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Solar guide-family

  1. 1. Exploring Solar Energy Student Guide
  2. 2. Exploring Solar Energy What Is Solar Energy? Every day the sun radiates (sends out) an enormous amount of energy. It radiates more energy in one second than the world has used since time began. This energy comes from within the sun itself. Like most stars, the sun is a big gas ball made up mostly of hydrogen and helium atoms. The sun makes energy in its inner core in a process called nuclear fusion. NUCLEAR FUSION During nuclear fusion, the high pressure and temperature in the sun’s core causes hydrogen (H) atoms to come apart. Four hydrogen nuclei (the centers of the atoms) combine, or fuse, to form one helium atom. During the fusion process, radiant energy is produced. It takes millions of years for the radiant energy in the sun’s core to make its way to the solar surface, and then just a little over eight minutes to travel the 93 million miles to Earth. The radiant energy travels to the Earth at a speed of 186,000 miles per second, the speed of light. Only a small portion of the energy radiated by the sun into space strikes the Earth, one part in two billion. Yet this amount of energy is enormous. Every day enough energy strikes the United States to supply the nation’s energy needs for one and a half years. About 15 percent of the radiant energy that reaches the Earth is reflected back into space. Another 30 percent is used to evaporate water, which is lifted into the atmosphere and produces rainfall. Radiant energy is also absorbed by plants, the land, and the oceans. THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT PERCENTAGE OF RADIANT ENERGY REFLECTED Thin clouds 25% to 30% Thick clouds 70% to 80% Snow Forest 50% to 90% 5% to 10% Asphalt 5% to 10% Dark roof 10% to 15% Light roof 35% to 50% The NEED Project Water 5% to 80% (varies with sun angle) P.O. Box 10101, Manassas, VA 20108 1.800.875.5029 Radiant energy (light rays and arrows) shines on the Earth. Some radiant energy reaches the atmosphere and is reflected back into space. Some radiant energy is absorbed by the atmosphere and is transformed into heat (dark arrows). Half of the radiant energy that is directed at Earth passes through the atmosphere and reaches the Earth, where it is transformed into heat. The Earth absorbs some of this heat. Most of the heat flows back into the air. The atmosphere traps the heat. Very little of the heat escapes back into space. The trapped heat flows back to the Earth. The greenhouse effect keeps the Earth at a temperature that supports life. 3
  3. 3. Solar Collectors Heating with solar energy is not as easy as you might think. Capturing sunlight and putting it to work is difficult because the solar energy that reaches the Earth is spread out over a large area. The amount of solar energy an area receives depends on the time of day, the season of the year, the cloudiness of the sky, and how close you are to the Earth’s equator. SOLAR COLLECTOR Solar Energy Heat A solar collector is one way to capture sunlight and change it into usable heat energy. A closed car on a sunny day is a solar collector. As sunlight passes through the car’s windows, it is absorbed by the seat covers, walls, and floor of the car. The absorbed energy changes into heat. The car’s windows let radiant energy in, but they do not let heat out. Solar Space Heating Space heating means heating the space inside a building. Today, many homes use solar energy for space heating. A passive solar home is designed to let in as much sunlight as possible. It is like a big solar collector. Sunlight passes through the windows and heats the walls and floor inside the house. The light can get in, but the heat is trapped inside. A passive solar home does not depend on mechanical equipment, such as pumps and blowers, to heat the house. An active solar home, on the other hand, uses special equipment to collect sunlight. An active solar home may use special collectors that look like boxes covered with glass. These collectors are mounted on the rooftop facing south to take advantage of the winter sun. Darkcolored metal plates inside the boxes absorb sunlight and change it into heat. (Black absorbs sunlight better than any other color.) Air or water flows through the collector and is warmed by the heat. The warm air or water is distributed to the rest of the house, just as it would be with an ordinary furnace system. On a sunny day, a closed car is a solar collector. Solar energy passes through the glass, hits the inside of the car and changes into heat. The heat gets trapped inside. PASSIVE SOLAR HOME DESIGN SUMMER SUN WINTER SUN Overhang creates shade HEAT CIRCULATION Solar Water Heating Solar energy can be used to heat water. Heating water for bathing, dishwashing, and clothes washing is the second biggest home energy cost. A solar water heater works a lot like solar space heating. In our hemisphere, a solar collector is mounted on the south side of a roof where it can capture sunlight. The sunlight heats water and stores it in a tank. The hot water is piped to faucets throughout a house, just as it would be with an ordinary water heater. Today, at least 24,000 MWth (megawatts thermal equivalent) of solar water heating, cooling, and solar pool heating systems are used in the United States. 4 STORAGE OF HEAT IN THE FLOOR AND WALLS South North SOLAR WATER HEATER Exploring Solar Energy
