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Ta nae ka teachers guide


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Ta nae ka teachers guide

  1. 1. Comprehension Genre Realistic Fiction tells an invented story that could have happened in real life. Monitor Comprehension Compare and Contrast As you read, use your Venn Diagram. Read to Find Out How are Grandfather’s ideas different from Mary’s? 508508 MAIN SELECTION • Ta-Na-E-Ka • Skill: Compare and Contrast PAIRED SELECTION • “A Fable by Aesop” • Literary Elements: Moral and Personification SMALL GROUP OPTIONS • Differentiated Instruction, pp. 529M–529V Comprehension GENRE: REALISTIC FICTION Have a student read the definiton of realistic fiction on Student Book page 508. Students should look for realistic details, events, and characters. STRATEGY MONITOR COMPREHENSION Explain to students that good readers pause to make sure they understand developments in the narrative by using self-correction techniques and deciding what they need to do to understand what they have read. SKILL COMPARE AND CONTRAST Remind students that good readers identify similarities and differences between characters and story events as they read. Comparing and contrasting helps readers organize and remember story events and other important details. Vocabulary Words Review the tested vocabulary words: participate, encounter, victorious, grimaced, ordeals, nourishing, anticipated, and dejectedly. Story Word Students may find this word difficult. Pronounce the word and present its meaning as necessary. goose bumps (p. 519): bumps that rise on the skin in response to cold or fear 508
  2. 2. by Mary Whitebird Main Selection illustrated by Shonto Begay 509509 Preview and Predict Ask students to read the title, preview the illustrations, and make predictions about what this story will be about. What could the title mean? Have students write about their predictions and indicate what else they want to discover in the story. Set Purposes FOCUS QUESTION Discuss the “Read to Find Out” question and how to look for the answer as students read. Point out the Venn Diagram in the Student Book and on Leveled Practice Book page 158. Explain that students will fill it in as they read. Read Ta-Na-E-Ka Use the questions and Think Alouds for additional instruction to support the comprehension strategy and skill. Main Selection Student pages 508–509 As you read Ta-Na-E-Ka, fill in the Venn Diagram. How does the information you wrote in this Venn Diagram help you monitor comprehension of Ta-Na-E-Ka? On Level Practice Book O, page 158 Approaching Practice Book A, page 158 Beyond Practice Book B, page 158Story available on Listening Library Audio CD If your students need support to read the Main Selection, use the prompts to guide comprehension and model how to complete the graphic organizer. Encourage students to read the story aloud. If your students can read the Main Selection independently, have them read and complete the graphic organizer. Remind students to set purposes, adjust reading rate, and use self- monitoring and self-correction strategies when reading. If your students need an alternate selection, choose the Leveled Readers that match their instructional level. Ta-Na-E-Ka 509
  3. 3. 510 Main Selection Student page 510 Develop Comprehension 1 STRATEGY MONITOR COMPREHENSION Teacher Think Aloud The title of this selection, Ta-Na-E-Ka, is not a word or term that is familiar to me. From the illustration on this page, I can infer that this story is probably about Native Americans. I will read ahead to see if the term “Ta-Na-E-Ka” is defined in the text, and I’ll continue to monitor my comprehension. I can stop and ask myself questions such as what if?, why?, and how? to make sure I understand everything that is taking place in the selection. This will also help me to compare and contrast characters’ actions and events in the plot. 1 THE KANZA LANGUAGE The traditional language of the Kaw, or Kanza, people is called Kanza. Kanza has many aspects that make it different from English. In English the verb usually comes in the middle of a sentence, while in Kanza it comes at the end. Also, instead of only stating what is occurring, the verb in Kanza tells you who or what is doing the action and who or what the action is being done to. Therefore a sentence such as “I want water” becomes “ni kómbla” in Kanza, which literally means “Water I want it.” Have students see what else they can find out about Kanza, including the alphabet and pronunciation of words. For fun, students can try to discover common words and phrases and practice speaking Kanza to each other. 510
  4. 4. As my birthday drew closer, I had awful nightmares about it. I was reaching the age at which all Kaw Indians had to participate in Ta-Na-E-Ka. Well, not all Kaws. Many of the younger families on the reservation were beginning to give up the old customs. But my grandfather, Amos Deer Leg, was devoted to tradition. He still wore handmade beaded moccasins instead of shoes, and kept his iron-gray hair in tight braids. He could speak English, but he spoke it only with white men. With his family he used a Sioux dialect. Grandfather was one of the last living Indians (he died in 1953 when he was 81) who actually fought against the U.S. Cavalry. Not only did he fight, he was wounded in a skirmish at Rose Creek—a famous encounter in which the celebrated Kaw chief Flat Nose lost his life. At the time, my grandfather was only eleven years old. Eleven was a magic word among the Kaws. It was the time of Ta-Na-E-Ka, the “flowering of adulthood.” It was the age, my grandfather informed us hundreds of times, “when a boy could prove himself to be a warrior and a girl took the steps to womanhood.” “I don’t want to be a warrior,” my cousin, Roger Deer Leg, con- fided to me. “I’m going to become an accountant.” “None of the other tribes make girls go through the endurance ritual,” I complained to my mother. “It won’t be as bad as you think, Mary,” my mother said, ignoring my protests. “Once you’ve gone through it, you’ll certainly never forget it. You’ll be proud.” I even complained to my teacher, Mrs. Richardson, feeling that, as a white woman, she would side with me. She didn’t. “All of us have rituals of one kind or another,” Mrs. Richardson said. “And look at it this way: How many girls have the opportunity to compete on equal terms with boys? Don’t look down on your heritage.” Heritage, indeed! I had no inten- tion of living on a reservation for the rest of my life. I was a good student. I loved school. My fantasies were about knights in armor and fair ladies in flowing gowns, being saved from dragons. It never once occurred to me that being an Indian was exciting. 511 Develop Comprehension 2 COMPARE AND CONTRAST How is Mary’s grandfather different from the younger families on the reservation? How are they alike? Record your answer on the Venn Diagram. (Answers may vary but should include that although Mary’s grandfather and the younger families are all Kaw Indians and live on the reservation, Grandfather is devoted to tradition. He still speaks Sioux and braids his hair. The younger families are beginning to give up the old traditions.) Main Selection Student page 511 2 3 4 3 LITERARY DEVICE: NARRATOR Who is telling this story? How do you know? (The narrator is a character named Mary. Because this character has the same name as the author, the author may be retelling a personal experience in fictional form.) 4 DRAW CONCLUSIONS What can you conclude about Mary’s views of her heritage? (Mary complains about the endurance ritual. She doesn’t think being an Indian is exciting, and she does not want to live on a reservation for the rest of her life. It seems Mary does not think her heritage is very important to her.) All live on reservation and are Kaw Indians. Grandfather speaks Sioux and braids his hair. The younger families are beginning to give up the old traditions. Monitor and Clarify: Paraphrase Explain Tell students that paraphrasing information means using your own words to restate what you have read. Explain that when you paraphrase, you include the author’s ideas and all the details from the text. Discuss How might paraphrasing a few paragraphs help you to figure out if you understand a story? (If you cannot restate what is happening in the story, then it is a signal that you may need to monitor your comprehension more carefully.) Apply To monitor their comprehension, have students stop and paraphrase a page from the story as they read Ta-Na-E-Ka. Remind them to apply reading strategies such as rereading and asking questions if they are having trouble paraphrasing the text. Ta-Na-E-Ka 511
