Literature revi ew


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Literature revi ew

  1. 1. Literature ReviewZAMEER HASSANMPHIL Communication Studies6/12/2013 Literature Review 1
  2. 2. Literature Review?• A literature review is a critical & an evaluativesummary of the themes, issues andarguments of a specific clearly definedresearch topic obtained from the published(and unpublished) literature.• A literature review can be just a simplesummary of the sources.6/12/2013 Literature Review 2
  3. 3. Literature Review• A literature review is the effective evaluationof selected documents on a research topic.• The purpose of a literature review is for you totake a critical look at the literature (facts andviews) that already exists in the area you areresearching.6/12/2013 Literature Review 3
  4. 4. Literature Review• Reviewing the literature is a continuousprocess.• It begins before a research problem is finalizedand continues until the report is finished.• We cant undertake effective literature reviewunless we have formulated a researchproblem.• Yet literature search plays important role inhelping to formulate research question.6/12/2013 Literature Review 4
  5. 5. Literature Review• The literature review is an integral part ofentire research process.• It makes a valuable contribution to almostevery operational step.• It has value even before the first step, whenwe merely thinking about a research question.6/12/2013 Literature Review 5
  6. 6. Literature Review• It helps to establish the theoretical roots ofour study.• Clarify ideas and develop methodology.• It serves to enhance and consolidate ourknowledge base.• It integrate finding with the existing body ofknowledge.6/12/2013 Literature Review 6
  7. 7. Functions• It provides a theoretical background to study.• It reviews the means by which we establishthe links between what we are proposing toexamine.• It also review what has been studied.• In other words it help to refine researchmethodology able to show how our findinghave contributed to the existing body ofknowledge in profession.6/12/2013 Literature Review 7
  8. 8. It also helps• Bring clarity and focus to research problem• Improve methodology.• Broaden knowledge base in our research area.• Contextualize the finding6/12/2013 Literature Review 8
  9. 9. Bring clarity and focus to researchproblem• Literature review can play an extremelyimportant role in shaping research problem.• Process of reviewing helps to understand thesubject area better.• It helps to conceptualize research problemclearly.• It helps to understand the relationship b/wresearch problem & body of knowledge in thearea.6/12/2013 Literature Review 9
  10. 10. Improve Methodology• A literature review tells you if others have usedprocedures and methods similar to the ones thatyou are proposing, which procedures andmethods have worked well for them, and whatproblems they have faced with them.• From this we will be better positioned to select amethodology that is capable for providing validanswer to research question.• This will increase confidence in the methodologywe plan to use.6/12/2013 Literature Review 10
  11. 11. Broaden knowledge base in ourresearch area• Read widely around the subject area of theresearch .• It is important that we know what otherresearchers have found in regard to same orsimilar questions, what theories have beenput forward and what gap exist in the relevntbody of knowledge .6/12/2013 Literature Review 11
  12. 12. Procedure for reviewing the literatureIt involves four stepsa) Search for existing literature in your area ofstudy.b) Review the literature selected.c) Develop a theoretical framework.d) Develop a conceptual framework.6/12/2013 Literature Review 12
  13. 13. Search for existing literature• Literature can include– Books– journal Articles– internet (electronic journals),– Newspapers– Magazines– Theses– Conference proceedings– Reports– Documentaries.6/12/2013 Literature Review 13
  14. 14. existing literature• Magazines• Theses• conference proceedings• Reports• Documentaries.6/12/2013 Literature Review 14
  15. 15. Review the literature selected• After identified several books and articles, thenext step is to start reading them critically topull together themes and issues that areassociated.• If we don’t have a theoretical framework ofthemes in mind to start with, use separatesheet of paper for each article or book.6/12/2013 Literature Review 15
  16. 16. Review the literature selected• Once we develop a rough framework, slot thefinding from the material so far reviewed intothat framework.• We may need to add more themes.• While read critically with particular referenceto following aspects.– note weather the knowledge relevant to yourtheoretical framework has been confirmedbeyond doubt.6/12/2013 Literature Review 16
  17. 17. Review the literature selected• Note the theories put forward, the criticismsof these and their basis, the methodologiesadopted ( study design, sample size and itscharacteristics, measurement procedures etc)and criticism of them.• Examine to what extent the finding can begeneralized to other situations.6/12/2013 Literature Review 17
  18. 18. Develop a Theoretical Framework• As we start reading the literature, we will soondiscover that the problem we wish toinvestigate has its roots in a number oftheories that have been developed fromdifferent perspectives.• The information obtained from differentbooks and journals now need to be storedunder the main themes & theories.6/12/2013 Literature Review 18
  19. 19. Develop a theoretical framework• highlighting agreements & disagreementsamong the authors and identifying theunanswered questions or gaps.• We will also realize that literature deals withthe number of aspects that have a direct orindirect bearing on our research topic.• Use these aspects as a basis for developingtheoretical framework.6/12/2013 Literature Review 19
  20. 20. Develop a conceptual framework• Conceptual frameworks can act like maps thatgive coherence to empirical inquiry.• The conceptual frame work is the basis of yourresearch problem.6/12/2013 Literature Review 20
  21. 21. In a broader context Hart (1998) liststhe following purposes of a review:– Distinguishing what has been done fromwhat needs to be done.– Discovering important variables relevant tothe topic.– Synthesizing and gaining a new perspective.– Identifying relationships between ideas andpractice;– Establishing the context of the topic orproblem;6/12/2013 Literature Review 21
  22. 22. Purposes of a Review– Rationalizing the significance of the problem;– Enhancing and acquiring the subject vocabulary;– Understanding the structure of the subject;– Relating ideas and theory to applications;– Identifying methodologies and techniques thathave been used;– Placing the research in a historical context toshow familiarity with state-of-the-artdevelopments.6/12/2013 Literature Review 22
  23. 23. Construction of hypotheses andresearch questions.• What type of research has been done in thearea?• What has been found in previous studies?• What suggestions do other researchers make forfurther study?• What has not been investigated?• How can the proposed study add to ourknowledge of the area?• What research methods were used in previousstudies.6/12/2013 Literature Review 23
  24. 24. SUKHRIA…….6/12/2013 Literature Review 24