  4. 4. Solar Electricity Solar energy can also be used to produce electricity. Two ways to make electricity from solar energy are photovoltaic systems and concentrated solar power systems. PHOTOVOLTAIC CELL Photovoltaic Systems (PV Systems) Photovoltaic comes from the words photo, meaning light, and volt, a measurement of electricity. Photovoltaic cells are also called PV cells or solar cells for short. You are probably familiar with photovoltaic n-type silicon p-type silicon cells. Solar-powered toys, calculators, and roadside telephone call boxes all use solar cells to convert sunlight into electricity. Solar cells are made of a thin piece (called a wafer) of silicon, the substance that makes up sand and the second most common substance on Earth. The top of the wafer has a very small amount of phosphorous added to it. This gives the top of the wafer an excess of free electrons. This is called n-type silicon because it has a tendency to give up electrons, a negative tendency. The bottom of the wafer has a small amount of boron added to it, which gives it a tendency to attract electrons. It is called p-type silicon because of its positive tendency. When both of these chemicals have been added to the silicon wafer, some of the electrons from the n-type silicon flow to the p-type silicon and an electric field forms between the layers. The p-type now has a negative charge and the n-type has a positive charge. When the PV cell is placed in the sun, the radiant energy energizes the free electrons. If a circuit is made by connecting the top and bottom of the silicon wafer with wire, electrons flow from the n-type through the wire to the p-type. The PV cell is producing electricity— the flow of electrons. If a load, such as a light bulb, is placed along the wire, the electricity will do work as it flows. The conversion of sunlight into electricity takes place silently and instantly. There are no mechanical parts to wear out. Compared to other ways of producing electricity, PV systems are expensive. It costs 10-20 cents a kilowatt-hour to produce electricity from solar cells. On average, people pay about 11 cents a kilowatt-hour for electricity from a power company using fuels like coal, uranium or hydropower. Today, PV systems are mainly used to generate electricity in areas that are a long way from electric power lines. SOLAR PANELS UTILITY-SCALE PHOTOVOLTAIC INSTALLATION SOLAR ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION UTILITY-SCALE CONCENTRATED SOLAR 432 MW or 20% PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS 1,676 MW or 80% The NEED Project P.O. Box 10101, Manassas, VA 20108 Image courtesy of Sacramento Municipal Utility District A single PV cell does not generate much electricity. Many cells are connected to create panels that will produce enough usable electricity. 1.800.875.5029 5
  5. 5. Concentrated Solar Power Systems PARABOLIC TROUGHS Like solar cells, concentrated solar power (CSP) systems use solar energy to make electricity. Since the solar radiation that reaches the Earth is so spread out and diluted, it must be concentrated to produce the high temperatures required to generate electricity. There are four types of technologies that use mirrors or other reflecting surfaces to concentrate the sun’s energy up to 5,000 times its normal intensity. Parabolic Troughs use long reflecting troughs that focus the sunlight onto a pipe located at the focal line. A fluid circulating inside the pipe collects the energy and transfers it to a heat exchanger, which produces steam to drive a conventional turbine. The world’s largest parabolic trough is located in the Mojave Desert in California. This plant has a total generating capacity of 354 megawatts, one-third the size of a large nuclear power plant. Solar Power Towers use a large field of rotating mirrors to track the sun and focus the sunlight onto a heat-receiving panel on top of a tall tower. The fluid in the panel collects the heat and either uses it to generate electricity or stores it for later use. SOLAR POWER TOWER 6 Exploring Solar Energy
