The components of an ecosystem


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The structural components of an ecosystem consist of nonliving arena and the living organisms.
They are terms as Abiotic compounds and Biotic compounds.

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The components of an ecosystem

  1. 1. THE COMPONENTSOF AN ECOSYSTEMName :T.W.G.F.A NijamdeenReg.No:612260302
  2. 2. What is an Ecosystem?• An ecosystem is a very complex entity with many interactive components. It canbe defined as "a system of complex interactions of populations betweenthemselves and with their environment" or as "the joint functioning andinteraction of these two compartments (populations and environment) in afunctional unit of variable size" (Odum, 1975; Ellenberg, 1973; Nybakken, 1982;Scialabba, 1998).• A self sustainable community of organisms living in a particular area on earth( land, water or air)ecosystem2Eg:pond
  3. 3. The components ofan ecosystem
  4. 4. The Components Of Ecosystems4• The structural components of an ecosystem consist of nonliving arena and theliving organisms.• They are terms as Abiotic compounds and Biotic compounds.Abiotic and biotic compounds
  5. 5. Abiotic FactorsNon living components of an ecosystem
  6. 6. Abiotic Factors• The structural components of nonliving arena• The largest ecosystems is the “Biosphere”• The abiotic portion of the biosphere consists of three parts .They are the,- Atmosphere (Air)- Hydrosphere (The water)- Lithosphere (The solid earth)• Each of these three fundamental units of the ecosystem has properties of itsown, which determine its role in the total ecosystem.6
  7. 7. 1.The atmosphere• The atmosphere is an ocean of air which blends in to outer space of the earth andreaches over 560 kilometers (348miles) from the surface of the earth.• This can be differentiated on the basis of temperature in to four layers.They aretheTroposhere,The sratosphere,The mesophere andThe thermosphere.• In relation to the ecosystem the most important layer is the troposphere; which isthe lowest stratum. It is roughly 10km in thickness and is usually thicker inequatorial regions than at the poles.• The ozone layer in the stratosphere, absorbs ultra violet radiation, thuspreventing it from reaching the surface of the earth.Footer text here7
  8. 8. The role of troposphere• All organisms obtain their requirement of gasses from the troposphere whichis composed of 78% Nitrogen,21% Oxygen, and 0.03% Carbon dioxide, andless of others such as Hydrogen, Helium and Methane.• determining the weather phenomena.• Formation of the clouds.The dust particles serves as nuclei around whichwater vapour condense. Such droplets of water accumulate to form theclouds.• Changes in troposphere results in changes of climatic factors such wind andocean currents.• These currents of air and water in turn strongly influence the distribution ofprecipitation, both in time and in space.• Water in the troposphere is warmed both by the solar energy and the heatradiating from the earth’s surface. part of this heat is radiated back to earth.this leads to the retention of heat, keeping the earth relatively warm even atnight when there is temporarily no flux of solar energy.Footer text here8
  9. 9. 2.The HydrosphereThe role of water• Water is one of the most unusual natural compounds found on earth. It isessential to all life as both and internal and an external medium.• Water is one of the main agents in the weathering of rocks which is necessaryfor the formation of soil, and erosion, deposition of sediment, the process thatshape land forms.• Water covers 71% of the earth’s surface and is the medium for severaldifferent ecosystems.• The water molecule has polar covalent bonds and thus causes ioniccompounds to dissociate and dissolve in it.-The universal solvent.Footer text here9
  10. 10. • Water is the main medium through which chemical constituents aretransported in ecosystems.• Acts as a medium through which constituents can pass from the abioticportion of the ecosystem in to the biotic portion.• Water can absorb relatively large amounts of heat without greatly changingits temperature.• The anamoulus expansion properties of water, eg: expansion of water whencooled beyond 4°C,result in which is less denser than water.• High cohesive property.• High surface tension.Footer text here10Water