  5. 5. But I’ve always thought that the Kaw were the originators of the women’s liberation movement. No other Indian tribe—and I’ve spent half a lifetime researching the subject—treated women more “equally” than the Kaw. Unlike most of the sub-tribes of the Sioux Nation, the Kaw allowed men and women to eat together. And hundreds of years before we were “acculturated,” a Kaw woman had the right to refuse a prospective husband even if her father arranged the match. The wisest women (generally wisdom was equated with age) often sat in tribal councils. Furthermore, most Kaw legends revolve around “Good Woman,” a kind of super- squaw, a Joan of Arc of the high plains. Good Woman led Kaw warriors into battle after battle from which they always seemed to emerge victorious. And girls as well as boys were required to undergo Ta-Na-E-Ka. The actual ceremony varied from tribe to tribe, but since the Indians’ life on the plains was dedicated to survival, Ta-Na-E-Ka was a test of survival. “Endurance is the loftiest virtue of the Indian,” my grandfather explained. 512 Main Selection Student page 512 Develop Comprehension 5 GENRE: REALISTIC FICTION Realistic fiction deals with events and settings that may be based on real-life experiences, but is not a true, factual story about them. What elements of realistic fiction can you find in this story? (Answers should include dialogue that the author may have invented, as well as situations and characters that are made up.) 6 STRATEGY MONITOR COMPREHENSION Teacher Think Aloud The text on this page lists ways that the Kaw are different from other Sioux tribes. Use paraphrasing to make sure you understand how the Kaw are different. (Encourage students to apply the strategy in a Think Aloud.) Student Think Aloud The Kaw allowed men and women to eat together. All tribes had survival ceremonies, but the Kaw required girls as well as boys to undergo Ta-Na-E-Ka. Kaw women had the right to refuse a prospective husband and often sat in tribal councils. 5 6 Cross–Curricular Connection ART APPRECIATION Tell students that in Ta-Na-E-Ka, Mary is taking part in a ritual that is part of her heritage. Then show students pictures of famous works of art from different cultures and historical periods that give some insight into that culture’s customs and traditions. Compare the people and events pictured and discuss how they appear to be different but still share common experiences and attitudes. Ask students to think critically about what they like about the art and how it helps them understand the cultures and time periods that are pictured. Have students create works of art from their own points of view that show something about their own cultural heritage. Have students analyze their own work as well as the work of their classmates, remaining open to interpretations. Read the sentence with the word victorious. What other words could be used instead of victorious? (triumphant, winningly) 512
  6. 6. out for enemies. And we did have enemies—both the white soldiers and the Omaha warriors, who were always trying to capture Kaw boys and girls undergoing their endurance test. It was an exciting time.” “To survive, we must endure. When I was a boy, Ta-Na-E-Ka was more than the mere symbol it is now. We were painted white with the juice of a sacred herb and sent naked into the wilderness without so much as a knife. We couldn’t return until the white had worn off. It wouldn’t wash off. It took almost eighteen days, and during that time we had to stay alive, trapping food, eating insects and roots and berries, and watching Compare and Contrast How is the grandfather’s opinion of Ta-Na-E-Ka different from Mary’s opinion? 513 Literary Device: Flashback Explain Authors use flashbacks to give background for something that is happening in the story. Often a flashback will help explain a situation or a character’s motives. Apply Have students read grandfather’s speech on page 513. Ask, Is this a flashback? Why or why not? (Students should recognize that although the speech is part of the dialogue, it is a flashback to grandfather’s childhood.) What does this flashback tell you about Ta-Na-E-Ka? (It explains why Ta-Na-E-Ka is a part of Kaw heritage. In grandfather’s time survival was more important, and undergoing Ta-Na-E-Ka was essential.) How does this flashback help you to understand grandfather’s feelings? (Ta-Na-E-Ka was an important part of his past, and it is this past that he wants Mary and Roger to be a part of.) Develop Comprehension 7 STRATEGY USE WORD PARTS The Latin root durare means “to make hard.” How does this help you understand what an “endurance test” is? (An endurance test is used to determine how long a person can do a tiring or difficult task. Some people would say a person who is successful in an endurance test has become hardened or has become tougher.) 8 COMPARE AND CONTRAST How is the grandfather’s opinion of Ta-Na-E-Ka different from Mary’s opinion? (Mary’s grandfather values endurance and the ability to survive. He values Ta-Na-E-Ka, a ceremony that tests a person’s abilities. Mary dreads the ceremony. She sees no need to participate because she plans to leave the reservation when she is older.) 9 MAKE JUDGMENTS Is Mary’s view of her grandfather and other members of the tribe fair or unfair? Give reasons for your answer. (Students may say that no, Mary’s view is not fair since she does not value her heritage enough. Or they may say that yes, Mary’s view is fair since Ta-Na-E-Ka is an old-fashioned practice.) Main Selection Student page 513 8 7 9 Ta-Na-E-Ka 513
  7. 7. “What happened if you couldn’t make it?” Roger asked. He was born only three days after I was, and we were being trained for Ta-Na-E-Ka together. I was happy to know he was frightened, too. “Many didn’t return,” Grandfather said. “Only the strongest and shrewdest. Mothers were not allowed to weep over those who didn’t return. If a Kaw couldn’t survive, he or she wasn’t worth weeping over. It was our way.” “What a lot of hooey,” Roger whispered. “I’d give anything to get out of it.” “I don’t see how we have any choice,” I replied. Roger gave my arm a little squeeze. “Well, it’s only five days.” Five days! Maybe it was better than being painted white and sent out naked for eighteen days. But not much better. We were to be sent, barefoot and in bathing suits, into the woods. Even our very traditional parents put their foot down when Grandfather suggested we go naked. For five days we’d have to live off the land, keeping warm as best we could, getting food where we could. It was May, but on the northernmost reaches of the Missouri River the days were still chilly and the nights were fiercely cold. Grandfather was in charge of the month’s training for Ta-Na-E-Ka. One day he caught a grasshopper and demonstrated how to pull its legs and wings off in one flick of the fingers and how to swallow it. I felt sick, and Roger turned green. “It’s a darn good thing it’s 1947,” I told Roger teasingly. “You’d make a terrible warrior.” Roger just grimaced. I knew one thing. This particular Kaw Indian girl wasn’t going to swallow a grasshopper no matter how hungry she got. And then I had an idea. Why hadn’t I thought of it before? It would have saved nights of bad dreams about squooshy grasshoppers. I headed straight for my teacher’s house. “Mrs. Richardson,” I said, “would you lend me five dollars?” “Five dollars!” she exclaimed. “What for?” 514 Main Selection Student page 514 Develop Comprehension 10 COMPARE AND CONTRAST Compare and contrast the Ta-Na-E-Ka ritual in 1947 with the way this rite of passage was conducted when Mary’s grandfather was a boy. In what way is the ritual the same? How is it different? (In Grandfather’s day, girls and boys were painted white and sent naked into the wilderness without any weapons or food. They could not return to the tribe until the white paint had worn off, which took about 18 days. In 1947, boys and girls were sent into the wilderness for only five days, wearing bathing suits. They were not painted white.) 10 514
  8. 8. “You remember the ceremony I talked about?” “Ta-Na-E-Ka. Of course. Your parents have written me and asked me to excuse you from school so you can participate in it.” “Well, I need some things for the ceremony,” I replied, in a half-truth. “I don’t want to ask my parents for the money.” “It’s not a crime to borrow money, Mary. But how can you pay it back?” “I’ll babysit for you ten times.” “That’s more than fair,” she said, going to her purse and handing me a crisp, new, five-dollar bill. I’d never had that much money at once. “I’m happy to know the money’s going to be put to a good use,” Mrs. Richardson said. A few days later, the ritual began with a long speech from my grandfather about how we had reached the age of decision, how we now had to fend for ourselves and prove that we could survive the most horrendous of ordeals. All the friends and relatives who had gathered at our house for dinner made jokes about their own Ta-Na-E-Ka experiences. They all advised us to fill up now, since for the next five days we’d be gorging ourselves on crickets. Neither Roger nor I was very hungry. “I’ll probably laugh about this when I’m an accountant,” Roger said, trembling. “Are you trembling?” I asked. “What do you think?” “I’m happy to know boys tremble, too,” I said. At six the next morning, we kissed our parents and went off to the woods. “Which side do you want?” Roger asked. According to the rules, Roger and I would stake out “territories” in separate areas of the woods and we weren’t to communicate during the entire ordeal. “I’ll go toward the river, if it’s OK with you,” I said. “Sure,” Roger answered. “What difference does it make?” To me, it made a lot of difference. There was a marina a few miles up the river and there were boats moored there. At least, I hoped so. I figured that a boat was a better place to sleep than under a pile of leaves. “Why do you keep holding your head?” Roger asked. “Oh, nothing. Just nervous,” I told him. Actually, I was afraid I’d lose the five-dollar bill, which I had tucked into my hair with a bobby pin. As we came to a fork in the trail, Roger shook my hand. “Good luck, Mary.” 515 Develop Comprehension 11 COMPARE AND CONTRAST In this section does the author show how the children are alike or how they are different? Explain your answer. (The children are both about the same age and they trained for Ta-Na-E-Ka together. Mary, however, has a plan for how she will survive the test, while Roger is more frightened.) 12 MAKE PREDICTIONS How do you think Mary will use the money she borrowed? (Answers should include that Mary may use the money to buy food.) Have students respond to the selection by confirming or revising their predictions. Ask them to note any new questions they have. Main Selection Student page 515 11 12 Can students compare and contrast to see how the characters are alike or how they are different? If not, see the Extra Support on this page. Compare and Contrast Ask, What do we know about each child’s background? How does each child feel about Ta-Na-E-Ka? What does each child plan to do? Write signal words used to compare and contrast: and, but, also, both, however. Help students make statements using the words as they compare the children. Next, ask, Does the author show us on these pages how the children are similar or different? Read the sentence with the word ordeals. Why is the word ordeals used to describe the ritual? (To show how serious and difficult the ritual is.) Stop here if you wish to read this selection over two days. STOP Ta-Na-E-Ka 515