  6. 6. Dish/Engine Systems are like satellite dishes that concentrate sunlight rather than signals, with a heat engine located at the focal point to generate electricity. These generators are small mobile units that can be operated individually or in clusters, in urban and remote locations. SUNLIGHT TO ELECTRICITY With the exception of dish/engine systems, most concentrated solar power systems operate in the same way: Focused Sunlight Compact Linear Fresnel Reflectors (CLFR) use flat mirrors to concentrate the sun onto receivers. These receivers are a system of tubes through which water flows. The concentrated solar energy directly heats the water sending steam to a generator to produce electricity. The first CLFR system is generating 5 megawatts of electricity in Bakersfield, CA. Heats Fluid Heat Exchanger Solar energy has great potential for the future. Solar energy is free and its supplies are unlimited. It does not pollute or otherwise damage the environment. It cannot be controlled by any one nation or industry. If we can improve the technology to harness the sun’s enormous power, we may never face energy shortages again. Produces Steam Steam Turbine Generator Electricity DISH/ENGINE SYSTEM COMPACT LINEAR FRESNEL REFLECTORS Photos courtesy of National Renewable Energy Laboratory Concentrated solar power systems currently produce 433 megawatts of electricity in the United States. Two megawatts come from a dish/ engine system in Phoenix, AZ. Five megawatts come from a compact linear fresnel system in Bakersfield, CA. Five megawatts come from a solar power tower system in Antelope Valley, CA. The rest come from parabolic trough systems in Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, and Nevada. The NEED Project P.O. Box 10101, Manassas, VA 20108 1.800.875.5029 7
  7. 7. HIGH More than 6 5 to 6 4 to 5 3 to 4 Less than 3 LOW Annual Average Solar Concentration (KILOWATT HOURS PER SQUARE METER PER DAY) Solar Resources in the United States Note: Alaska and Hawaii not shown to scale Exploring Solar Energy 8
  8. 8. Thermometer O F C 230 O 110 220 210 100 200 190 180 90 70 150 140 Temperature can be measured using many different scales. The scales we use most are: Celsius The Celsius (C) scale uses the freezing point of water as 0°C and the boiling point of water as 100°C. Fahrenheit The Fahrenheit (F) scale uses the freezing point of water as 32°F and the boiling point of water as 212°F. 80 170 160 A thermometer measures temperature. The temperature of an object or a substance shows how hot or cold it is. This thermometer is a long glass tube filled with a colored liquid. Liquids expand (take up more space) as they get hotter. 60 In the United States, we usually use the Fahrenheit scale in our daily lives and the Celsius scale for scientific work. Answer These Questions The temperature of the human body is 98-99°F. Looking at the drawing of the thermometer, what would that reading be on the Celsius scale? 130 120 50 110 100 90 40 A comfortable spring day is about 75°F. What would that reading be on the Celsius scale? 30 80 70 20 60 50 The temperature of a hot shower is about 105°F. What would that reading be on the Celsius scale? 10 40 30 0 20 10 0 -10 -20 The NEED Project P.O. Box 10101, Manassas, VA 20108 1.800.875.5029 9
  9. 9. Fahrenheit/Celsius Conversion On the Fahrenheit scale, the freezing point of water is 32° and the boiling point of water is 212°—a range of 180°. On the Celsius scale, the freezing point of water is 0° and the boiling point of water is 100°—a range of 100°. To convert from Celsius to Fahrenheit, multiply the C number by F = (C x 9 5 180 9 or , then add 32, as shown in the formula below. 100 5 ) + 32 If C = 5 F=( 9 x 5) + 32 5 F = 9 + 32 F = 41 To convert from Fahrenheit to Celsius, subtract 32 from the F number, then multiply by C = (F - 32) x 100 5 or as shown in the formula below. 180 9 5 9 If F = 50 C = (50 - 32) x C = 18 x 5 9 5 9 C = 10 Answer These Questions If C is 50°, what is the temperature in Fahrenheit? If F is 100°, what is the temperature in Celsius? 10 Exploring Solar Energy
