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Podcast script

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Podcast script

  1. 1. Zara Yaffe Podcast script For filmproducerstocreate a filmto itsfull potential,theymustheadoutandgainsome audience research.Audience researchisusedtocreate a filmthatwill be the bestquality,sothatthe viewers enjoyitas much as possible andsoitappealsasmuch as itpotentiallycan tothe intendedtarget audience.Thisgivesthe filmproducersanideaof whetherthey’ve createdsomethingthatismost suitable fortheirtargetaudience. Itgivesthe filmproducersinformationaboutdifferentaudiences, includingtheirtargetaudience,suchaswhattheydidlike aboutthe film, whattheythinkwasn’tso goodand couldneedchanging,the age range that enjoyeditmost,the socio-economicclassof those whomostenjoyeditandso on.If the filmproducerswere lookingtoaimthe filmata specific type of audience,audienceresearchwouldbe extremelyuseful asthe filmproducerscanthenadapt certainthingsto addcodesand conventionsandotherthingsthatthe intendedtargetaudience wouldmostappreciate andenjoy.Thiswouldall needtobe done aroundthe BBFC’s(BritishBoard of FilmClassification) rules,asif theywanttobring inthe largestaudience possible of all agesthen the filmproducerswouldnotbe able toinclude certain events,suchasviolence orsex,asthiscould be harmful foryoungviewerstosee. There are fourtypesof researchusedto define audiences.These are quantitative,qualitative, secondaryandprimary.Sometimes,twotypesof researchcanworktogether, likeprimary qualitative research.Filmresearcherswouldmostprobablyuse all fourof these differenttypesof researchto be able to workout whataudience they’re aimingfor,whataudience theyactually attracted,what aspectsof the filmtheyshouldchange oradapt to make the filmbetterfortheir target audience. Firstly,there isquantitative research.Thisisresearchthatisall statisticsandnumbers.Quantitative researchcan be put intocharts such as pie charts,bar graphs and isgenerallytakenfromsurveys and questionnaires.Ratherthanjustgivingopinionsandlonganswersthattake more time to evaluate,quantitativeresearchisshortandlesstime consumingtoevaluate. Inregardstofilms,this couldbe a filmrating. IMDB isan example of how youcan gainquantitative filmresearch.Youcan rate a filmonthe IMDB website whichgetsaveraged.Once it’sputonline,itcanbe usedby anyone as secondaryresearch. Secondly,there isqualitativeresearch.Thisisresearchwhichcontainswordsratherthannumbers. Thistype of researchismuch more opinionatedandcangive the filmresearchersmore of aninsight as to howthe audience actuallyfeltaboutthe filmandwithwhatreasonsbehindhow theyfelt.It helpsthe researcherstogainandunderstandingof whatthe respondentsthoughtof the filmand the underlyingreasonsforthis.Qualitative researchmaytake longertoreceive andprocessthan quantitative research.Itcan be done byfocus groups,interviews,orevenjustexitpolls. Inregardsto film,thiscouldbe the reasonbehindafilmrating.Forexample,the questionmayaska question whichmay resultina quantitative answerbutexpandsothe researchersreceive aqualitative answertoo,such as “What ratingwouldyougive this film?Andwhy?” Then,there isprimaryresearch.Thisisresearchthat yougather foryourself.It’softenconducted afterthe filmproducerhaslookedatsecondaryresearch,whichIwill talkaboutafterthis,and then wantsto go out themselvestofind outspecificthingsthatmaynot have beenprovenfromthe