  9. 9. 516 Main Selection Student page 516 Develop Comprehension 13 SUMMARIZE Summarize what has happened in the story so far. (In 1947, Mary and other Kaw Indians her age prepared to participate in Ta-Na-E-Ka. The ceremony marked the transition of boys and girls into young adulthood. Mary’s grandfather taught the boys and girls Native American survival skills to prepare them for the five days they lived off the land. Mary and Roger were frightened and did not want to participate in Ta-Na-E-Ka.) If you are having trouble summarizing, what are some strategies that can help you? (Rereading the story, generating questions, and making an outline.) 13 Explain In English there are many words that are used to express strong emotion. One kind of word that serves this purpose is called an interjection. Interjections are almost always found at the beginning of a sentence, but are not grammatically related to any other part of a sentence in which they appear. They are usually followed by an exclamation point, and sometimes by a comma. Model Write the following sentences on the board: Hey! I just remembered where I put my gloves! Ouch! That hurt! Oh no, I forgot we’re having a quiz today. Have volunteers identify the interjection in each sentence. Apply Have students locate the interjection on page 517 of Ta-Na-E-Ka. (Argh!) Discuss with students how the author’s use of an interjection underscores the emotion the main character feels when she tastes the berries. Then ask them to come up with a similar interjection. (Answers may include Yuck! or Ugh!) Interjections 516
  10. 10. “N’ko-n’ta,” I said. It was the Kaw word for courage. The sun was shining and it was warm, but my bare feet began to hurt immediately. I spied one of the berry bushes Grandfather had told us about. “You’re lucky,” he had said. “The berries are ripe in the spring, and they are delicious and nourishing.” They were orange and fat and I popped one into my mouth. Argh! I spat it out. It was awful and bitter, and even grasshoppers were probably better tasting, although I never intended to find out. I sat down to rest my feet. A rabbit hopped out from under the berry bush. He nuzzled the berry I’d spat out and ate it. He picked another one and ate that, too. He liked them. He looked at me, twitching his nose. I watched a red-headed woodpecker bore into an elm tree, and I caught a glimpse of a civet cat waddling through some twigs. All of a sudden I realized I was no longer frightened. Ta-Na-E-Ka might be more fun than I’d anticipated. I got up and headed toward the marina. “Not one boat,” I said to myself dejectedly. But the restaurant on the open shore, “Ernie’s Riverside,” was open. I walked in, feeling silly in my bathing suit. The man at the counter was big and tough-looking. He wore a sweatshirt with the words “Fort Sheridan, 1944,” and he had only three fingers on one of his hands. He asked me what I wanted. “A hamburger and a milk shake,” I said, holding the five-dollar bill in my hand so he’d know I had money. “That’s a pretty heavy breakfast, honey,” he murmured. “That’s what I always have for breakfast,” I lied. “Forty-five cents,” he said, bringing me the food. (Back in 1947, hamburgers were twenty-five cents and milk shakes were twenty cents.) “Delicious,” I thought. “Better ’n grasshoppers—and Grandfather never once mentioned that I couldn’t eat hamburgers.” While I was eating, I had a grand idea. Why not sleep in the restaurant? I went to the ladies’ room and made sure the window was unlocked. Then I went back outside and played along the riverbank, watching the water birds and trying to identify each one. I planned to look for a beaver dam the next day. 517 Develop Comprehension 14 DRAW CONCLUSIONS Why does Mary suddenly feel that Ta-Na-E-Ka might be a fun experience? (She realized she was no longer frightened.) 15 COMPARE AND CONTRAST Both Mary and her grandfather have plans for Ta-Na-E-Ka. How is Mary’s plan different from her grandfather’s plan? (She plans to spend it in comfort; her grandfather expects it to be a test of endurance.) Main Selection Student page 517 14 15 STRATEGIES FOR EXTRA SUPPORT Question 15 COMPARE AND CONTRAST Reread the paragraph on page 514 that explains what the children will do for Ta-Na-E-Ka starting with “Five Days! Maybe it was better than...” Then write, Grandfather expects that Mary will . Mary plans to . Help students complete the sentences. Put ideas together to make statements: Grandfather expects that Mary will eat grasshoppers, but Mary plans to eat hamburgers. Ta-Na-E-Ka 517
  11. 11. The restaurant closed at sunset, and I watched the three-fingered man drive away. Then I climbed in the unlocked window. There was a night-light on, so I didn’t turn on any lights. But there was a radio on the counter. I turned it on to a music program. It was warm in the restaurant, and I was hungry. I helped myself to a glass of milk and a piece of pie, intending to keep a list of what I’d eaten so I could leave money. I also planned to get up early, sneak out through the window, and head for the woods before the three-fingered man returned. I turned off the radio, wrapped myself in the man’s apron, and in spite of the hardness of the floor, fell asleep. “What the heck are you doing here, kid?” It was the man’s voice. It was the morning. I’d overslept. I was scared. “Hold it, kid. I just wanna know what you’re doing here. You lost? 518 Main Selection Student page 518 Develop Comprehension 16 PROBLEM AND SOLUTION What problem does Mary face in this story? How does she go about solving that problem? (Mary does not want to participate in Ta-Na-E-Ka because she fears the test of endurance. She solves her problem by borrowing money for food and finding a place to sleep that is sheltered from the elements.) Was her solution effective? Why or why not? (Students may say yes, her solution was effective because Mary avoided the hardships of Ta-Na-E-Ka. Or students may say no, her solution wasn’t effective, because Mary wasn’t really participating in an endurance ceremony.) 17 SETTING What effect does the setting have on the problem and its solution? (The setting gives Mary the opportunity not to have to spend her first night of Ta-Na-E-Ka in the woods.) 16 17 518
  12. 12. the first I’ve heard of Ta-Na whatever- you-call-it.” He looked at me, all goosebumps in my bathing suit. “Pretty silly thing to do to a kid,” he muttered. You must be from the reservation. Your folks must be worried sick about you. Do they have a phone?” “Yes, yes,” I answered. “But don’t call them.” I was shivering. The man, who told me his name was Ernie, made me a cup of hot chocolate while I explained about Ta-Na-E-Ka. “Darnedest thing I ever heard,” he said, when I was through. “Lived next to the reservation all my life and this is Compare and Contrast How are Mary’s experiences similar to and different from what she expected during Ta-Na-E-Ka? 519 Develop Comprehension 18 COMPARE AND CONTRAST How are Mary’s experiences similar to and different from what she expected during Ta-Na-E-Ka? (At first, Mary expected Ta-Na-E-Ka to be difficult and frightening, but then she decided to borrow five dollars and sleep indoors. She also was able to observe nature.) Main Selection Student page 519 18 Read Dialogue with Expression Explain Sometimes an author will not tell you directly what dialogue should sound like, but leaves it to the reader to infer the tone from what the characters are saying. Authors often use dialogue to develop the plot and character. Discuss Have students read the dialogue between Mary and Ernie on page 518. Ask students what they think Ernie sounds like. (Students may say that his voice is gruff, since he uses words and phrases like heck and hold it.) Apply Call on two volunteers to read the dialogue on page 519 to each other, acting out how they think the characters sound. Make sure students realize that Ernie’s tone changes after he asks Mary if she’s lost. Ta-Na-E-Ka 519
  13. 13. That was just what I’d been thinking for months, but when Ernie said it, I became angry. “No, it isn’t silly. It’s a custom of the Kaw. We’ve been doing this for hundreds of years. My mother and my grandfather and everybody in my family went through this ceremony. It’s why the Kaw are great warriors.” “Okay, great warrior,” Ernie chuckled, “suit yourself. And, if you want to stick around, it’s okay with me.” Ernie went to the broom closet and tossed me a bundle. “That’s the lost-and-found closet,” he said. “Stuff people left on boats. Maybe there’s something to keep you warm.” The sweater fitted loosely, but it felt good. I felt good. And I’d found a new friend. Most important, I was surviving Ta-Na-E-Ka. My grandfather had said the experience would be filled with adventure, and I was having my fill. And Grandfather had never said we couldn’t accept hospitality. 520 Main Selection Student page 520 Develop Comprehension 19 MAKE INFERENCES Why do you think Mary becomes angry when Ernie called Ta-Na-E-Ka silly? (Students should recognize that Ernie’s comment, which was made by someone who is not a member of the Kaw tribe, caused Mary to feel pride in her culture. She realized Ta-Na-E-Ka wasn’t silly, but rather a special, centuries-old tradition of her people.) 20 DRAW CONCLUSIONS Do you think Mary misjudged some of the people in her tribe and their traditions? Explain. (Students should recognize that Mary’s defense of her tribe and their traditions shows that she is beginning to realize that she misjudged them.) 21 GENRE: REALISTIC FICTION How does the narrator’s voice make the story seem more real? (The narrator uses language that makes it seem like an older Mary is telling a story from when she was a girl.) 19 20 21 Semantic/Meaning Explain Tell students that good readers make sure what they read makes sense. One way to confirm the meaning of a word is to use context clues and background knowledge. Model Look at the last word in the last sentence on page 520. I’m not sure I’ve seen that word before, but I think it’s hospitality. Does the word hospitality make sense here? The paragraphs that come before say that Ernie told Mary she could stick around and he offered her a sweater. Yes, I read the word correctly. Apply Encourage students to identify specific words that cause comprehension difficulties. Have them use context clues and background knowledge to predict and confirm meaning. Have them use a dictionary to check definitions and confirm their predictions of meaning. Ways to Confirm Meaning 520