  10. 10. Radiation Cans When radiant energy hits objects, some of the energy is reflected and some is absorbed and converted into heat. Some objects absorb more radiant energy than others. Purpose To explore the conversion of radiant energy into heat. Procedure Step 1: Put thermometers into the black and silver cans and position the stoppers so the thermometers are not touching the bottoms of the cans. Record the temperatures of both cans. Step 2: Place cans in a sunny place. Predict what will happen in your science notebook. Record temperatures after 5 minutes. Step 3: Open the cans and allow the air inside to return to the original temperature. Place the cans in a bright artificial light, such as an overhead projector. Predict what will happen. Record the temperature of both cans after 5 minutes. Step 4: Fill both cans with 200 mL of cold water and record the temperatures. Step 5: Place the cans in a sunny place. Predict what will happen. Record the temperatures after 5 minutes. Step 6: Fill both cans with 200 mL of hot water and record the temperatures. Step 7: Place the cans in a sunny place. Predict what will happen. Record the temperatures after 5 minutes. Record the Data AIR ORIGINAL °C °F COLD WATER IN THE SUN IN THE LIGHT °C °C °F °F ORIGINAL °C °F HOT WATER IN THE SUN °C °F ORIGINAL °C °F IN THE SUN °C °F BLACK CAN SILVER CAN Conclusions Look at your data. What have you learned about converting radiant energy into heat? About reflection and absorption of radiant energy? 1. Silver and black cans: 2. Solar and artificial light: 3. Air and water: 4. Cold and hot water: The NEED Project P.O. Box 10101, Manassas, VA 20108 1.800.875.5029 11
  11. 11. Solar Concentration Concave mirrors can be used to collect solar radiation and concentrate it on an object. Purpose To explore the concentration of solar radiation. Procedure Step 1: Fill the silver and black radiation cans with 200 mL of cold water. Step 2: Put a thermometer into each can and position the stoppers so the thermometers are not touching the bottoms of the cans. Place the cans in a sunny place. Step 3: Position the mirrors: Group A: The control—cans without mirrors. Groups B and C: Position one concave mirror behind each can so that the mirrors focus sunlight onto the cans. The mirrors should be about seven centimeters (7 cm) from the cans. Use pieces of clay to hold the mirrors in the correct position. Groups D and E: Position two concave mirrors behind each can as described above. Step 4: Record the temperature of the water in all the cans. Predict what will happen. Step 5: Record the temperatures of the water in the cans after five minutes. Record the Data WITHOUT MIRRORS ORIGINAL °C °F WITH ONE MIRROR 5 MIN. °C ORIGINAL °F °C °F WITH TWO MIRRORS 5 MIN. °C ORIGINAL °F °C 5 MIN. °F °C °F BLACK CAN SILVER CAN Conclusions Look at your data. What have you learned about concentrating solar radiation? 7 cm 12 Exploring Solar Energy
  12. 12. Solar Collector Solar collectors absorb radiant energy, convert it into heat and hold the heat. Purpose To explore solar collection. Procedure Step 1: Cut two circles each of white and black construction paper 5 cm in diameter. Place the circles under the bottoms of four plastic containers and cover with 40 mL of cold water. Record the temperature of the water. Step 2: Cover one black and one white container with plastic wrap held in place with rubber bands. Step 3: Place the containers in a sunny place so that the sun is directly over the containers. Predict what will happen. Remove the plastic wrap and record the temperature of the water after five and ten minutes, replacing the plastic each time. Step 4: Calculate and record the changes in temperature. Record the Data WHITE NO COVER BLACK NO COVER WHITE WITH COVER BLACK WITH COVER ORIGINAL TEMPERATURE - °C TEMPERATURE - °C AFTER 5 MIN. TEMPERATURE - °C AFTER 10 MIN. CHANGE IN TEMPERATURE AFTER 5 MIN. CHANGE IN TEMPERATURE AFTER 10 MIN. Conclusions Look at your data. What have you learned about collecting and storing solar radiation? The NEED Project P.O. Box 10101, Manassas, VA 20108 1.800.875.5029 13
  13. 13. Solar Balloon Radiant energy often turns into heat when it hits objects. Black objects absorb more radiant energy than white objects. When air gets hotter, it rises. A solar balloon works because the black plastic absorbs radiant energy and turns it into heat. The air inside gets hotter. Purpose To explore the transformation of radiant energy to heat energy. Procedure Step 1: On a very sunny day, take the solar balloon outside and tie one end closed with a piece of string. Open the other end and walk into the wind until it fills with air. When the balloon is filled with air, tie off the other end with string. Step 2: Tie long pieces of string to both ends. Have two people hold the ends of the string and place the balloon in the sun. Step 3: Observe the balloon. Conclusions What happened to the solar balloon? Why? 14 Exploring Solar Energy
