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A greener gas grid: What are the options? - LAUNCH slides

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The Sustainable Gas Institute’s third White Paper reviews evaluates the overall potential for decarbonising the gas network, including the use of biomethane and hydrogen in existing gas infrastructure.
Download: http://www.sustainablegasinstitute.org/a-greener-gas-grid/

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A greener gas grid: What are the options? - LAUNCH slides

  1. 1. A greener gas grid: What are the options? 20th July 2017 Jamie Speirs Sustainable Gas Institute www.sustainablegasinstitute.org/ twitter.com/sgi_London sgi@imperial.ac.uk Be social! Use #GreenGasGrid
  2. 2. Context: Existing Gas Network • Valuable asset • Provides system benefit: flexibility • The higher pressure stages of this network will likely remain for some time • The low pressure local distribution network may not Based on UK gas network
  3. 3. Context: The Problem • There are emissions associated with natural gas including supply chain • Ambitious carbon targets place pressure on these GHG emissions • Many scenarios therefore choose less gas in future, often in favour of electricity and electric heat pumps • However, gas deals with daily and seasonal flexibility well, consumers are familiar with it and many buildings are difficult to heat with electric heat pumps
  4. 4. Aims and scope • What are the options for decarbonising gas networks including: • Technical potential; • GHG emissions; • Costs; and • How do these options compare to electricity and heat pumps?
  5. 5. Evidence Review Methodology Systematic Review of Literature • Systematic • Replicable • Robust Expert Panel • Wide Range of experts • Academia, industry, government, third sector • Provide guidance on scope • Provide review of emerging analysis Final Report • Analysis of evidence • Accessible, written for non-expert audience
  6. 6. …for the rest of this presentation… • Key Findings • Options to Decarbonise the Gas Network • Costs of Decarbonised Gas Network Options • Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Decarbonised Gas • Conclusions
  7. 7. Key Findings The Benefits • There are a number of options to significantly reduce GHGs in gas networks • The benefits include: • Low cost flexibility, low impact and costs to consumers, similarity to the existing system The Uncertainties • Costs of decarbonised gas options are uncertain, will be more expensive than natural gas, but compare more favourably to electricity and heat pumps. • GHG emissions are also uncertain and estimates vary significantly The Challenges • GHG emissions are significantly lower than current gas system, but often higher than low carbon electricity and heat pumps. • There is a need for more evidence, particularly on the safety of hydrogen in existing gas networks
  8. 8. Options to Decarbonise the Gas Network
  9. 9. Options: Hydrogen Hydrogen can be converted to methane
  10. 10. Options: Biomethane Wet biomass Dry biomass Anaerobic digestion Gasification Biomethane Hydrogen Methanation
  11. 11. Impact on gas system Biomethane • Biomethane production plant, including upgrading/purifying/ methanation • Connection to the gas network • Rest of network largely prepared, including consumers Hydrogen • Hydrogen production plant needed • Connection to existing network needed (national and local transmission) • Upgrades to existing low pressure network (IMRP)??? • Consumer conversion
  12. 12. Gas demand: SMR and CCS We will need more gas
  13. 13. Costs of Decarbonised Gas Network Options
  14. 14. Costs: Hydrogen and Biomethane production
  15. 15. Costs: pipelines and storage Cheapest types of electricity storage > £100/kWh Cost of upgrading existing low pressure network for hydrogen may be very low ~£10,000/km
  16. 16. Retail price of gas Includes • Cost of gas production plant • Cost of network improvements • Cost of network access • Costs of storage • Vat and other levies (UK) • When comparing heat the appliance efficiency becomes very important
  17. 17. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Decarbonised Gas
  18. 18. GHG emissions: hydrogen
  19. 19. Emissions from SMR with CCS At highest CO2 capture rates and lowest supply chain emissions hydrogen from SMR with CCS approaches total GHG emissions
  20. 20. The importance of supply chain emissions • Supply chain emissions are increasingly important as the emissions from gas production are reduced • However, not yet well represented in the evidence • The supply chain emissions for hydrogen production from SMR with CCS and electrolysis are very important due to low emissions in hydrogen production. • Biomass gasification characterised by large negative supply chain emissions and large positive hydrogen production emissions. Small percentage improvements in biomass gasification emissions could therefore have relatively large impact on total emissions. SMR + CCS Supply Chain: 37 to 41 H2 Production: 40 to 77 Electrolysis Supply Chain: 25 to 178 H2 Production: 0 Biomass Gasification Supply Chain: -786 to -288 H2 Production: 571 to 786 Units: gCO2eq/kWh
  21. 21. Findings (again) The Benefits • There are a number of options to significantly reduce GHGs in gas networks • The benefits include: • Low cost flexibility, low impact and costs to consumers, similarity to the existing system The Uncertainties • Costs of decarbonised gas options are uncertain, likely to be more expensive than natural gas, but compare more favourably to electricity and heat pumps. • GHG emissions are also uncertain and estimates vary significantly The Challenges • GHG emissions are significantly lower than current gas system, but often higher than low carbon electricity and heat pumps. • There is a need for more evidence, particularly on the safety of hydrogen in existing gas networks • In future a balance of gas and electricity vectors may be needed take advantage of their respective benefits. • More research needed to understand these trade-offs better
  22. 22. Acknowledgements Authors: Jamie Speirs, Paul Balcombe, Erin Johnson, Jeanne Martin, Nigel Brandon and Adam Hawkes The Expert Panel, Chris Andreou (National Grid), Philip Cohen (Department of Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy), Paul Dodds (University College London), David Joffe (Committee on Climate Change), Stephen Marland (National Grid), Dan Sadler (Northern Gas Networks) and Goran Strbac (Imperial College London). Special thanks to • Phil Heptonstall (Imperial College London) • Zara Qadir (SGI) • Jeff Edwards (Shell) • And the rest of the SGI Team: Kris Anderson, Sara Budinis, Ivan Garcia Kerdan, Sara Giarola, Chris Jones, Julia Sachs, Quasirat Hasnat
  23. 23. Thank you for your attention Download the full White Paper 3 and the Briefing Note at: http://www.sustainablegasinstitute.org/A-Greener-Gas-Grid Dr Jamie Speirs Lead: SGI White Paper Series Sustainable Gas Institute www.sustainablegasinstitute.org/ twitter.com/sgi_London sgi@imperial.ac.uk Be social! Use #unlockCCS
  24. 24. Back-up slides
  25. 25. Retail price per unit of heat
  26. 26. Emissions from Electrolysis Remove
  27. 27. Resource implications: Electrolysis
  28. 28. Hydrogen Conversion Costs
  29. 29. Decarbonised gas network options Low carbon gas Hydrogen Biomethane Reduce methane use Blending (up to 20% vol) Hybrid heat pump Gas fired heat pumps 100% How much can this achieve? Already doing this
  30. 30. Methane MethanationElectricity Electrolysi s Hydroge n Coal Dry biomass Gasificatio n Wet biomass Anaerobic digestion
  31. 31. Countries that use gas networks • A number of countries have very developed gas networks • Most evidence comes from these countries • Less well networked countries may develop in the future

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