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Complement System


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Complement System

  2. 2. COMPLEMENT SYSTEM <ul><li>refers to a complex set of 14 distinct serum proteins (nine components) synthesized by the columnar epithelial cells of the intestine, macrophages, fibroblasts, and liver cells </li></ul><ul><li>circulate in the plasma as inactive forms and when activated, are converted into active enzymes with the end result being cell lysis </li></ul>
  3. 3. COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION: The Classical Pathway <ul><li>complement cascade </li></ul><ul><li>begins with activation of C1, followed by activation of C4, C2, and C3; then C5 to C9, terminating in cytolysis of certain cellular elements </li></ul>
  4. 5. CLASSICAL PATHWAY <ul><li>C1: The Recognition Unit </li></ul><ul><li>C4: The Activation Unit </li></ul><ul><li>C2: The Second Activation Unit </li></ul><ul><li>C3: The Third Activation Unit </li></ul><ul><li>C5: The First Membrane Attack Unit </li></ul><ul><li>C6 and C7: The Second and Third Membrane Attack Units </li></ul><ul><li>C8 and C9: The Final Membrane Attack Units </li></ul>
  5. 9. General Properties of the Complement System <ul><li>complement plays a role in the cytolytic destruction of cellular antigens (RBC, WBC, platelets, gram-negative bacteria) by specific antibodies </li></ul><ul><li>complement activity in antigen-antibody reactions is destroyed by heating sera to 56°C for 30 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>IgG and IgM are the only immunoglobulins that react with the complements </li></ul><ul><li>complement is bound to all antibody-antigen complex (fixation) </li></ul><ul><li>complement is found in all mammalian sera, including birds, fish, amphibia, and sharks </li></ul>
  6. 10. General Properties of the Complement System <ul><li>complement from one species will usually react with immunoglobulins of another species from the same taxonomic order (nonspecific serologic reagent) </li></ul><ul><li>portions of the complement system contribute to chemotaxis, opsonization, immune adherence, anaphylatoxin formation, and virus neutralization </li></ul><ul><li>complement can be activated by nonserologic reactions (properdin) </li></ul><ul><li>complement is a complex of nine major components that act in consort with one another </li></ul>