  14. 14. Solar House A photovoltaic (PV) cell changes radiant energy into electricity. Electricity can run a motor to make motion and make light. A solar collector absorbs radiant energy and turns it into heat. A solar collector can heat water. A water storage tank painted black can store hot water and keep it hot by absorbing radiant energy. Purpose To model how solar energy can be used at home. Procedure Step 1: Use a cardboard box to make a house with big windows and a door in the front. Step 2: Use clear transparency film to cover the windows. Step 3: Use black construction paper to make a round water storage tank. Attach it to the side of the house with tape. Step 4: Make two holes in the top of the box like in the drawing. Each hole should be about one centimeter (1 cm) in diameter. Step 5: Place the solar collector on top of the house as shown in the drawing. Put the tubing from the solar collector into the water storage tank. Step 6: Place the PV cell on top of the house. Insert the light through the hole as shown in the diagram. Put the stem of the motor through the hole for the motor stem. Step 7: Put a tiny bit of clay into the hole of the fan and push it onto the stem of the motor that is sticking through the ceiling. Step 8: On a sunny day, place the house in the sun with the front facing south. Step 9: Observe the light shine and the fan turn as the PV cell turns radiant energy from the sun into electricity. The solar collector represents how a real solar house could heat and store water. (It doesn’t really work.) Conclusions Explain how a house can use solar energy. The NEED Project P.O. Box 10101, Manassas, VA 20108 1.800.875.5029 15
  15. 15. Photovoltaic Cells Photovoltaic (PV) cells absorb solar radiant energy and convert it to electricity. A motor converts electricity into motion. Purpose To explore PV cells. Procedure Step 1: Attach the motor to the PV cell by removing the screws on the posts of the PV cell, sliding one connector from the motor onto each post, then reconnecting the screws. Step 2: Attach the fan to the stem of the motor so that you can see the motion of the motor. Step 3: Place the PV cell in bright sunlight. Observe the rate of spin of the fan. Step 4: Cover part of the PV cell with your hand. Observe the rate of spin of the fan. Step 5: Hold the PV cell at different angles to the sun and observe the rate of spin of the fan. Step 6: Use a bright artificial light source, such as an overhead projector, and observe the rate of spin of the fan. Step 7: Cover part of the PV cell and change its angle to observe changes in the rate of spin of the fan. Step 8: Hold the PV cell at different distances from the light source and observe changes in the rate of spin of the fan. Step 9: Observe the direction of the spin of the fan. Remove the wires from the PV cell posts and connect them to the opposite posts. Observe the direction of the spin of the fan. Observations and Conclusions What have you learned about PV cells and their ability to convert radiant energy into electricity? How does changing the area of the PV cell exposed to light affect the amount of electricity produced? How does changing the angle of the PV cell to the light affect the amount of electricity produced? How does changing the distance from the light source affect the amount of electricity produced? Can you tell from your experiment whether artificial light produces as much electricity as sunlight? Why or why not? How does reversing the wires affect the direction of spin of the disc? Why? 16 Exploring Solar Energy
  16. 16. Solar Oven Purpose To explore cooking with solar energy. Materials (for two ovens) ƒTri-fold display board ƒSharp knife or scissors to cut board ƒWide, heavy-weight aluminum foil ƒGlue stick and clear packing tape ƒClear plastic bags ƒCooking pot with lid (use Solar Cooking Hints below) ƒFood to cook ƒOptional: Use pizza boxes covered with foil or Pringles cans to make mini-ovens Procedure Step 1: Cut board according to the diagram on the next page. Step 2: Lightly score new fold lines before folding. Step 3: Use tape to reinforce folds and to straighten pre-fold on wings. Step 4: Cover entire board front with aluminum foil, taping or gluing securely. Step 5: Slide points of wings into slits as shown in the diagram below. Step 6: Put food in cooking pot and cover. Step 7: Enclose cooking pot in plastic bag and place in middle of oven. Step 8: Place oven with the sun shining on the pot. Solar Cooking Hints Use black metal pans and dark brown glass dishes. Never use light colored cookware. A canning jar painted flat black works fine to boil water. Use black cast iron if you’re cooking something that must be stirred. It won’t lose heat when you open it. Don’t add water when roasting vegetables. They’ll cook in their own juices. When baking potatoes, rub with oil and put in a pot with a lid. Don’t wrap with aluminum. Bake bread in dark glass dishes with lids. When baking cookies, chocolate cooks fastest, then peanut butter, then sugar cookies. Use a dark cookie sheet. Marinate meats in advance. Place on a rack in a cast iron pot. One pot meals are great! Cut everything up, throw into the pot, and put on the lid. Food won’t burn in a solar oven. It might lose too much water, though, if you cook it too long. The NEED Project P.O. Box 10101, Manassas, VA 20108 1.800.875.5029 17
