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Garbage Waste

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  1. 1. GARBAGE
  2. 2. What is Garbage? According to the EPA Environmental Protection Agency (EPA,2007), Garbage is a waste type that includes mainly: Household waste (domestic waste) Commercial solid waste Industrial solid waste Garbage is also known as " municipal solid waste "
  3. 3. <ul><li>Categories of garbage or MSW: </li></ul><ul><li>Biodegradable waste: food and kitchen waste, green waste, paper (can also be recycled). </li></ul><ul><li>Recyclable material: paper, glass, bottles, cans, metals, certain plastics, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Inert waste: construction and demolition waste, dirt, rocks, debris. </li></ul><ul><li>Composite wastes: Waste clothing, Tetra Paks, Waste plastics such as toys. </li></ul><ul><li>Domestic hazardous waste (also called &quot;household hazardous waste&quot;) & toxic waste: medication, paints, chemicals, light bulbs. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Garbage Impacts <ul><li>Hazardous Impacts: </li></ul><ul><li>Leftover household products may contain corrosive, toxic, ignitable, or reactive ingredients. </li></ul><ul><li>Aesthetic Impact: </li></ul><ul><li>Garbage looks ugly, it decreases the aesthetic value of our cities and therefore affects tourism and gives a negative image about citizens. </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure/ technological needs </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Budgetary impacts </li></ul><ul><li>Wasted Resources </li></ul><ul><li>More raw materials are extracted from the environment to create replacement or new products. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased Energy Use Making products from raw materials usually requires substantially more energy than reusing materials or making the same product from recycled material. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased Use of Water It usually takes more water to make an item from raw materials than from recycled materials or to reuse a product. </li></ul>Garbage Impacts
  6. 6. <ul><li>Where does garbage go? </li></ul><ul><li>There are two types of MSW Disposal: </li></ul><ul><li>Solid Waste Landfills - includes municipal solid waste, industrial waste, construction and demolition debris, and bioreactors. </li></ul><ul><li>Solid Waste Combustion/Incineration - waste volume is reduced in a controlled burning process called combustion or incineration. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  7. 7. Where is the environmental problem then? <ul><li>According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency , many of the country's landfills have been closed for one or both of these two reasons: </li></ul><ul><li>They were full. </li></ul><ul><li>They were contaminating groundwater. </li></ul><ul><li>Incineration may release toxins into the air and create ash that requires disposal in hazardous-waste landfills, and that takes us back to our starting point: Cities are running out of places to put their trash . </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>International: Our wastefulness affects the well-being of people in other parts of the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Intergenerational: Our activities affect future generations in two main ways: </li></ul><ul><li>By creating contamination problems that future generations will have to try and clean up </li></ul><ul><li>By wasting valuable used materials, which will result in future generations having less access to the resources that they need. </li></ul><ul><li>Interspecies: Our wastefulness hurt the birds, animals, fish and all other life with whom we share this home. </li></ul>Equity Issues in Waste Management
  9. 9. <ul><li>Reduce </li></ul><ul><li>Waste prevention, or &quot;source reduction,&quot; means consuming and throwing away less. It includes: </li></ul><ul><li>Purchasing durable, long-lasting goods </li></ul><ul><li>Seeking products and packaging that are as free of toxics as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Redesigning products to use less raw material in production, have a longer life, or be used again after its original use. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the most preferred method of waste management and goes a long way toward protecting the environment. </li></ul>Solutions to the Garbage environmental Problem
  10. 10. Reuse Reusing items by repairing them, donating them to charity and community groups, or selling them also reduces waste. Ways to Reuse - Using durable coffee mugs - Using cloth napkins or towels - Refilling bottles - Donating old magazines - Reusing boxes - Purchasing refillable pens and pencils Solutions to the Garbage environmental Problem
  11. 11. Recycle Recycling turns materials that would otherwise become waste into valuable resources. It generates a host of environmental, financial, and social benefits. Solutions to the Garbage environmental Problem Benefits of Recycling - Conserves resources for our children's future. - Prevents emissions of many greenhouse gases and water pollutants. - Saves energy. - Supplies valuable raw materials to industry. - Creates jobs. - Stimulates the development of greener technologies. - Reduces the need for new landfills and incinerators.
