sewage infrastructure management


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sewage infrastructure management

  1. 1. United Nations Environment Programme Division of Technology, Industry, and Economics
  2. 2. <ul><li>municipial sewage = domestic + commercial + industrial wastewater </li></ul><ul><li>wastewater management has seen very little change </li></ul><ul><li>sewage industry is huge  Government responsibility ( municipalities +other levels ) </li></ul><ul><li>Authority varies (for the construction & management of plants, trunk sewers and branch collectors) </li></ul>Trunk sewers Storm sewers & tanks
  3. 3. <ul><li>UAE: In AD, Dubai & Sharjah: local Water &Electricity Authorities , </li></ul><ul><li>Northern emirates : Ministry of electricity &water </li></ul><ul><li>Expand & Expand…. </li></ul><ul><li>Sharjah Population 500,000  800 000 since 2004 </li></ul><ul><li> extension of (STW). </li></ul><ul><li>2004 total treatment capacity : 148,000 m 3 of sewage /day (satisfy >50%) – Science Direct Journal:41,8 </li></ul><ul><li>Dubai : The Drainage & Irrigation Dep of Municipality  new sewage treatment plant in the Aweer area , for 330,000 gallons of sewage water per day. 100,000 gallons /day of treated water for irrigation (,2005) </li></ul><ul><li>Ajman signs Dh815m sewage finance deal: Municipality will supervise the 2 companies </li></ul><ul><li>Abu Dhabi : Mafraq STWE - The largest sewage treatment of its kind in the UAE </li></ul>
  4. 4. NOW: huge surge in its privatization : DEVELOPERS forced Municipality unable to support /receive all the sewage Private sewage plants like Eagle Electromechanical, Arabian Ranches, expanded tenfold since 2000 (Hijaz, 2007) Q: Will others private companies be allowed in market?
  5. 5. <ul><li>Environmental & health: proper drainage & disposal of wastewater; nutrient& water recycling, </li></ul><ul><li>Preventing floods </li></ul><ul><li>Preserving receiving water quality </li></ul><ul><li>Economic: resource recovery/ </li></ul><ul><li>optimization </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>water is a precious resource! plan should encompass a water cycle that has a minimal env impact, involves efficient water and wastewater systems </li></ul><ul><li>Water Issues: </li></ul><ul><li>2.75 billion people, or 50 % of the world’s population, still lack water enough for sanitation and public health </li></ul><ul><li>year 2025, 2/3 of the world population will suffer from a water crisis </li></ul><ul><li>UAE: Water is the scarcest resource in the sandlands </li></ul><ul><li>climate: dry </li></ul><ul><li>Water resources : ground water, desalinated & recycled sewage water.- </li></ul><ul><li>No falajes left in ALAin </li></ul><ul><li>Desalinated water :satisfy 70% of the total potable water needs (250 million gallons per day =11 % of World ( Abu Dhabi Chamber Of Commerce & Industry ) </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Abu Dhabi Emirate Water Production, Coutesy of EAD </li></ul>    Abu Dhabi Emirate Water Production                     AD WATER CONSUMPTION BY SECTOR   2003
  8. 8. <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Singapore “NEWater”:public utility (mixed with reservoir water then treated </li></ul><ul><li>Tokyo 1984 water recycling centre: lower charge toilet flushing </li></ul><ul><li>Sharjah, UAE : “Most residents around Rolla Square have been using drinking water to flush toilets..”(Secretdubai , MAY, 2006) </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>For: watering green areas, fertilizer extraction, recharging ground water reservoirs </li></ul><ul><li>Dubai : Now it’s a big business : greenery & golf courses </li></ul><ul><li>Abu Dhabi is the green capital of the Gulf. </li></ul><ul><li>High quality treated sewage: less contaminated than desalinated water by <0.1% (below 1,000mg/litre. </li></ul><ul><li>UAE desalinated water : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>heavily accused of causing cancer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>billions of dollars of expansion (in AD: by 200 fold in the last 25 years before 2000, but reviews still predicted shortfalls (demand will increase from142 to 600 million gallon per day by 2010- unlimited </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recycled Sewage water? </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Sewage Collection: combined or separate sewers </li></ul><ul><li>Pumping Stations: gravity & pumping  plant </li></ul><ul><li>(rainwater  sub/surface aquifers ) </li></ul>C. Wastewater Treatment Plants ( role: remove pollutants & discharge effluent
  11. 11. <ul><li>Grit Chamber(settling & screening) </li></ul><ul><li>1 Sedimentation Tank (2-3 hrs </li></ul><ul><li>Aeration Tank (6-8hrs) & Activated sludge (m/o) </li></ul><ul><li>2 Sedimentation Tank </li></ul><ul><li>sludge treatment : </li></ul><ul><li>1.dehydrate & burn  ash ( 1% of the original volume) </li></ul><ul><li>2.Fertilizer, or 3.landfill </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>installation of the collection system & machinery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>engineering and construction ( of pumping stations , treatment plants , infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Urban construction considerations: </li></ul><ul><li>1.Underground Obstacles, rerouting (time & money) </li></ul><ul><li> 2. Space & land, </li></ul><ul><li> 3. interfering with other projects ex: road construction, waterways </li></ul><ul><li> 4. Disposal of Soil </li></ul><ul><li> 5. Cooperation of Stakeholders ex: ex: ISO14001, meetings, public input </li></ul>
  13. 13. Road & sewage network projects Same will be done at Al Abbar and Al Hazzanah areas next year Target: promote Sharjah civil services @ a cost of Dh. 1.42 billion Within 3 years