  2. 2. Zara Yaffe secondaryresearchor maynot have beenaskedatall.Primaryresearchismore reliable.Primary researchmay be more time consuming,butitisusuallymore accurate because you’re doingit yourself andyouknowwhoyou’re askingandthat the answersare not justmade up.Primary researchcan focuson quantitative orqualitative datathough,whichisgood,anditallowsthe researchertohave more control overwhatexactlyisbeingasked. On the otherhand,if you were toshare these resultsonline,inmagazines,onthe news,inalibrary, or evenanywhere atall where someoneelsecanuse yourresults – itautomaticallybecomes secondaryresearch.Secondaryresearchisnotalwaysasaccurate or reliable becauseitmaybe outdated,the researchermayhave made some resultsupthemselvesastheydidn’tgetenough respondentsbutneededtomake the numbersandsoon. It islesstime consumingandmuch cheaperto justgo online andGoogle somethingnowadaysthough. The targetaudience forThe Martian, and anyfilm, canbe definedbythe age,gender,socio economical classification,sexual orientation,orrace.Socioeconomical classificationiswhere people are definedbyhowhighuptheyare withtheir jobor careerchoice.It’swhat theydowiththeirlife that definesthis.The scale goesfromA toE. For example,aplumberwouldbe gradedasC2 inthe socio-economicscale,andacompanydirectorwouldbe gradedA.A personwhois a company directormaybe seentoenjoymore educational orfactual things,possiblythe news,thatcouldgive youimportantfacts aboutthe world.Someone atgrade E may enjoyloungingaboutandwatching JeremyKyle inthe day,forexample.Thismaybe because they’reunemployedandnotdoingmuch withtheirday,and sotheyhave time to watch daytime chat shows.The Martian wouldbe aimedat classesA to C1 as it’sa Hollywoodblockbusterthatalot of moneyhasbeenputintoto be able to create.The equipmentusedinThe Martianisverytechnical thatonlya limitedamountof people can understand.Also,apersongoingintospace hasto be veryintelligenttounderstandwhat they’re doing.A personof these highclassesmaywanttounderstandmore aboutouterspace and may watchthe filmtogainthisinformation.It’saneducational andentertainingfilm, thata person whois tryingto learnaboutthingstheydon’tfullyunderstandmayenjoy.A personof alowerclass may notfullyunderstandwhat’sgoingonwiththisandsocan’t quite follow what’shappening,and wouldn’tenjoythe filmtoitsfull potential. Otherways thatan audience canbe definedare bygeo-demographics.Thisissayingthatwhere you came frommay have a differentview onhow yousee orrespondtothe film.Forexample,if you’re froman urban area where educationisnotveryhigh,youmaybelievemore aspectsof the filmare real than someone whohashada lotof education.Psychographicscanalsodefineatargetaudience. Also,anurban area maynot have shownas much advertisingforthe filmasmuch as ina city. Ina city,there are billboards,posters,TV adverts,radioadverts,magazine advertsandsoon.In an urban area where there aren’tasmanypeople,theymaynothave seenasmuch advertisementforthe film. Thisiswhere yourinterests,views,values,personality,andlifestyle canaffectthe wayyoumay respondtothe filmaswell. Forexample,afeministwhobelievesthatwomenshouldbe represented infilmsthe same as menmaybe wouldn’tenjoythisfilmasmuchas someone whowasn’tafeminist, because there weren’tmanyfemale charactersactuallyinthe film.Someonewhobelievesthatmen should be the mainstars in a filmaimedatmenwouldmaybe enjoythisfilmmore thana feminist. Thismeansthat there’sawide range of audience thatthe filmproducerscouldpotentiallyaimtheir filmat,and so theyhave to be specificinwhotheychoose,inordertogain the audience thatwould mostenjoythe film.
