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How to prepare citations for academic
writing
GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management
• Examples:
• APA Style (American Psychological Association)
• MLA Style (Modern Language Association of America)
• The Chicago Manual of Style
• Vancouver Style
Citation Style
GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management
•Okuda, M., & Okuda, D. (1993). Star trek chronology: The history of
the future. New York, NY: Pocket Books.
APA
•Okuda, Michael, and Denise Okuda. Star Trek Chronology: The History
of the Future. New York: Pocket, 1993.
MLA
•Okuda, Michael, and Denise Okuda. 1993. Star trek chronology: The
history of the future. New York: Pocket Books.
Chicago
•Okuda M, Okuda D. Star trek chronology: the history of the future.
New York: Pocket; 1993.
Vancouver
GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management
• Golob, N. (2008). Integration of education for sustainable development. Acta
Systemica 8 (1), 27-32.
APA
• Golob, Nika. 2008. "Integration of education for sustainable development". Acta
Systemica 8 (1): 27-32.
Chicago
• GOLOB, N. (2008). Integration of education for sustainable development. Acta
Systemica 8, 27-32.
Harvard
• Golob, Nika. "Integration of Education for Sustainable Development." Acta Systemica
8. 1 (2008): 27-32.
MLA
• Golob, Nika. 2008. "Integration of Education for Sustainable Development". Acta
Systemica 8, no. 1: 27-32.
Turabian
GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management
GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management
 Basically, there are two ways to cite
individual’s name:
with a family
name or
surnames without a family
name
GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management
• Begin with the surnames followed by comma and initials of the first
names.
• e.g: Catherine Zeta Jones
• Write Jones, C. Z.
• Tan Pei Meng
• Write Tan, P. M.
• Christina Ooi Su Siang
• Write Ooi, C. S. S.
Authors with surnames
• Write down as it is given.
• Omit bin, binti, a/p, a/l, s/o, d/o.
• e.g: Hamzah Bin Dolmat
• Write Hamzah Dolmat
• Kumaran a/l Shamugam
• Write Kumaran Shamugam
Authors without family names
GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management
• Some Malay names have inherited titles eg. Raja,
Tengku, Syed, Sharifah etc.
• Include the titles accordingly.
• e.g: Write Raja Malik Raja Mohamed
Malay Names With Inherited Titles
• Do not include conferred titles eg. Dr., Professor,
Dato’, Tan Sri, Tun, Sir etc.
• Omit the titles and just write the names according to
the rules which have been explained earlier.
• e.g: Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad
• Write Mahathir Mohamad
Malay Names With Conferred titles
GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management
• Write down all the authors’ names.
• Use comma after each name.
• Use the symbol ampersand “&” before the last author
• e.g:
• Clair N. Sawyer, Perry L. McCarty and Gene F. Parkin
• Write
• Sawyer, C. N., McCarty, P. L., & Parkin, G. F.
Citation rules for more than two authors
GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management
• Write down ALL the six names according to the
sequence.
• Use comma after each name.
• Write ‘…’ to represent the subsequent names; AND
• Write the last author
• e.g. :
• Samuel A. Wyatt, Stuart G. West, Ian Smith, John
Tein, Martin Levine, Donald Parker, Larry Lengua and
Robert L. Brumley
• Write
• Wyatt, S. A., West, S. G., Smith, I., Tein, J., Levine,
M., Parker, D., … Brumley, R. L.
Citation rules for more than 7 authors
GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management
• Write in Malaysian Language
• Malaysian Book Publishers Association
• Write Persatuan Penerbit Buku Malaysia
Malaysian Organisation
• write the country or the state followed by the
department in Malaysian language
• e.g: Write Johor, Jabatan Alam Sekitar
Government Department (Malaysian)
• Lembaga Getah Malaysia
• Yayasan Sabah
Other Organisations with Unique Names
GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management
• Cite in English as it is known
• e.g :
• United Nations Centre for Regional Development
• Write United Nations Centre for Regional Development
International Organisation
• Write the country or the state followed by the
department in English.
