water_quality_parameters

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water_quality_parameters

  1. 1. Abdunnasar UK,DIET Malappuaram
  2. 2. PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL & BACTERIOLOGICAL CONTAMINATION OF WATER AND WATER QUALITY STANDARDS
  3. 3. Distribution of water on earth  Ocean and sea - 97%  Snow and ice caps - 2%  Rivers,lakes, Ground water - 1%
  4. 4. UNIVERSAL SOLVENT    QUALITY DEMERIT 45 LAC WELLS AND 50 LAC SEPTIC TANKS ( ?)
  5. 5. contamination  Geological  Human activities . Organic waste Industrial waste
  6. 6. Aquifiers
  7. 7. Safe drinking water       Free from pathogenic organisms Clear Not saline Free from offensive taste or smell Free from compounds that may have adverse effect on human health Free from chemicals that cause corrosion of water supply systems
  8. 8. WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS    Physical parameters Chemical Bacteriological
  9. 9. BUREAU OFINDIAN STANDARDS IS 10500-1991 Parameters Disirable limit Permissible limit Colour Hazen unit 5 25 Turbidity-NTU 5 10 pH 6.5-8.5 6.5-8.5 Hardness (as CaCO 3 )mg/l 0.3 1 TDS 500 2000
  10. 10. BUREAU OFINDIAN STANDARDS IS 10500-1991 Parameters Nitrate mg/l Disirable limit 45 Permissible limit 45 Chloride mg/l 250 1000 Flouride 1 1.5 Arsenic mg/l 0.05 0.05 Aluminium mg/l 0.03 0.2 mg/l
  11. 11. Colour      May be due to the Presence of organic matter,metals(iron, manganese) or highly coloured industrial waste Aesthetically displeasing Disirable that drinking water be colourless Disirable limit, 5 Hazen unit Permissible limit 25 Hazen Unit
  12. 12. Taste and Odour    Mainly due to organic substances, ,Biological activity, industrial pollution Taste buds in the oral cavity specially detect inorganic compounds of metals like magnesium, calcium, sodium, copper, iron and zinc Water should be free from objectionable taste and odour.
  13. 13. Turbidity    Caused by suspended matter High level turbidity shield and protect bacteria from the action of disinfecting agents Disirable limit-5NTU should be below 1 NTU when disinfection is practiced Permissible limit-10NTU
  14. 14. pH      It is the measure of hydrogen ion concentration Neutral water pH-7 Acidic water has pH below 7 Basic water has pH above 7 Disirable limit 6.5-8.5 Beyond this limit the water will affect the mucous membrane and water supply system
  15. 15. Substances that change pH of water       Acidic Industries Sugar Distillery ElectroPlating unit Pickle  5–6 3- 4   2.5-4 2- 3   Basic Paper 8 – 10 Textile 8.511 Fertiliser 6.59 Oil Refine-
  16. 16. Battery acids <1.0 Milk 6.7 Carbonated Beverages 2 – 4 Rain water 6.5 Lemon juice 2.3 Blood 7.5 Orange juice 4.2 Sea 8.0 Vinegar 3 Domestic 6.5-8.5 water Ammonia solution Ground 11.3 7.5-8.5
  17. 17. HARDNESS     Capacity of water for reducing and destroying the lather of soap It is total concentration of calcium and magnesium ions Temporary hardness – Bicarbonates of Calcium and Magnesium Permanent hardness – Sulphates, chlorides and nitrates of calcium and magnesium
  18. 18. Hardness – contd…       0 – 50 mg/l - soft 50 – 150 mg/l - moderately hard 150 – 300 mg/l - hard 300 above - very hard Surface water is softer than ground water Causes encrustations in water supply structures
  19. 19. ALKALINITY      Capacity to nutralise acid Presence of carbonates, bi-carbonates and hydroxide compounds of Ca, Mg, Na and K Alkalinity = hardness, Ca and Mg salts Alkalinity > hardness - presence of basic salts, Na, K along with Ca and Mg Alkalinity < hardness – neutral salts of Ca & Mg present
  20. 20. IRON      One of the earth’s most plentiful resource High iron causes brown or yellow staining of laundry, household fixtures Metalic taste, offensive odour, poor tasting coffee Cause iron bacteria Acceptable limit – 0.3 mg / l
  21. 21. CHLORIDE        Causes Dissolution of salt deposit Discharge of effluents Intrusion of sea water Not harmful to human beings Regarding irrigation – most troublesome anion Acceptable limit - 250 mg/l
  22. 22. NITRATE     Increasing level of nitrate is due to Agricultural fertilizers, manure,animal dung, nitrogenous material ,sewage pollution (blue baby diseases to infants) Maximum permissible limit 45 mg / l
  23. 23. FLOURIDE        Occurs naturally Long term consumption above permissible level can cause – dental flurosis (molting of teeth) Skeletal flurosis Acceptable limit – 1 mg / l Maximum permissible limit – 1.5 mg / l Remedy – 1) Deflouridation 2) Mixing Fluride free water 3) Intake of vitamin C,D, calcium,antioxidants
  24. 24. FLOURIDE CAUSES Three types of Fluorosis 1. Dental Fluorosis 2. Skeletal Fluorosis 3. Non-skeletal Fluorosis
  25. 25. ARSENIC     Occur in ground water from arseniferous belt Industrial waste, agricultural insecticide High arsenic causes 1) various type of dermatological lesions, muscular weakness, paralysis of lower limbs, can also cause skin and lung cancer Acceptable limit – 0.05 mg / l
  26. 26. Heavy Metals   Present as mineral in soil and rocks of earth Human activities Battery – Lead & Nickel Textile - Copper Photography – Silver Steel production – Iron
  27. 27. Pesticides      Cancer Birth defects Blood disorder Nervous disorder Genetic damage
  28. 28. Essential bacteriological Standards Characteristics Number / 100 ml Treated water in distribution system Feacal coliform zero Total coliform not more than 10 Total coliform should not be detectible in two consecutive samples
  29. 29. RESIDUAL CHLORINE     Chlorine added to water forms hypochlorite ions and hypochlorite acids Chlorine demand – Quantity required for killing micro organisms and reacting with ammonia, organic compounds etc. Free residual chlorine – To take care of post contamination Desirable – 0.2 mg / liter
  30. 30. Common problems contd Visible effects water turns black,smell Reasons Waste water Acidic taste Low pH Alkaline taste High pH Boiled Rice hard and High Alkalinity yellow White deposits on boiling Hardness
  31. 31. Common problems Visible effects Iron taste, change in colour after exposure to atmosphere, change in colour of cloths,utensils Oily appea- rance on top of water body Soap not lathering Brownish black streaks on teeth Growth of Algae Fish kills Reason Iron hardness `Fluride Nitrate, phosphate Low pH less DO

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