  3. 3. Zara Yaffe The target audience forthe filmisheterosexual,white menwhoare particularlyintoactionfilmsand science fictionfilms,fromclassA toC1, andare from aged15 to 40. There are manydifferent reasonsforall of these specificgroups,orlabels.I’dsaythat the filmisaimedatheterosexualsas there are no homosexual,oratleastopenlyhomosexual,charactersthatparticularlystandoutor make a statementthattheyare notheterosexual.Thiswouldtherefore usuallybe assumedbyan audience thatthe charactersare heterosexual, ormore commonlyknownasstraight.People in general usuallygotowatch thingsthattheyrelate toand so if there were openlyhomosexual characters inthisfilmthenI’dthinkthatmore homosexual,orgay,people wouldgotowatch it.But, there’snot. Followingthistheory,it’saimedatwhite menasthe characters inthisfilmare majority white.I’mnotsayingthatall of the people inthe filmare white astheyare certainlynot,butthe majorityof themare andso an audience withpeopleof colourwouldnotfeel asthoughtheycould relate tothe filmasmuch as theycouldif the characters were people of colour.Thismakesthe film ore relatable tothose whoare white andsothe filmwouldbe aimedatthose people.Menare the genderwhotends toenjoyscience fictionfilmsandactionfilmsmuchmore thanfemale (oranyone that doesn’tdefinethemself asmale orfemale).Whetheritbe because theyenjoyviolenceand tensionmore.High-techmachinery,massivedestruction,outbreaksinwindowsanddoors,andmost importantlyamissionwaitingtobe completedare usual codesandconventionsforanactionfilm. For a sci-fi film,outerspace isusuallyusedasasettingtoo,whichisa code and conventionof sci-fi films.All of these fivedifferentthingswere incorporated intothe film,The Martian,whichIthinkis whatmade itparticularlyappeal tothose wholike sci-fioractionfilms. The age range is so broadas it isa 15+ ratedfilmwhichmeansthatthe producersobviouslywantedthose whoare between15 and 17 to watch the film,otherwise itwouldhave hadthingsaddedtoitthatwouldhave made the filmand18+. The charactersin it,such as Matt Damon,appeal toa wide age range as he isso popularinthe Hollywoodblockbusterindustry,aswell asthe director– RidleyScott.Theyhave their namesknowntoall ageswhichmake the filmappeal tothemall. Thisisnot to saythat an Asian, homosexual,womanwhousuallyprefersromance films,forexample, wouldnotlike The Martian, but it’sprobable thatshe wouldn’t.Itisnotlimitedtoawhite,heterosexual,maleaudience. Lacey’srepertoire of elementsdefinesgenre elementsasconstitutingof 5 mainpoints.These are the settingof the film,the charactersinit, narrative events,iconographyandlastly,technical features. The settinginthe trailerappealstothe target audience previouslyspokenaboutbecause itisso interplanetary.The filmissetin4 mainplacesshowninthe filmtrailer.These are the space craft, the NASA headquarters,Marsand Earth. The NASA headquarterswouldalmostbe iconic,orat least well recognised,tosomeonewhoisparticularlyintoscience orspace.Thiswouldpersuade aperson whoenjoysthese twothingstowatchthe filmasitinvolvessomethingwidelyrecognised.Obviously, the planetswouldbe amajor part inappealingtoa science-fictionlovingaudience. Thesedifferent settingsquicklyshowwhattype of filmThe Martianisgoingto be as theyare veryrecognisable withinthe science industry.Forexample,the majorityof peopleknow thatMars isorange whether theylike science ornot.Theywouldknow instantlythatthisfilmwouldcontainsciencewithinitdue to this. All of the characters inthe trailershowa range of emotions.MattDamon, knowninthe filmasMark Watney, inparticular, showssadness,humourandhappinessinashort space of time.Thisshowsthe audience howthe filmmayevoke arange of differentemotionsfromthe audience throughout.The lastemotionshownbyMark Watneylookslike fearina spacecraft,butyou cannotbe too sure just