• e.g : Write Iran, Ministry of Education
Government Department (Foreign)
GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management
Write in Malaysian Language
Example :
Jabatan Fizik, Fakulti Sains, Universiti Malaya
Write Universiti Malaya, Jabatan Fizik
GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management
Bibliographical Management:
Preparing List of References
GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management
• Standardized method of acknowledging information
sources.
What is citation style?
GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management
References from electronic
sources
References From Printed Sources
GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management
• Format:
• Author – If there is a family name, begin
with the family name. (Year). Title
of the book. Place of publication
(State Name, Country Name):
Publisher.
• Example:
• Grainger, A. (1993). Controlling tropical
deforestation. London, England:
Earthscan.
Book – Single Author
GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management
• Format:
• Author 1, author 2, & author 3 – if
there is a family name, begin with
the family name.(Year). Title of
the book. Place of publication
(State Name, Country Name):
Publisher.
• Example:
• Cox, R. C., & Gould, M. H. (1998). Civil
engineering heritage. London,
England: T. Telford.
Book- More Than One Author
GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management
• Format:
• Corporate author. (Year). Title of book.
Place of publication (State Name,
Country Name): Publisher.
• Example:
• Malaysia, Kementerian Sains, Teknologi
dan Alam Sekitar. (1990). Industrial
technology development: A
national plan of action. Kuala
Lumpur, Malaysia: Kementerian
Sains, Teknologi dan Alam Sekitar.
Book – Corporate Author
GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management
• Format:
• Author 1/2/3. (Year). Title of book.
(Edition). Place of
publication(State Name, Country
Name): Publisher.
• Example:
• Carlton, D. W., & Perloff, J. M. (1994).
Modern industrial organization (2nd
ed.). New York, NY: Harper Collins
College Publishers.
Book with Edition
GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management
• Format:
• Editors. (Ed./Eds.). (Year). Title of
book. Place of publication (State
Name, Country Name): Publisher.
• Example:
• Freeman, H. M. (Ed.). (1990). Hazardous
waste minimization. New York,
NY: McGraw-Hill.
Edited Book
GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management
• Format:
• Author(s) of the article. (Year). Title of
article. Title of journal, volume
(no.), pages.
• Example:
• Chu, K. H., & Mohd Ali Hashim. (1995).
Simulated counter-current
adsorption processes: A
comparison of modelling
strategies. Chemical Engineering
Journal, 56(1), 59-65.
Journal Articles
GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management
• Format:
• Author(s) of chapter. (Year). Title of chapter. In
Book editors (Ed./Eds.), Title of book
(pp. page numbers). Place of publication
(State Name, Country Name): Publisher.
• Example:
• Damodarao, T., & Sastry, C. A. (1996). Water
extraction from sea water aquifer. In C. A.
Sastry (Ed.), Water treatment plants (pp.
437-444). New Delhi, India: Narosa
Publishing House.
Book Chapter
GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management
• Format:
• Authors of conference papers. (Year). Title of
conference papers. In Editors (Ed./Eds.),
Title of proceeding (pp.- page number).
Place of publication (State Name, Country
Name): Publisher.
• Example:
• Jaynes, E. T. (1985). Microscopic prediction. In
H. Hanken (Ed.), Complex systems in
neurobiology and computers:
Proceedings of the International
Symposium on Synergetics at Schloss
Elmau, Bavaria, May 6-11,1985 (pp. 254-
269). Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag.
Published Conference Papers
GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management
• Format:
• Authors of conference paper. (Year, month).
Title of conference paper. Paper
presented at the name of conference,
place.
• Example:
• Gaustad, J. (2005, April). Synthesis X-ray
crystallography and biological activities.
Paper presented at the International
Conference on Chemistry, Mansoura,
Egypt.
Unpublished Conference Papers
GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management
• Format:
• Author of project paper / thesis. (Year). Title of
project paper/thesis. (Type of thesis).
Name of University, Place of University.
• Example:
• Safiah Abdullah. (1996). The community
structure of fish and prawns in small
mangrove creeks in Sungai Sementa Kecil,
Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia.
(Unpublished master’s thesis). Universiti
Malaya, Kuala Lumpur.