  14. 14. But Ta-Na-E-Ka was over, and as I approached my house, at about nine-thirty in the evening, I became nervous all over again. What if Grandfather asked me about the berries and the grasshoppers? And my feet were hardly cut. I hadn’t lost a pound and my hair was combed. “They’ll be so happy to see me,” I told myself hopefully, “that they won’t ask too many questions.” I opened the door. My grandfather was in the front room. He was wearing the ceremonial beaded deerskin shirt which had belonged to his grandfather. “N’g’da’ma,” he said. “Welcome back.” I embraced my parents warmly, letting go only when I saw my cousin Roger sprawled on the couch. His eyes were red and swollen. He’d lost weight. His feet were an unsightly mass of blood and blisters, and he was moaning: “I made it, see. I made it. I’m a warrior. A warrior.” My grandfather looked at me strangely. I was clean, obviously well- fed, and radiantly healthy. My parents got the message. My uncle and aunt gazed at me with hostility. I stayed at Ernie’s Riverside for the entire period. In the mornings I went into the woods and watched the animals and picked flowers for each of the tables in Ernie’s. I had never felt better. I was up early enough to watch the sun rise on the Missouri, and I went to bed after it set. I ate everything I wanted—insisting that Ernie take all my money for the food. “I’ll keep this in trust for you, Mary,” Ernie promised, “in case you are ever desperate for five dollars.” (He did, too, but that’s another story.) I was sorry when the five days were over. I’d enjoyed every minute with Ernie. He taught me how to make western omelets and to make Chili Ernie Style (still one of my favorite dishes). And I told Ernie all about the legends of the Kaw. I hadn’t realized I knew so much about my people. 521 Develop Comprehension 22 COMPARE AND CONTRAST What have Mary and Roger accomplished? How is Mary’s appearance different from that of her cousin? Why? (Both Mary and Roger have survived their test. Mary looks clean, healthy, and well-fed. Roger looks miserable, injured, and has lost weight. She has spent her Ta-Na-E-Ka in comfort in a restaurant, but he has been suffering out in the woods.) Record your ideas in a Venn Diagram. Main Selection Student page 521 22 Both survived their test. Roger is miserable and injured and has lost weight. His Ta-Na-E-Ka was difficult. Mary is clean, healthy, and well- fed. Her Ta-Na-E-Ka was comfortable. Follow Directions Explain Ernie taught Mary how to make omelets and chili. Learning how to read and write directions is an important skill. Directions tell you how to do or make something. They take you through the process step by step. Discuss What are some important things to include when you write directions for a recipe? (title, materials, steps to follow). What is one of the most important things to remember when writing or reading directions? (make sure the steps are in the correct order) Apply Have students write directions for a simple recipe such as a sandwich. Remind them to put the steps in the correct order. When students finish, ask volunteers to read the directions aloud while students take turns acting them out. Ta-Na-E-Ka 521
  15. 15. Finally my grandfather asked, “What did you eat to keep you so well?” I sucked in my breath and blurted out the truth: “Hamburgers and milk shakes.” “Hamburgers!” my grandfather growled. “Milk shakes!” Roger moaned. “You didn’t say we had to eat grasshoppers,” I said sheepishly. “Tell us about your Ta-Na-E-Ka,” my grandfather commanded. I told them everything, from borrowing the five dollars, to Ernie’s kindness, to observing the beaver. “That’s not what I trained you for,” my grandfather said sadly. I stood up. “Grandfather, I learned that Ta-Na-E-Ka is important. I didn’t think so during training. I was scared stiff of it. I handled it my way. And I learned I had nothing to be afraid of. There’s no reason in 1947 to eat grasshoppers when you can eat a hamburger.” I was inwardly shocked at my own audacity. But I liked it. “Grandfather, I’ll bet you never ate one of those rotten berries yourself.” Grandfather laughed! He laughed aloud! My mother and father and aunt and uncle were all dumbfounded. Grandfather never laughed. Never. “Those berries—they are terrible,” Grandfather admitted. “I could never swallow them. I found a dead deer on the first day of my Ta-Na-E-Ka—shot by a soldier, probably—and he kept my belly full for the entire period of the test!” Grandfather stopped laughing. “We should send you out again,” he said. I looked at Roger. “You’re pretty smart, Mary,” Roger groaned. “I’d never have thought of what you did.” “Accountants just have to be good at arithmetic,” I said comfortingly. “I’m terrible at arithmetic.” Roger tried to smile but couldn’t. My grandfather called me to him. “You should have done what your cousin did. But I think you are more alert to what is happening to our people today than we are. I think you would have passed the test under any circumstances, in any time. Somehow, you know how to exist in a world that wasn’t made for Indians. I don’t think you’re going to have any trouble surviving.” Grandfather wasn’t entirely right. But I’ll tell about that another time. 522 Main Selection Student page 522 Develop Comprehension 23 WRITER’S CRAFT: REARRANGE IDEAS Writers often rearrange ideas when comparing and contrasting to make their writing clearer. How does the author arrange ideas to contrast Roger’s reaction to Mary’s? (Roger is downcast since he didn’t think of Mary’s smart solutions. Mary is comforting since she admits she isn’t as smart in arithmetic.) 24 MAINTAIN AUTHOR’S PERSPECTIVE Do you think the author approves of how Mary spent her Ta-Na-E-Ka? (Yes, the author presents Mary as a clever, resourceful character. Her decision is portrayed as an admirable one. Additionally, Mary’s grandfather’s praise shows that she did a smart thing.) 24 Cross–Curricular Connection NAVAJO CODE TALKERS During World War II, the Marines used members of the Navajo tribe to transmit messages securely. The Japanese, who were skilled at deciphering codes, were never able to figure out the Navajo code. The code talker would first break the message into letters; each letter would be assigned a word and then translated into its Navajo equivalent. Therefore the word Navy could be represented in Navajo code as “tsah (needle) wol-la- chee (ant) ah-keh-di-glini (victor) tsah-ah-dzoh (yucca).” The Navajo code was responsible for many important victories during World War II. Have students find a Navajo dictionary and create a coded sentence. Have students trade papers and decipher each other’s code. 23 522
  16. 16. 523 Develop Comprehension RETURN TO PREDICTIONS AND PURPOSES Review students’ predictions and purposes. Were they correct? Did they figure out how Grandfather’s ideas were different from Mary’s? (Grandfather follows tradition and custom while Mary adapts tradition to her own way of life.) REVIEW READING STRATEGIES Ask students how comparing and contrasting characters, their actions, their motives, and plot events helped them understand the story. What other strategies did you use? PERSONAL RESPONSE Ask students to write about the theme of Ta-Na-E-Ka and then relate it to their own experiences. Have students discuss how Mary used clever thinking to overcome a challenge. How can Mary’s experiences help them generate solutions to their own problems? Students should use specific references to the story to support their ideas. As an alternative assignment, have students write an interpretive essay on Ta-Na-E-Ka that includes a plot summary, a description of the characters and how they change, a description of the setting, and a discussion of the importance of the setting to the story. Students should use specific references to the story throughout the essay. Main Selection Student page 523 During Small Group Instruction If No Approaching Level Leveled Reader Lesson, p. 529P If Yes On Level Options, pp. 529Q–529R Beyond Level Options, pp. 529S–529T Can students compare and contrast to monitor their comprehension? Ta-Na-E-Ka 523
  17. 17. Shonto Begay Author’s Purpose Mary handled her challenge in her own way. How does the author feel about the way Mary survived Ta-Na-E-Ka? How can you tell? Mary Whitebird Find out more about Mary Whitebird and Shonto Begay at 524 Respond Student page 524 Author and Illustrator ON A JOURNEY WITH MARY WHITEBIRD AND SHONTO BEGAY Have students read the biographies. DISCUSS How might someone relate to Mary Whitebird’s story even if they do not share her background? How do Shonto Begay’s beginnings suggest ways in which talent can develop in unlikely situations? Remind students that it is important to respect the age, gender, position, and cultural traditions of the writer. Ask students how these factors have influenced the writing of Mary Whitebird. Ask students if they have read any other books by Mary Whitebird. Encourage students to read daily for enjoyment. Students should use personal criteria such as favorite authors and genres, personal interests and needs, and recommendations of others to select reading materials. Students may also keep a list of reading accomplishments in a journal. WRITE ABOUT IT Have students write about a time they faced a challenge. Author’s Craft Dialogue Mary Whitebird uses dialogue in Ta-Na-E-Ka to give the story a realistic feeling and to help develop the plot. Dialogue is conversation, or any verbal exchange, that occurs between two or more characters. When Ernie finds Mary in his restaurant, he asks, “You lost?” This is how it would likely be said by this character in this context, instead of the complete phrase: “Are you lost?” Discuss how dialogue reveals information about the character and how this, in turn, influences plot events. Students can find more information at Author’s Purpose The author seems to agree with the grandfather when he supports Mary’s way to survive Ta-Na-E-Ka. 524
