Chap1 hardware


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  • More components of a CPU that are vital to its operation are the registers, which are very small memory locations that are responsible for holding the data that is to be processed. The most important of these registers is known as the instruction pointer, which directs the CPU to the next memory location from where it is to receive information.
  • Amount of RAM installed will determine. Which software applications will run (efficiently)? How many software applications can be open simultaneously (multitasking ability)?
  • Chap1 hardware

    1. 1. COMP1-A Maa’m Annalie CS Department
    2. 2. Computer Hardware • Facilitate the storage and processing of data under the direction of a stored program. COMP1 A Maa’m Annalie CS Department
    3. 3. There are many parts that work together to make a computer work. NEXT COMP1 A Maa’m Annalie CS Department
    4. 4. Types of Devices Digital versus Analog - Most computers today are digital. Their circuits have only two possible states, such as “Off” and “On” or “0” and “1”. - An analog device operates on continuously varying data and has an infinite number of possible states. COMP1 A Maa’m Annalie CS Department
    5. 5. NEXT COMP1 A Maa’m Annalie CS Department
    6. 6. Basic Hardware units of a computer Central Processing Unit (CPU) Arithmetic and Logic Unit ControlInput Output Main Memory Secondary storage COMP1 A Maa’m Annalie CS Department
    7. 7. Computer Hardware • CPU • Memory (RAM) • Motherboard • Hard Disk • System Unit • Power supply •Network Card •Sound Card •CD/ DVD Rom Drive •Video Card •Input Devices •Output Devices COMP1 A Maa’m Annalie CS Department
    8. 8. What is the system unit? A boxlike case that houses the computer’s main hardware components BACK COMP1 A Maa’m Annalie CS Department
    9. 9. CPU • also called “The Chip”, a CPU, a processor, a microprocessor or “brain” of the computer. NEXT COMP1 A Maa’m Annalie CS Department
    10. 10. What are the components of the CPU? Control unit Arithmetic-Logic Click N Learn Maa’m Annalie CS Department
    11. 11. Control Unit- Coordinates and controls all parts of the computer system Manages four basic operations (machine cycle) Fetch- Gets next program instruction from the computer’s memory Decode- Figure out what the program is telling the computer to do Execute- Perform the requested action Write-back (Store)- Write (store) the results to a register or to memory 11 NEXT Maa’m Annalie CS Department
    12. 12. Control unit ALU Memory How a CPU works Click to animate. Click one time only BACKMaa’m Annalie CS Department
    13. 13. 13 Arithmetic-Logic Unit (ALU) -Perform basic arithmetic or logic operations -Add, Subtract, Multiply, Divide -Compare two items to see which one is larger or smaller BACK Maa’m Annalie CS Department
    14. 14. Registers • Stores the most frequently used instructions and data. • The instruction pointer 14 BACK Maa’m Annalie CS Department
    15. 15. 15 - A term for a device that enables the computer to retain (store) information. - Holds instructions for processing data, processed data, and raw data. Memory (RAM) NEXT Maa’m Annalie CS Department
    17. 17. Motherboard -Large printed circuit board with thousands of electrical circuits where most of the electronics including the CPU are mounted BACK COMP1 AMaa’m Annalie CS Department
    18. 18. Hard Disk • Capacity is measured in gigabytes (GB or billions of bytes). • Typically permanently installed. • Used to store operating system, application software, utilities and data BACK COMP1 A Maa’m Annalie CS Department
    19. 19. Power supply It supplies DC power to the other components in a computer. BACK COMP1 A Maa’m Annalie CS Department
    20. 20. Network Card • A circuit board that permits a computer to participate in a computer network. • has a unique number; this is used for addressing. It is called the MAC address. BACK COMP1 A Maa’m Annalie CS Department
    21. 21. Sound Card • is an internal computer expansion card that facilitates the input and output of audio signals to and from a computer. BACK COMP1 A Maa’m Annalie CS Department
    22. 22. CD/ DVD Rom Drive • Optical storage device. • Used more often now for backup storage BACK COMP1 A Maa’m Annalie CS Department
    23. 23. Video Card • Connects the computer to the monitor. It is a circuit board attached to the motherboard that contains the memory and other circuitry necessary to send information to the monitor for display on screen. BACK COMP1 A Maa’m Annalie CS Department
    24. 24. Input Devices • Input is all information put into a computer. Input can be supplied from a variety of sources: – A person – A storage device on computer – Another computer – A peripheral device – Another piece of equipment NEXT COMP1 A Maa’m Annalie CS Department
    25. 25. Input Devices • Input devices gather and translate data into a form the computer understands. • Primary input device: – Keyboard - Most common input device; used to type in commands and data. – Mouse or trackball enhances user’s ability to input commands, manipulate text, images. – Joystick useful in education as an adaptive or assistive input device. NEXT COMP1 A Maa’m Annalie CS Department
    26. 26. Input Devices • Scanners are peripheral input devices which allow users to import: – Text , Graphics and Images • Digital Cameras are peripheral input devices that allow users to create pictures and/or movies in a digital format. • Microphone - Allows the user to record sounds as input to their computer. BACK COMP1 A Maa’m Annalie CS Department
    27. 27. Output Devices Those parts of the computer that provide results of computation to the person using the computer. • Monitors are the most commonly used output device. - connected to a computer system via a port integrated on the video adapter or graphics card. • Printers- An output device that produces a hard copy on paper. • Speakers - Used to generate or reproduce voice, music, and other sounds. COMP1 A Maa’m Annalie CS Department