Academic Exercise/ Theses
GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management
References from electronic
sources
References From
Electronic Sources
GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management
• Format:
• Author. (Year). Title of article. Title of journal,
volume (no), page number(s). Retrieved
from http:// URL address / DOI (Digital
Object Identifier).
• Example:
• Borman, W. C., & Hanson, M. A. (1993). Role of
early supervisory experience in
supervisor performance. Journal of
Applied Psychology, 78, 443-449.
Retrieved from doi:10.1037/0021-
9010.78.3.443.
Journal Articles From
Online Database
GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management
• Format:
• Author. (Date of publication). Title of article.
Title of journal, volume(no), page
number. Retrieved from http:// URL
address / DOI (Digital Object Identifier).
• Example:
• Fredrickson, B. L. (2000, Mac 7). Cultivating positive
emotions to optimize health and well-being.
Prevention & Treatment, 3 (1), 12-14. Retrieved
from http://journals.apa.org/
prevention/volume3/pre0030001a.html
Journal Articles From Internet
GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management
• Format:
• Author(s). (Date of publication). Title of article.
Retrieved from http:// URL address / DOI
(Digital Object Identifier).
• Example:
• Chou, L., McClintock, R., Moretti, F., & Nix, D.
H. (1993). Technology and education: New
wine in new bottles: Choosing pasts and
imagining educational futures.
Retrieved from Columbia University
website: http://www.ilt.columbia .ed
/publications/papers/ newwine1.html
Document From University Web Sites
GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management
• Format:
• Author – name of organisation. (Date of
publication). Title of document. Retrieved
from http:// URL address / DOI (Digital
Object Identifier).
• Example:
• Canarie, Inc. (1997, September 27). Towards a
Canadian health IWAY: Vision,
opportunities and future steps.
Retrieved from
http://www.canarie.ca/press/publications
/pdf/health/healthvision.doc
Personal Document From
Organisation Web Site
GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management
• Indent or leave a space approximately 0.5 inch
at the beginning of the second line and
subsequent lines
• Example:
• Safiah Abdullah. (1996). The community
structure of fish and prawns in small
mangrove creeks in Sungai Sementa Kecil,
Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia.
(Unpublished master’s thesis). Universiti
Malaya, Kuala Lumpur.
Format Of Reference Listing
GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management
• Arrange all the references according to the alphabetical
order of the first letter of each reference item.
Reference Listing Format
GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management

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Preparing citations

  • 1. How to prepare citations for academic writing GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management
  • 2. • Examples: • APA Style (American Psychological Association) • MLA Style (Modern Language Association of America) • The Chicago Manual of Style • Vancouver Style Citation Style GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management
  • 3. •Okuda, M., & Okuda, D. (1993). Star trek chronology: The history of the future. New York, NY: Pocket Books. APA •Okuda, Michael, and Denise Okuda. Star Trek Chronology: The History of the Future. New York: Pocket, 1993. MLA •Okuda, Michael, and Denise Okuda. 1993. Star trek chronology: The history of the future. New York: Pocket Books. Chicago •Okuda M, Okuda D. Star trek chronology: the history of the future. New York: Pocket; 1993. Vancouver GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management
  • 4. • Golob, N. (2008). Integration of education for sustainable development. Acta Systemica 8 (1), 27-32. APA • Golob, Nika. 2008. "Integration of education for sustainable development". Acta Systemica 8 (1): 27-32. Chicago • GOLOB, N. (2008). Integration of education for sustainable development. Acta Systemica 8, 27-32. Harvard • Golob, Nika. "Integration of Education for Sustainable Development." Acta Systemica 8. 1 (2008): 27-32. MLA • Golob, Nika. 2008. "Integration of Education for Sustainable Development". Acta Systemica 8, no. 1: 27-32. Turabian GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management
  • 5. GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management
  • 6.  Basically, there are two ways to cite individual’s name: with a family name or surnames without a family name GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management
  • 7. • Begin with the surnames followed by comma and initials of the first names. • e.g: Catherine Zeta Jones • Write Jones, C. Z. • Tan Pei Meng • Write Tan, P. M. • Christina Ooi Su Siang • Write Ooi, C. S. S. Authors with surnames • Write down as it is given. • Omit bin, binti, a/p, a/l, s/o, d/o. • e.g: Hamzah Bin Dolmat • Write Hamzah Dolmat • Kumaran a/l Shamugam • Write Kumaran Shamugam Authors without family names GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management