  18. 18. Comprehension Check Summarize Use your Venn Diagram to help you summarize “Ta-Na-E-Ka.” How does Mary’s Ta-Na-E-Ka experience differ from her grandfather’s? Think and Compare 1. Compare and contrast Grandfather’s generation of Kaw people with Mary’s. How do you think the world of 1947 has affected the Kaw’s traditions? Monitor Comprehension: Compare and Contrast 2. Mary completes the Kaw endurance test in an untraditional way. In your opinion, is Mary victorious? Why or why not? Use examples from the text to support your argument. Evaluate 3. Think of how you celebrate special occasions. What unique traditions do you have? How have those traditions changed over time? Synthesize 4. Mary’s experience with Ta-Na-E-Ka represents a problem faced by many cultures: the desire to hold on to ancient traditions and the impulse to join with modern society. How is it possible to strike a balance between them? Evaluate 5. Read “Rites of Passage” on pages 506–507. Which experiences mentioned are the ones that Mary dreaded having to face? Which traditions are different from the Kaw tradition of Ta-Na-E-Ka? Reading/Writing Across Texts 525 Comprehension Check SUMMARIZE Have partners write a summary of or paraphrase the events that take place in Ta-Na-E-Ka. Remind students to use their Venn Diagrams. THINK AND COMPARE Sample answers are given. 1. Compare and Contrast: Students may say that Grandfather’s and Mary’s generation share many of the same traditions. The older generation’s practice of those traditions seems more conservative and extreme to members of the younger generation. USE AUTHOR AND ME 2. Evaluate: Answers will vary. Students may say that in spite of her unconventional methods, Mary did pass the endurance test because she survived in the wilderness using the resources available. 3. Text to Self: Answers will vary. Students should describe a cultural or family tradition and explain ways in which it has changed. 4. Text to World: Answers will vary. Students may say that it is possible to strike a balance between the two, so long as the culture keeps an open mind to the changes brought about by modern society. FOCUS QUESTION 5. Text to Text: Mary dreads having to find food, living in the wild, and meeting wild animals. The Hispanic quinceañera and the Jewish- American bat mitzvah are different, because they are celebrations rather than endurance tests. Respond Student page 525 Author and Me Model the Author and Me strategy with question 1. The answer to this question is not stated in the text, but there may be clues. Connect these text clues with what you know to answer the question. Question 1: Think Aloud I know that my life is much different than my parents’ life when they were growing up. Now there is more technology, people get married later, and family-life seems less important to some people. Yet even in my family we still have certain traditions that are very important. After 1947, I know that the Kaw didn’t have to be warriors anymore, so they had to adapt to a more modern life. Ta-Na-E-Ka 525
  19. 19. Fluency/Comprehension Fluency Repeated Reading: Punctuation EXPLAIN/MODEL Model read the passage on Transparency 22, then read one sentence at a time. Have students echo-read each sentence back. Remind students that the punctuation marks help them to know when to pause, when to stop, and also when to make their voice rise or fall. Objectives • Read accurately with good prosody • Rate: 140–160 WCPM Materials • Fluency Transparency 22 • Fluency Solutions Audio CD • Leveled Practice Books, p. 159 Think Aloud I see from the quotation marks that the characters are speaking. I will try to make my voice sound like they are really talking to each other. I will also pay attention to the punctuation marks, such as the exclamation point in the last paragraph. PRACTICE/APPLY Have each student work with a partner. Have one student read and the other student echo each sentence in the passage. For additional practice, have students use Leveled Practice Book page 159 or the Fluency Solutions Audio CD. During Small Group Instruction If No Approaching Level Fluency, p. 529N If Yes On Level Options, pp. 529Q–529R Beyond Level Options, pp. 529S–529T Can students read accurately with good prosody? Transparency 22 “What a lot of hooey,” Roger whispered. “I’d give anything to get out of it.” “I don’t see how we have any choice,” I replied. Roger gave my arm a little squeeze. “Well, it’s only five days.” Five days! Maybe it was better than being painted white and sent out naked for eighteen days. But not much better. Fluency Transparency 22 from Ta-Na-E-Ka, page 514 As I read, I will pay attention to punctuation and characters’ voices. Most kids would fall flat on their faces if they tried to read while 14 walking quickly, but not Stacey Taylor. She stepped nimbly over 24 sidewalk cracks, veered around a tricycle some little kid had left out, 36 and even gave her neighbor’s poodle a pat on the head—all without 49 ever lifting her nose from the book in her hands. 59 The book was the true story of an amazing reporter named Nellie 71 Bly. Back in the late 1800s, most people thought that only men should 83 be reporters. But Nellie Bly did daring things that male reporters were 95 afraid to do. No adventure was too bold for her, no ordeal too severe. 109 She had herself locked up in an insane asylum and wrote about how 122 badly the inmates were treated. She traveled around the world by boat, 134 train, and even rickshaw. 138 Wow, thought Stacey. Wouldn’t it be great to be a reporter like 150 Nellie Bly? She tried to think of something daring she could do. 162 Maybe she could discover what horrific secret ingredients were in the 173 cafeteria food. 175 Of course, for all she knew, the cafeteria served nourishing, 185 delicious food cooked by a gourmet chef. In fact, there were a lot of 199 things Stacey didn’t know about Walker Middle School. Today was the 210 first day of the school year, and she was just starting sixth grade. 223 1. What characteristics does Stacey admire in Nellie Bly? Make Inferences 2. How can you tell the author admires Nellie Bly? Author’s Perspective Words Read – = First Read – = Second Read – = On Level Practice Book O, page 159 Approaching Practice Book A, page 159 Beyond Practice Book B, page 159 Echo-Read Discuss the characters’ feelings as you say the lines and have students repeat. Make sure students understand expressions such as “What a lot of hooey!” Encourage students to imitate your intonation and expressiveness. 525A
  20. 20. Fluency/Comprehension Objective • Evaluate the author’s perspective Author’s Perspective Introduce U4: 453A–453B Practice/ Apply U5: 454–471; Leveled Practice Books, 141–142 Reteach/ Review U4: 475M–475T Assess Weekly Tests; Unit 4 Tests; Benchmark Tests A, B Maintain U5: 497B, 525B Comprehension MAINTAIN SKILL AUTHOR’S PERSPECTIVE EXPLAIN/MODEL Tell students: Authors have feelings and opinions about the topics they choose. We call those feelings the author’s perspective. An author rarely expresses his or her perspective directly. The reader usually must infer it from the way the author writes about the subject. Have students develop the stance of a critic by making judgments about an author’s perspective. Ask them to look for details in the text to support their opinions and consider alternative ideas. PRACTICE/APPLY Have students form groups to discuss the author’s perspective in Ta-Na-E-Ka. How does the author feel about Mary’s teacher, Mrs. Richardson? How do you know? Do you think the author is more like Mary, her grandfather, or Mrs. Richardson? What details from the text support your opinion? How does the author feel about Ta-Na-E-Ka? Do you think she thinks it is an important ceremony? Why or why not? Encourage students to then participate in whole class discussions with the results of their groups’ discussions. For comprehension practice use the Graphic Organizers on Teacher’s Resource Book pages 40–64. Ta-Na-E-Ka 525B
  21. 21. A FAble Introduction The real Aesop was born a slave about the year 620 B.C. in the ancient republic of Greece, where he was later granted freedom as a reward for his learning and wit. Though he died about 565 B.C., for years his clever wisdom was passed down orally from generation to generation. Somewhere around 300 B.C., about 200 stories were gathered into a collection called Assemblies of Aesopic Tales. No one knows how many of the narratives attributed to Aesop were actually composed by him. Interestingly, motifs from many of them occur in the storytelling traditions of a variety of cultures—proof of the universality of the themes and lessons of these tales. Language Arts Genre A Fable is a brief story that teaches a moral, often through the actions of animals that act like people. Literary Elements A Moral is a lesson taught by a fable or story. It is usually stated outright at the end of the fable. Personification is a literary device where human characteristics are given to animals or things. by Aesop retold by Jerry Pinkney 526 Paired Selection Student page 526 Fable GENRE: FABLE Have students read the bookmark on Student Book page 526. Point out that a fable usually features animals as the main characters teaches a lesson that is expressed as a moral Literary Elements: Moral and Personification EXPLAIN Both of these elements are typical of fables: A moral is a short saying that states the lesson taught by a fable. “Don’t cry over spilled milk” and “Slow and steady wins the race” are examples of morals. Personification is attributing human qualities to nonhumans. “The wind slapped my face” and “The wind whispered through the trees” are examples of personification. PRACTICE/APPLY Have students recall examples of a moral and personification that they have heard used in their lives or in a story. Discuss with students and ask why authors might choose to include morals and personification in their writing. Read “A Fable by Aesop” As you read, remind students to apply what they have learned about the literary elements moral and personification. Have students think about common cultural characteristics they may have seen in tales like this from world, national, or state literature. 526
