Growth

  1. 1. Definition of smart growth <ul><li>Smart Growth : an urban planning and transportation theory  promotes concentrating growth in the center  avoid urban sprawl (, nd) </li></ul><ul><li>The Smart Growth movement evolved from statewide growth management & initiatives as an alternative to conventional dev </li></ul><ul><li>Promoted by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1) compact, mixed use development that encourages choice in travel mode (coordinating transportation & land use  less open space requirement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2) Prioritizing the maintenance & revitalization of existing neighborhoods rather than investing to create new infrastructure & development that spreads out from existing areas. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Who can oppose “smart growth” since its opposite is “dumb growth” ! ( Name is derived from legislation & programs developed by the State of Maryland . (Smart name!) </li></ul>
  2. 2. The Common thread of Smart Growth <ul><li>There is no real unified set of specific Smart Growth policies , as many different groups with different views of smart growth are involved (ex homebuilders &transit advocates): </li></ul><ul><li>Use the same term in different ways and contexts </li></ul><ul><li>Smart Growth programs establishes common ground to accommodate growth based on consensus on development decisions in a community : Achieved by inclusive & participatory processes in decision making. </li></ul><ul><li>different bundles of specific policies in different communities </li></ul><ul><li>the common thread is: revitalizing central cities and older suburbs , supports and enhances public transit, promotes walking and bicycling, and preserves open spaces and agricultural lands </li></ul><ul><li>efficient development  more livable communities. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Smart growth principles: <ul><li>Mix land uses. </li></ul><ul><li>Take advantage of compact building design. </li></ul><ul><li>Create a range of housing opportunities and choices. </li></ul><ul><li>Create walk able neighborhoods. </li></ul><ul><li>Foster distinctive, attractive communities with a strong sense of place. </li></ul><ul><li>Preserve open space, farmland, natural beauty, and critical environmental areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthen and direct development towards existing communities. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a variety of transportation choices. </li></ul><ul><li>Make development decisions predictable, fair, and cost effective. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage community and stakeholder collaboration in development decisions . </li></ul>
  4. 4. Mix land uses Smart growth supports the integration of mixed land uses into communities as a critical component of achieving better places to live.
  5. 5. Create walk able neighborhoods Walk able communities are desirable places to live, work, learn, worship and play, and therefore a key component of smart growth. <ul><li>benefits : </li></ul><ul><li>lower transportation costs </li></ul><ul><li>greater social interaction </li></ul><ul><li>improved personal and environmental health </li></ul><ul><li>expanded consumer choice </li></ul>
  6. 6. Smart growth provides a means for communities to incorporate more compact building design as an alternative to conventional, land consumptive development. <ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>provides and protects more open, undeveloped land that would exist otherwise to absorb and filter rain water, </li></ul><ul><li>reduce flooding and storm water drainage needs, </li></ul><ul><li>and lower the amount of pollution washing into our streams, rivers and lakes. 
 </li></ul><ul><li>Compact building design is necessary to support wider transportation choices, </li></ul>Take advantage of compact building design
  7. 7. Create a range of housing opportunities and choices. Providing quality housing for people of all income levels is an integral component in any smart growth strategy
  8. 8. Foster distinctive, attractive communities with a strong sense of place. Smart growth encourages communities to craft a vision and set standards for development and construction which respond to community values of architectural beauty and distinctiveness, as well as expanded choices in housing and transportation.
  9. 9. Preserve open space, farmland, natural beauty, and critical environmental areas <ul><li>“ open space”= natural areas both in and surrounding localities </li></ul><ul><li>Includes community space, natural beauty , habitats, recreational, farm and ranch land (working lands), & critical environmental areas (e.g. wetlands). </li></ul><ul><li>Smart Growth  protection by removing the development pressure , preserving these lands & redirecting growth to existing communities . (quality & supply) </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economical : boosted (many fiscal benefits) ex: in property value , tourism, taxes, adequate farms & water, prevented flood damage .. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>environmental : less pollution, controlling wind & erosion, moderating temperatures, protecting water resources by natural buffering systems. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>QOL : improved by outdoor recreation , adequate food & clean water supply + the above </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> a more environmentally friendly city, clearly is crucial for the future generations. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Strengthen and direct development towards existing communities. These are already served by infrastructure, just utilize their resources  increase their efficiency, cost effective dev, conservation of open spaces Other benefits: stronger tax base, proximity to jobs & services.. Obstacles: The ease of greenfield development , a strong economy & market demand are necessary Positives: Recent reports (2001) by Urban Land Institute on urban infill housing. governments role to facilitate market forces (ex of Denver): redefine downtown ,zoning , reconcile the many uses, tackle the parking issue. Case studies show that cities are also getting a great return on its investment, as this smart growth principle stimulates development. Helps the city become a more mixed used environment (principle 1)
  11. 11. Provide a Variety of Transportation Choices A key to smart growth, helps in reducing major problems (ex traffic congestion, air pollution..) Also makes a city more mobile, thus helps economically Achieved by: multi-modal approach + supportive development patterns :  coordinating land use & transportation; increasing quality transit service ; creating redundancy, resiliency and connectivity within their road networks ; and ensuring c onnectivit y between pedestrian, bike, transit, and road facilities. Issues: public education & awareness, weather ..
  12. 12. Make Development Decisions Predictable, Fair, and Cost Effective For a community to be successful , the private sector must embrace Smart Growth (investors, bankers, developers, builders …etc)  supply the needed large amounts of money government leadership role to ensure private support (regulates & invests in infrastructure)  financial incentives  affect value of property and the desirability of a place Governments that make the right decisions will create fair, predictable and cost effective smart growth. However, these should be more timely (especially for approval) & allow innovation  often difficult
  13. 13. Encourage Community and Stakeholder Collaboration in Development Decisions <ul><li>This principle focuses on the importance of including its citizens in strategic development decisions, this helps by: </li></ul><ul><li>the needs of every community & the programs to address them are best defined by the people who live and work there (citizens) </li></ul><ul><li>Confidence level increases with citizens knowing their environment and its developments  provide public support in making tough decisions </li></ul><ul><li>By taking the citizens in account there is a bigger chance for a city to be a sustainable one , </li></ul><ul><li>Drawbacks : can be time-consuming, frustrating and expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Adv : creative, speedy resolution of development issues & greater community understanding of the importance of good planning and investment, staying power of dev </li></ul>
  14. 14. Resources R. Berke , Philip... [et al.] (2006), Urban land use planning, 5 th Ed, p10, Urbana: University of Illinois Press, p13-17 Downs, A. (2001), What does smart growth really mean? [Electronic version] American Planning Magazine , from : .