  • 8. • Some Malay names have inherited titles eg. Raja, Tengku, Syed, Sharifah etc. • Include the titles accordingly. • e.g: Write Raja Malik Raja Mohamed Malay Names With Inherited Titles • Do not include conferred titles eg. Dr., Professor, Dato’, Tan Sri, Tun, Sir etc. • Omit the titles and just write the names according to the rules which have been explained earlier. • e.g: Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad • Write Mahathir Mohamad Malay Names With Conferred titles GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management
  • 9. • Write down all the authors’ names. • Use comma after each name. • Use the symbol ampersand “&” before the last author • e.g: • Clair N. Sawyer, Perry L. McCarty and Gene F. Parkin • Write • Sawyer, C. N., McCarty, P. L., & Parkin, G. F. Citation rules for more than two authors GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management
  • 10. • Write down ALL the six names according to the sequence. • Use comma after each name. • Write ‘…’ to represent the subsequent names; AND • Write the last author • e.g. : • Samuel A. Wyatt, Stuart G. West, Ian Smith, John Tein, Martin Levine, Donald Parker, Larry Lengua and Robert L. Brumley • Write • Wyatt, S. A., West, S. G., Smith, I., Tein, J., Levine, M., Parker, D., … Brumley, R. L. Citation rules for more than 7 authors GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management
  • 11. • Write in Malaysian Language • Malaysian Book Publishers Association • Write Persatuan Penerbit Buku Malaysia Malaysian Organisation • write the country or the state followed by the department in Malaysian language • e.g: Write Johor, Jabatan Alam Sekitar Government Department (Malaysian) • Lembaga Getah Malaysia • Yayasan Sabah Other Organisations with Unique Names GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management
  • 12. • Cite in English as it is known • e.g : • United Nations Centre for Regional Development • Write United Nations Centre for Regional Development International Organisation • Write the country or the state followed by the department in English. • e.g : Write Iran, Ministry of Education Government Department (Foreign) GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management
  • 13. Write in Malaysian Language Example : Jabatan Fizik, Fakulti Sains, Universiti Malaya Write Universiti Malaya, Jabatan Fizik GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management
  • 14. Bibliographical Management: Preparing List of References GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management
  • 15. • Standardized method of acknowledging information sources. What is citation style? GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management
  • 16. References from electronic sources References From Printed Sources GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management
  • 17. • Format: • Author – If there is a family name, begin with the family name. (Year). Title of the book. Place of publication (State Name, Country Name): Publisher. • Example: • Grainger, A. (1993). Controlling tropical deforestation. London, England: Earthscan. Book – Single Author GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management
  • 18. • Format: • Author 1, author 2, & author 3 – if there is a family name, begin with the family name.(Year). Title of the book. Place of publication (State Name, Country Name): Publisher. • Example: • Cox, R. C., & Gould, M. H. (1998). Civil engineering heritage. London, England: T. Telford. Book- More Than One Author GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management
  • 19. • Format: • Corporate author. (Year). Title of book. Place of publication (State Name, Country Name): Publisher. • Example: • Malaysia, Kementerian Sains, Teknologi dan Alam Sekitar. (1990). Industrial technology development: A national plan of action. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Kementerian Sains, Teknologi dan Alam Sekitar. Book – Corporate Author GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management
  • 20. • Format: • Author 1/2/3. (Year). Title of book. (Edition). Place of publication(State Name, Country Name): Publisher. • Example: • Carlton, D. W., & Perloff, J. M. (1994). Modern industrial organization (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Harper Collins College Publishers. Book with Edition GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management
  • 21. • Format: • Editors. (Ed./Eds.). (Year). Title of book. Place of publication (State Name, Country Name): Publisher. • Example: • Freeman, H. M. (Ed.). (1990). Hazardous waste minimization. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Edited Book GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management