  22. 22. The Crow and the Pitcher For weeks and weeks there had been no rain. The streams and pools had dried to dust, and all of the animals were thirsty. Two crows, flying together in search of water, spotted a pitcher that had been left on a garden wall. They flew to it and saw that it was half full of water. But neither one could reach far enough inside the pitcher’s narrow neck to get a drink. “There must be a way to get that water,” said the first crow. “If we think it through, we’ll find an answer.” The second crow tried to push the pitcher over, straining with all of his might. But it was too heavy to budge. “It’s hopeless!” he croaked, and flew away to look for water elsewhere. But the first crow stayed by the pitcher and thought, and after a time he had an idea. Picking up some small pebbles in his beak, he dropped them one by one into the pitcher until at last the water rose to the brim. Then the clever bird happily quenched his thirst. Wisdom and patience succeed where force fails. Language Arts Connect and Compare 1. Why does personification work especially well in fables? What would fables be like if they only featured humans? Personification 2. Why do you think an author who wanted to teach a lesson would choose to write a fable? Analyze 3. Compare “The Crow and the Pitcher” to “Ta-Na-E-Ka.” How do the main characters in both stories use their brains to solve a problem in an unusual way? Reading/Writing Across Texts Find out more about fables at The moral of the fable. The crows speak. This is personification. 527 1 SEQUENCE What does the second crow do after trying to push over the pitcher? (He gives up and flies away.) 2 LITERARY ELEMENTS: PERSONIFICATION In what ways do the crows act like people you know? (One gives up easily; one insists that there must be an answer.) Connect and Compare SUGGESTED ANSWERS 1. Personification is especially effective because having animals act like humans allows them to illustrate universal qualities. If a fable only featured humans, it wouldn’t be such an entertaining or pleasant way to learn a lesson. PERSONIFICATION 2. Using a fable to teach a lesson seems more universal and less judgmental. ANALYZE 3. FOCUS QUESTION Both characters use cleverness to succeed where they might be expected to fail. READING/WRITING ACROSS TEXTS Paired Selection Student page 527 1 2 Smart Thinking Ask students to brainstorm a list of important inventions that have made their lives easier. Ask each student to research an invention and write a short report that explains how smart thinking led to the invention. Students can display their reports on a classroom “Smart Thinking” bulletin board. Internet Research and Inquiry Activity Students can find more facts about fables at Ta-Na-E-Ka 527
  23. 23. I Could Be a Character in a Book by Lourdes M. While reading “Ta-Na-E-Ka,” I was surprised to see how much I am like the main character, Mary. Both Mary and I have families that value tradition very much. Both of our cultures have special traditions that we celebrate. For instance, Mary took part in her Ta-Na-E-Ka when she was eleven years old and I will have my quinceañera celebration when I turn fifteen. In some Hispanic cultures, the quinceañera is a tradition that celebrates a teenage girl’s fifteenth birthday. I also noticed how Mary and I are different. Mary did not look forward to her Ta-Na-E-Ka; however, I am very excited about my quinceañera. Also, Mary had to go on a kind of journey for her Ta-Na-E-Ka. Even though I have the choice of taking a journey for my quinceañera, I have chosen a celebration instead. This way I can be like my mother and celebrate my quinceañera with the people I love the most—my family! Maybe one day I will write a story about my incredible quinceañera experience. Writer’s Craft Rearrange Ideas rearrange ideas 528 Writing Rearrange Ideas READ THE STUDENT MODEL Read the bookmark about rearranging ideas to make writing clearer. Explain that when comparing and contrasting, describing similarities in one paragraph and differences in another is an effective way to arrange ideas. Have students turn to the last several paragraphs on page 507. Discuss how the boys could arrange ideas in their report. Then have the class read Lourdes’s compare-and-contrast essay and the callouts. Tell students they will write an essay in which they compare themselves with a character from a story or compare two characters. WRITING • Compare and Contrast • Writer’s Craft: Rearrange Ideas WORD STUDY • Words in Context • Word Parts: Latin Roots • Phonics: Latin Roots • Vocabulary Building SPELLING • Words with Latin Roots GRAMMAR • Articles SMALL GROUP OPTIONS • Differentiated Instruction, pp. 529M–529V Features of a Compare-and-Contrast Essay In a compare-and-contrast essay, a writer presents similarities and differences organized to present clearly the points of comparison. A compare-and-contrast essay focuses on two people, places, or things. It compares by telling how the two are similar and contrasts by telling how the two are different. It includes signal words that point out likenesses and differences. It demonstrates a sufficient knowledge of a subject to reflect background and understanding. 528
  24. 24. PREWRITE Discuss the writing prompt on page 529. Ask students to use their writer’s notebook to list ideas and then choose a topic that interests them. Display Transparency 85. Discuss how Lourdes used the chart to identify similarities and differences between herself and Mary. Have students create their own chart and discuss with a classmate the characters they have chosen. DRAFT Display Transparency 86. Discuss how Lourdes organized ideas in her essay. In her first paragraph, she mentioned differences but did not describe them until the second paragraph. Before students begin writing, present Rearranging Ideas on page 529A. Then have students use their chart to draft their essay. Remind them to use logical organizational structure. Students may wish to draft collaboratively. REVISE Display Transparency 87. Ask students about revision ideas and discuss Lourdes’s revisions. Point out that she moved a sentence and added words. Students can revise their draft or place it in their portfolio to work on later. If students choose to revise, have them use the Writer’s Checklist on page 529 and work with partners to review the writing. Have students evaluate their writing for consistent development of ideas within and among paragraphs. Have students proofread. For Publishing Options see page 529A. For lessons on Conventions, Portfolios, Articles, and Latin Roots see page 529B and 5 Day Spelling and Grammar on pages 529G–529J. Writing Student pages 528–529 Transparency 85: Compare- and-Contrast Chart Transparency 86: Draft Transparency 87: Revision Transparency 85 Writing Transparency 85 Compare-and-Contrast Writing Ideas and Content: Organization: rearrange ideas Voice: Word Choice: Sentence Fluency: Conventions: a an Your Turn 529 Ta-Na-E-Ka 529
  25. 25. Publishing Options Students may read their essays to the class. See the Speaking and Listening tips below. Have students use their best cursive to copy their essays. (See Teacher’s Resource Book pages 168–173 for cursive models and practice.) Some students may decide to type their essays on a computer. Collect students’ writing in a binder with a blank page for comments on each contribution. Circulate the binder in the class and have students comment on their classmates’ essays. Writer’s Craft Writing SPEAKING STRATEGIES Use verbal and nonverbal communication techniques. Vary intonation for emphasis and to create interest. Adjust volume and tempo to meet the needs of the audience. LISTENING STRATEGIES Give the speaker your full attention. Listen to evaluate tone, mood, and emotion of verbal and nonverbal behavior. Ask questions after the speaker has finished. 4- and 6-Point Scoring Rubrics Use the rubrics on pages 595G– 595H to score published writing. Writing Process For a complete lesson, see Unit Writing pages 595A–595H. Rearrange Ideas EXPLAIN/MODEL Good writers use a logical structure to arrange ideas. In a compare- and-contrast essay, writers usually arrange ideas in one of two ways. They may discuss similarities between people, places, or things in one paragraph, and differences in the next. Alternatively, they may use one paragraph to discuss the first person, place, or thing, and then use the next paragraph to discuss the second. Display Transparency 88. Think Aloud These ideas could be arranged in one of two ways. I could discuss how birthdays and name days are alike, and then how they are different. Another way would be to discuss birthdays first and then name days. I think that would work best, because there are more differences than similarities. PRACTICE/APPLY Help students get started arranging the points in a logical order in paragraphs, with all the points about birthdays in one paragraph and all those about name days in another. Then challenge students to rearrange the ideas, using one paragraph to discuss similarities between the special days and another to discuss differences. As students write their essays, encourage them to arrange ideas in a logical way that they think suits the information they are comparing and contrasting. Transparency 88 Writing Transparency 88 529A