  4. 4. Zara Yaffe fromlookingatthe trailer.Thisisexactlywhatthe filmproducersandmarketerswant.Theywantto create tensionandmake you,as the audience,askquestionswhichwillpersuadeyoutowantto watch the filmtoanswerthem. The headof NASA,playedbyJeff Danielsshowsnegativity throughoutthe trailertowardsthe ideaof Mark Watneybeingable toget home fromMars. Throughoutthe trailer,he seemsasthoughhe isbeingshownas the ‘badguy’,whichactionfilm loverswouldenjoy.One of actionfilmsmostimportantcode andconventionswouldbe tohave a ‘goodguy’and ‘bad guy’,whichwouldinstantlyengage thosewhoregularlywatchactionfilmsand knowthis.Thisisthe waythat the filmmarketersandproducersare showingthatthisfilm incorporatesactionandscience fictionintoThe Martian. All charactersshowninthe filmtrailerare mature,whichwouldalsodrawina mature audience whorelate tothe characters. The basic narrative isclearfrom the trailer.Mark Watneyisstuck inspace and he needstoget home.The wayit isshownfrom the trailershowsthatthe filmwouldbe aimedata mainstream audience asthe filmfollowsalinearnarrative,flowinginchronologicalorder.Thisishow most,or the majority,of Hollywoodblockbustersare made anditbringsin the audience theyare lookingto aimthe filmat. There are noflashbacksshowninthe filmtrailer,whichfurtherprovidesproof that thiswouldbe a mainstreamfilmaimedatamainstreamaudience.The shotsof Earthand Mars flash inand out of each otherto portray to the viewerthatthey’re runningalongside eachotheratthe same time,butintwo separate locations.The filmfollowingthislinearpatternissomethingeasyfor the filmmakers.If itwere to followanon-linearnarrative,the viewersmaybecome confusedasthis isnot what they’re usedtowhenwatchingHollywoodblockbusters.Thiswouldbe ahuge riskfor the filmproducerstodo whichwouldprobablylose themmoneyasnotmanypeople wouldwanttosee somethingsoconfusing,andsothey’dusuallysticktowhattheyknow and follow thislinear narrative. There are partswithinthe trailerthatwouldbe instantlyrecognisableforsomebodywhowatches science fictionoractionfilms. Thisiscallediconography.Iconographycaninclude people, objects, buildings,props,setting,costume andsoon. Certainaspectsof the trailer,suchas NASA beingsuch a prominenttheme throughout,wouldpersuade thosewhorecogniseNASA asthe company responsible forthe civilianspace programme,andwouldthenknow thatthiswouldbe afilmbased aroundspace andthe planets.NASA isaniconinthe science world,andscience fictiongenre.Inthe filmtrailer,we alsosee the astronautsuits.Thiswouldinstantlytell someone thatthisfilmisabout space,astronomyand wouldinclude science of some sort,persuadingthose whoenjoyscience fictiontowant towatch the film.Evenforsomeone whoisn’tparticularlyinterestedinthisgenre, whattheyare is still recognisable.The orange colourof Mars wouldinstantlybe recognisedby someone,whethertheyenjoysciencefictionornot.It showsstraightawaythat thisfilmwill be interplanetary,andwouldpersuadesomeone whoenjoysthisgenre togoandwatch the film.Even the NASA headquarterscouldbe seenasiconic,as it’sa locationspecificallyseeninscience fiction films,andwithreal life astronomy. There are varioustechnical featureswe see andhearthroughoutthe filmtrailer.The firstof them beingdiegeticsound.We see andhearthiswhenMark Watneyis speakingtowardsthe camerato tell everybodyhe’salive.Thisshowsthe realisticside tothe film.There isnondiegeticsoundover the filmtrailer.The musicplayedcreatesthe moodforthe scenes,whetheritbe tense,happy, mysteriousorwhenMark Watneyison a mission.Voice oversare usedeffectivelywhile theytellthe audience whatMark Watneyisgoingto do whilstinouterspace,while the camerashotsshow it.
  5. 5. Zara Yaffe Soundeffectsusedincludethe recordingcameramakinganoise asitfocuses,whichaddsto how realisticthe filmis,eventhoughitwill mostprobablyneveractuallyhappen.The camerashots speedupwhenthe musicspeedsup,andtendto slow downthe same waythe musicslowsdown. Thisis to create a good flowof the scenesandalsoto create tensionwhenitneedsto. The modesof addressusedinthe filmposterare directandformal.Thisisdue to the fact thatthe actor, Matt Damon,islookingstraightat,or directly,atthe viewer.Thisengagesanaudience asit makesthemfeel asthoughthe posterhasbeenmade especiallyforthem, makingthemfeel importantas theyare who’sbeingspokentoviathisposter.Whensomebodylooksatsomeone straightinthe eyes,it’sengagingbecause eye contactmakesyoulookmore confident,likeable, dominantandpowerful.Itwouldmake apersonwantto interactwiththe actor, whichinthiscase wouldbe goingto