  17. 17. Tri-fold Display Board Makes Two Solar Ovens 30 inches 8 1/2 inches SLIT fold fold SLIT 9 inches 9 inches prefold prefold 60 inches 10 inches CUT CUT prefold fold 18 prefold fold Exploring Solar Energy
  18. 18. NEED National Sponsors and Partners American Association of Blacks in Energy Hydro Research Foundation Ohio Energy Project American Electric Power Idaho Department of Education Pacific Gas and Electric Company American Electric Power Foundation Idaho National Laboratory PECO American Solar Energy Society Illinois Clean Energy Community Foundation Petroleum Equipment Suppliers Association American Wind Energy Association Independent Petroleum Association of America PNM Independent Petroleum Association of New Mexico Puget Sound Energy Aramco Services Company Areva Armstrong Energy Corporation Association of Desk & Derrick Clubs Robert L. Bayless, Producer, LLC BP Indiana Office of Energy Development Interstate Renewable Energy Council KBR Kentucky Clean Fuels Coalition BP Alaska Puerto Rico Energy Affairs Administration Rhode Island Office of Energy Resources RiverWorks Discovery Roswell Climate Change Committee Roswell Geological Society Sacramento Municipal Utility District BP Foundation Kentucky Department of Energy Development and Independence BP Solar Kentucky Oil and Gas Association C.T. Seaver Trust C&E Operators Kentucky Propane Education and Research Council Sentech, Inc. Kentucky River Properties LLC Snohomish County Public Utility District–WA Cape and Islands Self Reliance Cape Cod Cooperative Extension Cape Light Compact–Massachusetts L.J. and Wilma Carr Chevron Chevron Energy Solutions ComEd ConEd Solutions ConocoPhillips Council on Foreign Relations CPS Energy Dart Foundation David Petroleum Corporation Desk and Derrick of Roswell, NM Dominion Dominion Foundation Duke Energy East Kentucky Power Eaton Kentucky Utilities Company Keyspan Lenfest Foundation Littler Mendelson Llano Land and Exploration Long Island Power Authority El Paso Foundation E.M.G. Oil Properties Encana Encana Cares Foundation Shell Society of Petroleum Engineers David Sorenson Southern Company Southern LNG Southwest Gas Los Alamos National Laboratory Tennessee Department of Economic and Community Development–Energy Division Louisville Gas and Electric Company Tennessee Valley Authority Maine Energy Education Project Timberlake Publishing Maine Public Service Company Toyota Marianas Islands Energy Office TransOptions, Inc. Massachusetts Division of Energy Resources TXU Energy Lee Matherne Family Foundation United Illuminating Company Michigan Oil and Gas Producers Education Foundation United States Energy Association Mississippi Development Authority–Energy Division U.S. Department of Energy Montana Energy Education Council EDF Science Museum of Virginia The Mosaic Company NADA Scientific NASA Educator Resource Center–WV National Association of State Energy Officials University of Nevada–Las Vegas, NV U.S. Department of Energy–Office of Fossil Energy U.S. Department of Energy–Hydrogen Program U.S. Department of Energy–Wind Powering America U.S. Department of Energy–Wind for Schools Energy Education for Michigan National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges Energy Information Administration National Fuel Energy Training Solutions National Hydropower Association Energy Solutions Foundation National Ocean Industries Association U.S. Department of the Interior–Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Equitable Resources National Renewable Energy Laboratory U.S. Environmental Protection Agency First Roswell Company Nebraska Public Power District Van Ness Feldman Foundation for Environmental Education New Mexico Oil Corporation Virgin Islands Energy Office FPL New Mexico Landman’s Association Virginia Department of Education Georgia Environmental Facilities Authority New York Power Authority Government of Thailand–Energy Ministry North Carolina Department of Administration–State Energy Office Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals and Energy Guam Energy Office Gulf Power Halliburton Foundation Gerald Harrington, Geologist Houston Museum of Natural Science The NEED Project P.O. Box 10101, Manassas, VA 20108 U.S. Department of the Interior– Bureau of Land Management Walmart Foundation NSTAR Washington and Lee University Offshore Energy Center/Ocean Star/ OEC Society Western Kentucky Science Alliance Offshore Technology Conference Yates Petroleum Corporation 1.800.875.5029 W. Plack Carr Company