  26. 26. Technology Writer’s Toolbox Writing Trait: Conventions Explain/Model Point out the semicolon and the word however in the second sentence of the second paragraph on page 528. Explain that when two main clauses are joined by words such as therefore, moreover, or however, as here, a semicolon is used to separate them. In addition, when however joins two clauses, it is followed by a comma. Practice/Apply Have students scan other selections for semicolons. Discuss their use in context. Remind students to use semicolons correctly in their own writing and to insert a comma after however when it is used to join clauses. Portfolios Explain/Model Explain that students’portfolios should contain a variety of their work. Students should keep examples of different types of writing in their portfolios. Remind students that portfolios should include more than just finished work. They can also include notes about the various types of writing as well as successive published versions of previous work. Practice/Apply Encourage students to evaluate their essay to decide whether it belongs in their portfolio. Remind them to include notes on what they have learned about compare-and-contrast writing. Suggest that students make this a regular part of their writing process. Spelling Words with Latin Roots Explain that many English words have Latin roots. Some common Latin roots are aud (to hear), fac (to make), and cred (to believe). Point out the word incredible in the last sentence in Lourdes’s essay on page 528. Help students use the Latin root cred and the Latin prefix in- (not) and suffix -ible (can be) to define the word. (cannot be believed) Students can use a print or online dictionary to check the spelling and meaning of words with Latin roots in their drafts. For a complete lesson on words with Latin roots, see pages 529G–529H. Articles Explain/Model Explain that articles are a kind of adjective. List a, an, and the on the board. Tell students that a and an are indefinite articles that identify non-specific people, places, things, or ideas. The is a definite article that identifies specific people, places, things, or ideas. Have students locate indefinite and definite articles in the first paragraph of Lourdes’s essay on page 528. Practice/Apply Have students locate indefinite and definite articles in the rest of the essay on page 528 and tell what nouns they identify. Remind students to use indefinite and definite articles where needed in their essays. For a complete lesson on articles, see pages 529I–529J. Mechanics Explain that colons are used to introduce lists and long formal statements, after the greeting of a business letter, and to separate the hour and minute of the time of day. Have students correct colon usage as they proofread. Use page 152 of the Teacher’s Resource Book to review proofreading marks with students. Remind students that many word processors have tools that can help them find and correct errors in grammar. Demonstrate how these tools work. Writing Ta-Na-E-Ka 529B
  27. 27. Word Study Word Study Review Vocabulary Words in Context EXPLAIN/MODEL Review the meanings of the vocabulary words. Display Transparency 43. Model how to use word meanings and context clues to fill in the missing words in the first sentence. Think Aloud In the first sentence, I see that the word I am looking for is a singular noun. The word an is a clue. Which word is a singular noun that describes a thing in which people could lose lives or be wounded? The word must be encounter. participate (p. 511) to take part in something with others ordeals (p. 515) severe tests or experiences nourishing (p. 517) giving nourishment encounter (p. 511) a clash between enemies or rivals grimaced (p. 514) twisted the face or its features anticipated (p. 517) foresaw and dealt with, or provided for beforehand dejectedly (p. 517) low in spirits victorious (p. 512) having won a victory PRACTICE/APPLY Have students use context clues to find the missing words for sentences 2–5 on their papers. Ask students to work with a partner to check their answers and to explain the context clues they used to find the missing words. Ask students to orally define nourishing, anticipated, and dejectedly. Complete the Idea Ask a student to use a vocabulary word and the beginning of a sentence. A volunteer finishes the sentence and then sets up the next one. For example, I paid the fee to participate in the race, but then . When the marathon runner finished his speech about his ordeals, I raised my hand and said . The oranges the volunteers handed out during the race were nourishing, but I would have rathered . Objective • Apply knowledge of word meanings and context clues • Identify Latin roots Materials • Vocabulary Transparency 43 • Vocabulary Strategy Transparency 44 • Leveled Practice Books, p. 161 Reinforce Vocabulary Write: Food that is nourishing makes you strong and healthy. Have students list foods that are and aren’t nourishing and tell why. Transparency 43 participate grimaced ordeals encounter victorious During an (1) encounter at Rose Creek, in which a famous Kaw chief lost his life, the girl’s grandfather was wounded. When Good Woman led the warriors into battle, there was usually a happy and (2) victorious outcome. Roger (3) grimaced at the unpleasant thought of eating a grasshopper. Because it was custom, young people were expected to (4) participate in Ta-Na-E-Ka when they were eleven years old. Friends and relatives talked about their own (5) ordeals of surviving their Ta-Na-E-Ka experiences. Vocabulary Transparency 43 529C
  28. 28. STRATEGY USE WORD PARTS: LATIN ROOTS EXPLAIN/MODEL Tell students: Latin roots are word parts that form the basis for other words. Many modern English words have their roots in Latin. Knowing the meanings of Latin roots can help you figure out the meanings of longer words. Read the following sentence in Student Book page 517, and model how to identify the Latin root in the highlighted word to clarify its meaning: “Not one boat,” I said to myself dejectedly. Work with students to complete the definitions of the first two underlined words on Transparency 44. PRACTICE/APPLY Have students complete questions 3–5 on their own. Ask volunteers to come up and write the answers on the transparency. Word Study Use Gestures To show the similarities in meanings of words with the same root, use a similar gesture as you explain the words. For example, ject means “throw.” As you explain words such as inject and reject use a gesture suggesting movement. Have students repeat the words with the gestures as they say them alone and in sentences. Many English words have Latin roots. Familiarizing yourself with Latin root meanings will help you determine the meanings of English words. These roots usually do not stand alone as words. The Latin root ject means “to throw.” In the word dejectedly, the root means “put down” or “thrown down,” as in depressed. A. Fill in the chart with as many words as possible that have the Latin roots as listed. Use a dictionary if needed. B. Choose six of the words you listed above and use them in sentences. Use at least one of the words in each sentence. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 1. ject: throw 2. spect: view 3. scribe, script: write, writing 4. duc, duct: lead On Level Practice Book O, page 161 Approaching Practice Book A, page 161 Beyond Practice Book B, page 161 During Small Group Instruction If No Approaching Level Vocabulary, pp. 529N–529O If Yes On Level Options, pp. 529Q–529R Beyond Level Options, pp. 529S–529T Can students identify words in context? Can students use Latin roots to figure out the correct definition? Transparency 44 Latin Roots 1. ject throw To reject something as junk is to throw it away. 2. fac make A factory is a place where people make things. 3. spec see A spectator is a person who sees but does not take part. 4. aud hear If something is audible, then you can hear it. 5. liber free To liberate something is to set it free . Vocabulary Strategy Transparency 44 Ta-Na-E-Ka 529D
  29. 29. Word Study Word Study Phonics Decode Words with Latin Roots EXPLAIN/MODEL Explain to students that many English words contain Latin roots. Knowing the pronunciation of the Latin root can help you understand how to pronounce an unfamiliar word. Knowing the meaning of Latin roots can also help you figure out the meaning of unfamiliar words. Some common Latin roots are aud, meaning “hear”; bene/bon, meaning “good”; cred, meaning “to believe”; dict, meaning “to speak or say”; fac/fact, meaning “to make or do”; flect/flex, meaning “bend or flex”; ject, meaning “throw”; manu, meaning “hand”; sect, meaning “to cut”; struct, meaning “to build”; port, meaning “carry”; scrib/script, meaning “write”; spect, meaning “look”; and tract, meaning “draw or pull.” New words are formed when prefixes and/or suffixes are added to a Latin root. For example, porter is made up of the root port, which means “to carry” and the suffix er, which can mean “one who.” So porter means “someone who carries.” Write the word manufacture. Think Aloud I see this word has the Latin root fact, which means to “make.” I also see the root manu, which means “hand.” When I combine the meanings, I get “to make by hand.” When I look up manufacture in the dictionary, I find that one meaning is “to make or process something, especially in quantity.” PRACTICE/APPLY Write these words on the board and ask volunteers to pronounce each and identify its Latin root: prospective (spect), liberty (liber), objection (ject), respectively (spect). Decode Multisyllabic Words Have students use their knowledge of phonics patterns, compound words, and word parts to decode long words. Write spectator, ejection, and liberation. Model how to decode spectator, focusing on the Latin root spect. Then work with students to decode the other words and read them aloud. Encourage students to work with a partner and use a dictionary to look up the definitions. For more practice decoding multisyllabic words, see the Decodable Passages on page 26 in the Teacher’s Resource Book. Objectives • Decode words with Latin roots • Learn how to use word parts to figure out word meanings Materials • Leveled Practice Books, p. 162 • Teacher’s Resource Book, p. 26 Some words in English have Latin roots. When you know particular roots, you can often figure out the meaning of a word. Roots do not normally stand on their own, so they are often in the middle of a word, surrounded by prefixes and/or suffixes. Underline the Latin root of each word. Use the word in a sentence that makes the meaning clear. Use a dictionary if you need to. 1. project 2. biography 3. bookmobile 4. microscope 5. tractor 6. manuscript 7. flexible 8. periscope jj g p yg p y pp pp pp On Level Practice Book O, page 162 Approaching Practice Book A, page 162 Beyond Practice Book B, page 162 Use Gestures Practice saying each root with students. Use a gesture that suggests the meaning of each root as you say it and explain its meaning: spect = point to eyes; liber = arms out suggesting freedom. Say the words in each word family alone and in sentences with students. During Small Group Instruction If No Approaching Level Phonics, p. 529M If Yes On Level Options, pp. 529Q–529R Beyond Level Options, pp. 529S–529T Can students decode words with Latin roots? 529E