watchthe film.Thiswouldbe whata male audience islookingfor.Rightlyor wrongly,malesdotendtoside withthose whoare dominantandpowerful astheyfeel thattheycan relate tothemmore.Malesare usuallyseenasmore dominantandpowerful insocietyandinthe hierarchyof life.Therefore,withastronglookingmale characterbeingthe subjectonthe film poster,itpersuadesmalestowantto watchthe filmastheywouldrelate,orwantto relate,tothis character. It’salsoformal because of the font,withroundsoftedgesoncertainletterssuchas “O” and “G”, and sharp edgesoneveryotherletter,itaddstothe sharp atmosphere thatthe posteris creating.The colourof the fontis white,whichconveysasense of purityorpositivity.Although we’re nottoo sure if thisistrue,it putsan ideaintothe viewer’smind.Ingeneral,aperson’seyes tendto readdiagonal fromthe top leftof a posterto the bottomright,almostignoringthe topright and bottomleft,whichtheymaycome backto afterwards.ThisposterdefiesthisGutenbergDesign Theory,andhas everythinginthe middle.Thisisn’talwaysabad thingthough.The simple factthat the fontand character are all inthe middle makesthisalsoeasytoread,andthe GutenbergDesign Theoryisnot always100% necessarytofollow.A personwouldnoticewhatever’sgainingtheir attention,whichwouldfirstbe the characterand thenthe tag line.Thisisbecause youcan’tfully viewthe actor’sface as the textison topof it. The filmposterusescodesandconventionsof science fictionfilms.Anastronautcostume iswornin the posterwhichquicklytellsthe personlooking atitthat it’sa filmthatisinterplanetaryand involvesscience.Itshowsthatitcouldalsobe astronomical andfictional.The coloursinthisfilm posterare darkwitha lotof brown tones.It’ssaidthatmalesactuallypreferdarkercolours,as they’re bolder,thanbrightcolourssuchaspinkor yellow.The filmmarketerwouldhave purposely chosenthese colours,alongwithwhite forthe text,inordertoattract a male audience.The colours usedare those thatpeople imaginethe planetMarsto be (orange andbrown) and sothiswould therefore attractsci-fi loverstowatchthe filmtoo.These coloursare a code and conventionof an outerspace setting.The silverusedinthe title “The Martian”issilverwithawhite glare onit. This couldsuggestsome sortof techbeingused,assilverisquite atechnical colourora colourthat’s usedwithtechnology,andsothiscouldfurthermore encouragethose wholove science fictiontogo and watchthe film. Aftergoingto watchthe film,Iconductedan exitpoll questioningmyclassmatesoncertain elementsof the film.Exitpollscanbe useful toresearchers,marketersandproducersastheyshow whatthe publicthinkof the filmstraightawaywithoutanybodybeingable todiscusstheirviewsand manipulate orchange themwitheachother.Afterviewingandexaminingmyresults,Icouldsee that I got some differentanswersandtheydidn’tall followatrend.Theyshowedthatsome females
  6. 6. Zara Yaffe didactuallyenjoythe film,eventhoughitwasaimedatmales due to the genre mainlyappealingto males.Justunderhalf of the people thattookmyexitpoll don’tusuallylikesci-fi films.Thiswould suggestthatthe ratingof the filmsshouldbe low,butactually 7out of my 10 respondentsratedit8 out of 10 or above.Thisconveystome that more people didenjoythe filmthanusuallywatchfilms like this.Due tothis,I couldconclude thatthe filmproducersdida goodjobat creatinga sci-fi film that appealstothose whodon’tusuallywatchthisgenre. Iaskeda questionwhichwouldbe more importantthanothersto the filmproducers.Iaskedwhetherthey’drecommendedthe filmtoa friend. Only7out of my 10 respondentssaidthattheywould,whichisn’tanoutstandingresult.It wouldn’tbe amassive problemforthe producersastheyknow thatnot everybodywouldenjoythe filmasmuch as otherswould. In conclusion,Ithinkthatthe marketersdida goodjob.I say thisbecause Ithinkthat theyincluded the right thingsinthe filmtrailerandpostertobe able tograb a certainaudience’sattentionin orderto persuade themtogo and watch the films.The mode of address,the linearnarrative andthe codesand conventions,Ifeel,hadamajorpart of targetingthe audience asbringingtheminto watch the film.Finally,Idobelievethatthe marketingcampaignforThe Martianhas been successful.

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