Scientists view genome as it turns on and[1]

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Scientists view genome as it turns on and[1]

  1. 1. Scientists View Genome as It Turns on and Off Inside Cells and Light Shed on RNA 'on/Off Switches'<br />SILVANA ZAPATA MADRID <br />MOLECULAR BIOLOGY<br />MEDICINE STUDENT<br />III SEMESTER<br />UPB<br />
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  4. 4. INTRODUCTION <br />biochemical techniques with new, fast DNA-sequencing technology and advanced computer technology are using for know how a cell converts DNA into RNA .<br />Structural and Molecular Biology recently discovered RNA "riboswitches" are capable of more complex functions than originally thought the study may have implications for designing new antibiotics against harmful bacteria.<br />
  5. 5. Scientists View Genome as It Turns on and Off Inside Cells.ScienceDaily (Jan. 20, 2011)<br />
  6. 6. Scientists View Genome as It Turns on and Off Inside Cells<br />By combining biochemical techniques with new, fast DNA-sequencing technology examine with unprecedented resolution how a cell converts DNA into RNA.<br />The main way the genome is "read" in a cell is through its transcription into RNA "The genome is the hard drive of the cell" <br />majority of DNA is transcribed. Much of the product is still considered "junk RNA" -- simply a byproduct of the process.<br />
  7. 7. Scientists View Genome as It Turns on and Off Inside Cells<br />The research focused on DNA transcription in baker's yeast.<br />Nucleosomes are grape-like structures formed by strands of DNA wrapped like vines around histone proteins, and serve to organize enormously long DNA molecules.<br />Histone proteins retain a history of what has happened recently in that part of the gene code and a "plan" for what should happen in the future.<br />
  8. 8. Scientists View Genome as It Turns on and Off Inside Cells<br />Polymerase comes in direct contact with the histone proteins during the transcription process.<br />The nucleosomes acted as a speed bump for the polymerase enzyme as it moved along the genome transcribing DNA into RNA<br />The organization of histone marks controlled whether "junk RNA" was produced from a given region of DNA.<br />
  9. 9. OBSERVATION<br />I think we should do more research on how genes are activated and the process from this search for a technique to resolve errors that may be committed in the transcript.<br /> <br />
  10. 10. Light Shed on RNA 'on/Off Switches'ScienceDaily (Feb. 14, 2011)<br />
  11. 11. Light Shed on RNA 'on/Off Switches'<br />riboswitches are short stretches of RNA that reside within the messenger RNAs of proteins involved in a cell's metabolism.<br />This particular riboswitch resides in the messenger RNA that carries instructions for the enzyme responsible for the production of glucosamine-6-phosphate, called GlmS.<br />when glucosamine-6-phosphate concentrations are low, the glmSriboswitch does not self-destruct, keeping the messenger RNA functioning<br />
  12. 12. Light Shed on RNA 'on/Off Switches<br />When a particular protein is needed by the cell, the corresponding gene, made of DNA, is turned "on," or transcribed into a messenger RNA, which then carries the "protein recipe" to the protein-making machinery of the cell.<br />Riboswitchesare short stretches of RNA that reside within the messenger RNAs of proteins involved in a cell's metabolism.<br />Riboswitchcan incorporate signals from many metabolites at once.<br />
  13. 13. Light Shed on RNA 'on/Off Switches<br />Binding glucosamine-6-phosphate induces self-destruction of the riboswitch and turns the glmS gene off.<br />Are the new shapes act to prevent the transcription of messenger RNA or translation of messenger RNA into protein.<br />Riboswitcheshave not yet been found in humans<br />
  14. 14. observation<br />I think it is very important to study riboswitchest in humans in order to have more developments in the area of pharmacology with antibiotics.<br />
  15. 15. MEDICAL UTILITY<br />
  16. 16. MEDICAL UTILITYScientists View Genome as It Turns on and Off Inside Cells<br />The advance enables researchers to make sense of the vast amounts of data generated by the Human Genome Project and the multiple genome sequencing efforts worldwide, while providing new tools for studying basic processes like the reprogramming of stem cells<br />
  17. 17. MEDICAL UTILITY Light Shed on RNA 'on/Off Switches <br />Riboswitchesso far have been found primarily in bacteria, the study may have implications for designing new antibiotics against harmful bacteria.<br />
  18. 18. MEDICAL UTILITY Scientists View Genome as It Turns on and Light Shed on RNA 'on/Off Switches <br />The splicing are associated with the molecular pathology of a large number of human diseases. At the same time, manipulation of pre-mRNA splicing provides opportunities for therapeutic intervention. Has great importance in the process of creation of new antibiotics and the human genome project.<br />
  19. 19. bibliograpy<br />MARTINES S., Lina María. Biología Molecular. 6.ed. Medellín : UPB, 2011. 111p.<br />Scientists View Genome as It Turns on and Off Inside Cells. [ en línea ]. <Disponiblehttp://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/01/110119141723.htm<br />Light Shed on RNA 'on/Off Switches‘. [ en línea]. <Disponible http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/02/110213162729.htm <br />
  20. 20. THANKS…<br />

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