  14. 14. <ul><li>master plan of Sharjah major projects includes the 7 th phase of the sewage station expansion to link new areas (Dh. 100 million)- Halcrow (since 1969)& CCIC </li></ul><ul><li>1 st phase of STW was commissioned in 1978 </li></ul><ul><li>Al Waha, No.39: “ More than 20 areas got linked (completely) to sewage project . The rest on the way”. Road projects are still running ‘”in full swing” </li></ul><ul><li>“ The City of Sharjah appeared to be a huge </li></ul><ul><li>workshop that does not stop at any </li></ul><ul><li>Time… to provide all means of prosperity”.. </li></ul><ul><li>“… Perhaps people were annoyed or got </li></ul><ul><li>angry against traffic jams at construction </li></ul><ul><li>Sites.. We do understand but understand!! </li></ul><ul><li>[& we invite you to cooperate] Director General </li></ul><ul><li>municipality blamed , roads have been diverted and somewhere blocked.. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Gov Websites for public : contacts and recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>(Dubai)shocked engineers :“We have found shirts, bras, mobile phones, pants and rocks,” (Blue Gold & EWP Blog) </li></ul><ul><li>, 2007 : “[Private]Plant to treat oil waste soon- treat and process 50 m3 </li></ul><ul><li>oily waste clogs network & kills bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Director of Drainage & Irrigation Dep blamed tankers from restaurants </li></ul><ul><li>Municipality will supervise </li></ul><ul><li>install grease separators , recycling charge : 250 to Dh300 </li></ul><ul><li>Dubai Now : 3 sewage and hazardous waste treatment plants , 1 at Al Aweer, 2 Jebel Ali. None treat oil/grease waste . (Emirates Today) </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Should be preventive (sewer systems unseen  get little attention  reactive/complaint-driven management) </li></ul><ul><li>Note that sewage facilities operate under severe 24-hr conditions . </li></ul><ul><ul><li> Maintenance needed (regular inspections, cleaning and repair ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>new techniques to reduce costs. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A. Sewers (mains &piplelines): affected by external factors  pipe break/crack. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Pumping Stations : issues: heavy rain, need also constant operation . </li></ul><ul><li>C. Wastewater Treatment Plants: requires trained operators & financial resources (complexity & capacity) </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Information Systems & others improve efficiency & reliability of inf. (Tokyo) </li></ul><ul><li>Rainfall Information Systems (floods) </li></ul><ul><li>Sewage Mapping and Data Management Systems : allows to systematize sewage facility & create a database for operational purposes ex: Tokyo </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Enhancing Green Space and Recreational Opportunities : harmony with surrounding area/env, allow integration of green space/ recreational facilities . (ex: green roofs) </li></ul><ul><li>AD: the largest sewage treatment plant ,Mafraq STWE: Support a green oasis & wildlife </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>B. Preventing Odours and Emissions/ smoke (resident comfort) </li></ul><ul><li> contain & deodorize (chemical/biological methods) </li></ul><ul><li>C. Measures against &quot;urban flooding”: </li></ul><ul><li>1.Capacity increase (of sewers& pumping stations) </li></ul><ul><li>2.rainwater storage tanks & infiltration facilities to control inflow </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>D. Improving the Performance of Combined Sewer Systems (CSOs): </li></ul><ul><li>interceptor strategy : </li></ul><ul><li>1)CSO storage tank </li></ul><ul><li>2) screens </li></ul><ul><li>secretdubai (Nov 2005): “ Oh we do like to be beside the Creekside , But maybe not to actually swim in it” </li></ul><ul><li>One in 20 people become ill from swimming in waters polluted by sewage ( Vandeweed, 2004) (study: islands drowning in rubbish ) </li></ul><ul><li>jet ski rental at Garhoud Bridge used to be within the infected area (1 s.treatment plant used to exist) </li></ul><ul><li>Khor Khalid-Sharjah </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>1. Utilization of Reclaimed Water : only about 4% of all water produced by Mafraq i s re-used (EAD) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Utilization of Sludge :useful by-products derived from sludge -ash : </li></ul><ul><li>Concrete ex reinforced-concrete pipes , </li></ul><ul><li>Lightweight aggregate ex water-permeable construction materials </li></ul><ul><li>Compressed baked blocks ( press and burn technology) 1050 Celsius  durable interlocking bricks  pavement and park landscaping . </li></ul><ul><li>Sludge melted slag ( 1500 °C to burn organic, inorganic remainder used: ½ volume, highly stable with no heavy metals dissolution  used in road bed or construction materials </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>3.Utilize Wastewater Heat  ( energy savings & reduced air pollution </li></ul><ul><li>( Dubai advanced cooling systems) </li></ul><ul><li>4. (Industrial ) Pretreatment Requirements: effluent standards, monitoring, inspections </li></ul><ul><li>5. financial accounting system : local public utility mostly responsible, promotes effectiveness & incremental improvement </li></ul><ul><li>sources of revenue : often national subsidies, bonds, and funds from general tax, remainder from user fees . </li></ul><ul><li>UAE: Dubai Industrial City 2007 agreement  Dubai Recycling Park (the 1 st fully integrated waste management & recycling park in the Middle East. </li></ul><ul><li>It is believed that it will be their most important project from a socially responsible stand point & that it should be replicated across the region. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Dr Clifford Randall: “Building dykes may be in Dubai’s future” (Global Warming) </li></ul><ul><li>“ By 2020, the effects will be massive” </li></ul><ul><li>UAE: Emirates inaugral global warming conference 2007: “Cut Pollution Now” ( </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>