  11. 11. 3.The lithosphere• The lithosphere can be divided into three main components.Rocks,Sedimentsand Soil .• Rocks can be defined as consolidated units of the earth’s crust which areformed of minerals that have come together by hardening.• The role of rocks include facilitating storage and movement of ground water.serve as sources of mineral constituents of sediment and soils.• Weathering• The distribution and nature of rocks determine the types and distribution ofecosystems.Footer text here11
  12. 12. • Sediments can be defined as rock fragments that may not be chemicallyaltered by weathering.• Soils consists of complex mixture of rock fragments, highly altered minerals,organic debris and living organisms.• The importance of soil to the ecosystem lies in that they are the source ofalmost all nutrients and much of the water available to the organisms interrestrial ecosystems.• Soils are the medium for the detritus food chain, and support all organisms.Footer text here12 Soil
  13. 13. Biotic factorsLiving components of an ecosystemEcosystem13
  14. 14. Biotic factors• The biotic/living components of the ecosystem can be classified as flora andfauna based on their structure and other features.• Functionally the living organisms can be classified as,- Producers- Consumers- DecomposersFooter text here14
  15. 15. 1.Producers• Producers are called as autotrophs .• They can be of two main types; Photosynthetic forms, chemosynthetic forms.• The photosynthetic forms are green plants that covert solar energy into chemicalenergy-Photosynthesis• The producers therefore include green plants, photosynthetic bacteria andchemosynthetic bacteria.• On land photosynthesis is carried out mainly by higher plants.• In the sea the main photosynthetic organisms are themicroscopic algae, planktons, diatoms and the flagellates.Footer text here15
  16. 16. 2.Consumers• Heterotrophic organisms are unable to synthesize their own food and henceobtain them by feeding on other organisms.• The decomposers also fit in to this definition.• The consumers are classed into various categories based on the nature of thefood they consume. Such as Herbivores, Carnivores and Omnivores• And also be classified as,- Primary consumers- Secondary consumers-Tertiary consumersFooter text here16
  17. 17. Primary consumers• Primary consumers are herbivores, which feed on plant material.• The amount they consumed are commonly referred to as the consumptionrate. Based on these the ecosystem can be grouped as high rated, low rated.• Primary consumers can be grazers or browsers.17Plant eating insect Grazing cattle
  18. 18. Secondary consumers• Heterotrophic animals which feed on herbivorous organisms or primaryconsumers are termed as the secondary consumers.• These animals therefore carnivrous.18Fox
  19. 19. Tertiary consumers• These are carnivorous heterotrophs that feed on other carnivorous animals.• Top carnivorous are few in number.• Most birds of pray and cats fit this category.19Hawk Leopard
  20. 20. 3.Decomposers• Decomposers feed on dead meterial,and that is first broken down beforebeing absorbed.• The detritivores ,plays the initial role of breaking up large bodies in to smallparticles.• Decomposers are mainly fungi and bacteria20Fungus Bacteria
  21. 21. MajorTypes ofEcosystem1.Terrestrial ecosystem 2.Aquatic ecosystem21
  22. 22. 1.Terrestrial ecosystem• Here the lithosphere ‘s influence is high.• They can be four types; Forest, Grasslands, Desserts orTundra.22Forest Grassland Dessert Tundra
  23. 23. 2.Aquatic ecosystem• Here hydrosphere plays the major role.• The major types include Fresh water and Marine.• Fresh water includes lakes, ponds, streams, rivers, swamps and springs.• Marine include seas and oceans.• Intermediate between fresh water and marine are the estuaries.23Fresh water ecosystem Marine ecosystem
  24. 24. Conservation of the components of the ecosystem• ecosystems are an intricate part of the human lifecycle as they provide us withwater, food and energy.• Since mankind is in a take and take some more relationship with the ecosystems,many of them have had their natural processes disrupted.• “Humankind has not woven the web of life. We are but one thread within it.Whatever we do to the web, we do to ourselves. All things are bound together. Allthings connect.” -Chief Seattle• So conservation of ecosystems is a must for the mankind as we are a part of thisweb.24
  25. 25. THANKYOU…Footer text here25