  12. 12. Compost Composting is the controlled biological decomposition of organic matter, such as food and yard wastes, into humus, a soil-like material. Composting is nature's way of recycling organic waste into new soil, which can be used in vegetable and flower gardens, landscaping, and many other applications Solutions to the Garbage environmental Problem Benefits of Composting - Keeps organic wastes out of landfills. - Provides nutrients to the soil. - Increases beneficial soil organisms (e.g., worms and centipedes). - Suppresses certain plant diseases. - Reduces the need for fertilizers and pesticides. -Protects soils from erosion. Assists pollution remediation
  13. 13. Solutions to the Garbage environmental Problem
  14. 14. Case Studies/ USA According to the US environmental protection Agency: Americans create nearly 245 million tons of municipal solid waste each year:
  15. 15. Case Studies/ USA
  16. 16. According to the Globe-Net Market Reports: The UAE has one of the world’s highest levels of domestic waste. UAE: Average annual is 730 kilos in Abu Dhabi and 725 kilos in Dubai per capita USA: the average is 710 kilos per capita Australia: 690 kilos per capita UK : 300 kilos per capita Case Studies/ UAE
  17. 17. Types of solid wastes in Dubai Source : UAE, Federal Environment Agency (1998, 96–98). Types of solid wastes Description Residential wastes Remains of food, plastic, metals Animal slaughterhouses Organs resulting from animal slaughtering Medical wastes Radioactive and used materials, cotton Factories wastes Used parts, woods, glass Animal wastes Feed remains, animals later, dung Farms and trees wastes Roots, trunks, leaves, vegetables, and fruits Bulk wastes Cars, home furniture, electronic sits Construction wastes Cements, woods, un-used materials Case Studies/ UAE
  18. 18. <ul><li>What causes the high MSW rates is UAE? </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Growth since the industrial revolution in UAE </li></ul><ul><li>Growth of Tourism and retail industries </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid population growth and immigration </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of environmental awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of strict policies </li></ul>Case Studies/ UAE
  19. 19. Actions to minimize the effect of MSW in the UAE: The Abu Dhabi Government has recently privatized parts of its municipal solid waste (MSW) collection and transportation services. Two contracts have been award in 2005 for the Abu Dhabi and two new contracts will be tendered and awarded for the Mussafah and the Western Region of the Emirate in the near future. Sharjah Municipality is building an environmental complex, which is to be completed soon, to recycle waste that will include recycling plants, construction and demolition sites and a materials recovery facility in which waste can be segregated. The Emirate of Umm al-Qaiwain has signed a contract with a private company to build a garbage disposal enclosure of an international standard. The project will be built on a 400m x 600m area and should be complete soon. Case Studies/ UAE
  20. 20. Dubai Municipality has announced the setting up of the region’s largest waste recycling project with private sector investment. The project will be set up under a Build, Operate and Transfer (BOT) arrangement, in which the company will invest the money for constructing the plant, and transfer the ownership to the Municipality, by the end of a 20-year contract. Dubai Municipality has started the Middle East's largest material recovery facility, Tadweer , which went into operation at Warsan in March and can recycle 4,000 tons of municipal solid waste per day. &quot; Dubai is expanding rapidly, and the emirate has to seriously design new ways to minimize the waste. Apart from establishing new recycling plants, there is also a need to educate people about sorting out their waste before they throw it into the dustbin, something widely practiced in developed Western countries ,&quot; says Lina Chaaban, envirocare manager of Tadweer. Case Studies/ UAE
  21. 21. Recently , the emirate has installed recycling systems in various service centers and encourages their use through their &quot;recycle and win&quot; campaign. Every time an individual utilizes these units, he/she automatically obtains coupons that would entitle him/her to participate in special offers and receive discounts for products at the emirate's retail outlets. Dubai also held the first exhibition of waste management technologies in November 2006, entitled &quot;Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle.&quot; Case Studies/ UAE
  22. 22. Other suggestions to minimize the negative effect of Municipal Solid Waste in UAE: <ul><li>Pay-As-You-Throw (PAYT) programs? </li></ul><ul><li>Deposit-Refund systems? </li></ul><ul><li>Educating people and spreading awarness? </li></ul><ul><li>Voluntarily picking up public trash weekly following city official environmental organizations </li></ul>Case Studies/ UAE
  23. 23. AlQaydi, Saif. (2006). Industrial Solid Waste in Dubai, UAE: A study in economic geography . Cities . 23(2), 140-148. Anon. (2004). Environmental Problems from Municipal Solid Wastes. Retrieved September 12, 2007, from Citizens Waste Info. Website: Anon. (2006). United Arab Emirates: Municipal solid waste . Retrieved September 13, 2007, from GLOBE-Net: Market Reports. Website: EPA. (2007). Municipal Solid Waste . Retrieved September 14, 2007, from Website: Fareed, Mohammed. (2006). Recycling in Dubai (City battles mountains of Waste) . Retrieved September 13, 2007, from Ohmy News: International Global Watch. Website: Resources
  24. 24. Thank You