  • 22. • Format: • Author(s) of the article. (Year). Title of article. Title of journal, volume (no.), pages. • Example: • Chu, K. H., & Mohd Ali Hashim. (1995). Simulated counter-current adsorption processes: A comparison of modelling strategies. Chemical Engineering Journal, 56(1), 59-65. Journal Articles GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management
  • 23. • Format: • Author(s) of chapter. (Year). Title of chapter. In Book editors (Ed./Eds.), Title of book (pp. page numbers). Place of publication (State Name, Country Name): Publisher. • Example: • Damodarao, T., & Sastry, C. A. (1996). Water extraction from sea water aquifer. In C. A. Sastry (Ed.), Water treatment plants (pp. 437-444). New Delhi, India: Narosa Publishing House. Book Chapter GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management
  • 24. • Format: • Authors of conference papers. (Year). Title of conference papers. In Editors (Ed./Eds.), Title of proceeding (pp.- page number). Place of publication (State Name, Country Name): Publisher. • Example: • Jaynes, E. T. (1985). Microscopic prediction. In H. Hanken (Ed.), Complex systems in neurobiology and computers: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Synergetics at Schloss Elmau, Bavaria, May 6-11,1985 (pp. 254- 269). Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag. Published Conference Papers GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management
  • 25. • Format: • Authors of conference paper. (Year, month). Title of conference paper. Paper presented at the name of conference, place. • Example: • Gaustad, J. (2005, April). Synthesis X-ray crystallography and biological activities. Paper presented at the International Conference on Chemistry, Mansoura, Egypt. Unpublished Conference Papers GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management
  • 26. • Format: • Author of project paper / thesis. (Year). Title of project paper/thesis. (Type of thesis). Name of University, Place of University. • Example: • Safiah Abdullah. (1996). The community structure of fish and prawns in small mangrove creeks in Sungai Sementa Kecil, Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia. (Unpublished master’s thesis). Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur. Academic Exercise/ Theses GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management
  • 27. References from electronic sources References From Electronic Sources GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management
  • 28. • Format: • Author. (Year). Title of article. Title of journal, volume (no), page number(s). Retrieved from http:// URL address / DOI (Digital Object Identifier). • Example: • Borman, W. C., & Hanson, M. A. (1993). Role of early supervisory experience in supervisor performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 443-449. Retrieved from doi:10.1037/0021- 9010.78.3.443. Journal Articles From Online Database GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management
  • 29. • Format: • Author. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of journal, volume(no), page number. Retrieved from http:// URL address / DOI (Digital Object Identifier). • Example: • Fredrickson, B. L. (2000, Mac 7). Cultivating positive emotions to optimize health and well-being. Prevention & Treatment, 3 (1), 12-14. Retrieved from http://journals.apa.org/ prevention/volume3/pre0030001a.html Journal Articles From Internet GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management
  • 30. • Format: • Author(s). (Date of publication). Title of article. Retrieved from http:// URL address / DOI (Digital Object Identifier). • Example: • Chou, L., McClintock, R., Moretti, F., & Nix, D. H. (1993). Technology and education: New wine in new bottles: Choosing pasts and imagining educational futures. Retrieved from Columbia University website: http://www.ilt.columbia .ed /publications/papers/ newwine1.html Document From University Web Sites GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management
  • 31. • Format: • Author – name of organisation. (Date of publication). Title of document. Retrieved from http:// URL address / DOI (Digital Object Identifier). • Example: • Canarie, Inc. (1997, September 27). Towards a Canadian health IWAY: Vision, opportunities and future steps. Retrieved from http://www.canarie.ca/press/publications /pdf/health/healthvision.doc Personal Document From Organisation Web Site GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management
  • 32. • Indent or leave a space approximately 0.5 inch at the beginning of the second line and subsequent lines • Example: • Safiah Abdullah. (1996). The community structure of fish and prawns in small mangrove creeks in Sungai Sementa Kecil, Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia. (Unpublished master’s thesis). Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur. Format Of Reference Listing GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management
  • 33. • Arrange all the references according to the alphabetical order of the first letter of each reference item. Reference Listing Format GXEX1401: Lecture 11: Bibliographical Management