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Reproduction, development and growth


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Reproduction, development and growth

  2. 2. Learning Outcomes  Describe the structure of female reproductive system  Outline Oogenesis
  3. 3. The Human Female Reproductive System Female reproductive system Ovaries Produce ovum and sex hormone FallopianTubes Conduct egg, site of fertilization Uterus Houses developing embryo and foetus Vagina Serves as birth canal and receives penis during copulation
  4. 4. fimbriae
  5. 5. Oogenesis  WHAT IS OOGENESIS?  Oogenesis is the formation of ovum or egg, starts in the ovaries of the foetus before birth.
  6. 6. How Oogenesis Occur  There are 5 stages of oogenesis process 1. The germinal epithelial cells divide repeatedly until many diploid oogonia are formed. 2. The oogonia grow to form primary oocytes that surrounded by a layer of follicle cells. 3. The oocytes undergoes the first meiotic division to become a secondary oocyte and a first polar body (haploid). 4. The follicle cells surrounding the primary focille develop into the secondary follicle –The follicle layer of the secondary oocyte thickens and folds to form the Graafian follicle . -When the Graafian follicle become matures, it will move towards the surface of the ovary wall and rupture to release the secondary oocyte(n). 5. The secondary oocytes that has complete meiosis II when it is fertilized by a sperm(n). The final product of meiosis II is the ovum and the second polar body.
  7. 7. Ovaries •Found one on each side of the upper pelvic cavity •Produce one secondary oocyte each month • Oocyte : a female gametocyte that develops into an ovum after two meiotic divisions •Produce oestrogen and progesterone • Oestrogen : Promote development and maintenance of female secondary sexual characteristics and growth and function of ovaries •Progesterone : Control menstrual cycle and pregnancy Ovary
  8. 8. Fallopian Tube (Oviduct) Fallopian tube • Extend from ovaries to uterus but not attach to ovaries • Have fingerlike projections called fimbriae which sweep over ovaries • During ovulation, secondary oocyte is release from ovary, it is swept into fallopian tube by action of fimbriae and the beating of cilia • If fertilisation occur, it takes place in the fallopian tubes Fimbriae
  9. 9. Uterus Uterus Cervix • Pear-shaped muscular organ in the upper female reproductive tract. •The fundus is the upper portion of the uterus where pregnancy occurs •The cervix is the lower portion of the uterus that connects with the vagina and serves as a sphincter to keep the uterus closed during pregnancy until it is time to deliver a baby. •The main body consists of a firm outer coat of muscle (myometrium) and an inner lining of vascular, glandular material (endometrium). •The endometrium thickens during the menstrual cycle to allow implantation of a fertilized egg. Pregnancy occurs when the fertilized egg implants successfully into the endometrial lining. If fertilization does not occur, the endometrium sloughs off and is expelled as menstrual flow. Fundus Endometrial lining Myometrium
  10. 10. Vagina Vagina •Vagin = Sheath • A muscular, ridged sheath connecting the external genitals to the uterus. • Functions as a two-way street, accepting the penis and sperm during intercourse and roughly nine months later, serving as the avenue of birth through which the new baby enters the world