  30. 30. Word Study Vocabulary Building Apply Vocabulary Writing Activity Ask students to think about customs or traditions in their own families that have to do with getting older and accepting more responsibility. Have students interview a family member about milestones or markers that family members reach and what that experience is like. Chronicle a sequence of three or more of these milestones or events using at least two vocabulary words. Remind students that when they conduct an interview about family traditions with a relative, they are using a primary source. A secondary source is one that is written after the primary source and deals with some aspect of the primary source. Vocabulary Building Prefixes Provide students with a list of different prefixes. Using these prefixes, have students make a list of as many words as they can. When they cannot think of any more words, encourage them to use a dictionary and find more words with the same prefixes. Have students share their list with the rest of the class. Vocabulary Review Vocabulary Game Arrange students in a circle. Ask them to sketch a tree on their paper. Have them write one of the Latin roots, such as ject, spect, durare, or liber on the trunk or main part of the tree. Ask students to pass their tree to the next person in the circle. Have students draw a branch that extends out from the main trunk and then write a word that can be formed from that Latin root. Have students continue to pass the trees around the circle until they receive their own tree. Vocabulary PuzzleMaker For vocabulary games and practice go to Oral Language Expand Vocabulary Have students use print and electronic dictionaries and other resources to build a word web for each of these Latin roots: ject, spect, durare, liber. Ask students to write each root in the center of a web. On lines that extend out from the center, have them write words that use the Latin root. Ask them to compare and read their webs aloud with a partner. ject Ta-Na-E-Ka 529F
  31. 31. 5 Day Spelling Words with Latin Roots ASSESS PRIOR KNOWLEDGE Use the Dictation Sentences. Say the underlined word, read the sentence, and repeat the word. Have students write the words on Spelling Practice Book page 135. For a modified list, use the first 17 Spelling Words and the three Review Words. For a more challenging list, use Spelling Words 3–20 and the two Challenge Words. Students may correct their own tests. Have students cut apart the Spelling Word Cards BLM on Teacher’s Resource Book page 87 and figure out a way to sort them. They can save the cards for use throughout the week. For Leveled Word Lists, go to TEACHER AND STUDENT SORTS Write structure, factory, destruction, and manufacture on the board. Prompt students to classify these words according to their Latin roots. Explain that many English words have Latin roots. The root might appear at the beginning, middle, or end of a word. Some common Latin roots are aud from the Latin word audire (to hear), ject from the Latin word jacere (to throw), bene from the Latin word bene (well), and struct from the Latin word structus (put together). Invite students to sort the words by Latin root, or any other way they wish; for example, by number of syllables. Discuss students’ methods of sorting. Spelling Dictation Sentences 1. The audience clapped. 2. Sam would benefit from studying. 3. Ed’s parents own the factory. 4. Athletes are flexible. 5. They should reduce class sizes. 6. My teacher gave me extra credit. 7. Sarah has a dictionary. 8. I have the sports section. 9. It’s incredible that he is on time. 10. The structure is a building. 11. The fly is an insect. 12. The audio portion did not work. 13. Will you introduce him to me? 14. What is your prediction? 15. The volcano caused destruction. 16. Education goes a long way. 17. They inject humor into games. 18. I see your reflection in the lake. 19. Her objection was withdrawn. 20. Gloria often felt dejected. Review/Challenge Words 1. The storm will lessen by tonight. 2. Remove the bag from the aisle. 3. We read about the principle of gravity. 4. Our companies manufacture cameras. 5. Dictate this sentence while I write it. Display the Spelling Words throughout the week. Pretest Word Sortsaudience section destruction benefit incredible education factory structure inject flexible insect reflection reduce audio objection credit introduce dejected dictionary prediction Review lessen, aisle, principle Challenge manufacture, dictate Spelling Practice Book, Pages 135–136 Spelling Practice Book, Page 137 529G
  32. 32. DEFINITIONS Ask students to copy the list of words below. Tell them to define the word and explain how the word is derived from its Latin root. audience: a hearing, or people who hear (from the Latin root aud) credit: a commendation, or a sum of money that is lent (from the Latin root cred) benefit: something good (from the Latin root bene) Challenge students to look up the roots of the words education, dictionary, and flexible. Have them explain how the Latin roots contribute to each word’s meaning. SPIRAL REVIEW Write lessen, aisle, and principle on the board. Ask students to use the words in sentences. PROOFREAD AND WRITE Write the following sentences on the board including the misspelled words. Ask students to proofread and write the correct spellings. I was called out of the audiance to come up on stage. (audience) The student made a predicshun about the story. (prediction) A good edducation will help you do well in life. (education) Oliver wanted to interduce me to his sister. (introduce) POSTTEST Use the Dictation Sentences on page 529G for the Posttest. If students have difficulty with any words in the lesson, have them copy the words in a list entitled “Spelling Words I Want to Remember” in a word study notebook. WORD STUDY NOTEBOOK Challenge student partners to think of words that have Latin roots. If partners are unsure or disagree about how a word should be spelled, have them use a dictionary to check. Have students write the words in a word study notebook under the heading “Other Words with Latin Roots.” Spelling Word Meanings Review and Proofread Assess and Reteach Spelling Practice Book, Page 138 Spelling Practice Book, Page 139 Spelling Practice Book, Page 140 Ta-Na-E-Ka 529H
  33. 33. 5 Day Grammar Articles INTRODUCE ARTICLES Present the following: An article is a kind of adjective. Articles include the words a, an, and the. Articles are some of the most commonly used words in the English language. Example: I have a new friend in math class. Ian is on the soccer team. REVIEW ARTICLES Review the function of articles. INDEFINITE AND DEFINITE ARTICLES Present the following: A and an are indefinite articles. An indefinite article identifies non-specific people, places, things, or ideas. A is used before words that begin with a consonant. An is used before words beginning with a vowel. The is a definite article. A definite article identifies specific people, places, things, or ideas. Example: I gave my ticket to a man. I gave my ticket to the man. Grammar Daily Language Activities Write the day’s activities on the board or use Transparency 22. DAY 1 These story is about a native American girl and her adventures (1. This; 2. Native; 3. adventures.) DAY 2 Coming of age is the way of saying “growing up” It marks an step toward adulthood. (1. a; 2. up.”; 3. a) DAY 3 Ceremonies for coming of age include. jewish bar mitzvahs and a variety of tests in a Native American culture. (1. include; 2. Jewish; 3. the) DAY 4 Events like staying at home alone for the first time also mark the persons’ coming of age. Approaching these events shows an person’s maturity. (1. a; 2. person’s; 3. a) DAY 5 An finel challenge will be momentus. (1. A; 2. final; 3. momentous) Introduce the Concept Teach the Concept Study the pair of articles in each sentence. Underline the article that correctly completes the sentence. 1. Matthew and Andrew have (a, an) problem. 2. (A, The) time in the afternoon goes by too quickly. 3. What (a, an) annoying situation! 4. (The, A) homework never seemed to get done. 5. But (the, a) boys always had time to play games. 6. Baby robins open their mouths wide for (a, an) meal of worms. 7. In the summer months, (a, the) sun rises high in the sky. Complete each sentence with the correct article: a, an, or the. (More than one answer may be correct.) 8. Matthew and Andrew tried to figure out solution to the problem. 9. They finally came up with idea. 10. Matthew said, “Maybe we could do homework before we play games.” 11. Andrew wasn’t sure he liked solution. 12. Matthew said, “I think this is case of some smart thinking!” 13. Sometimes you can see rainbow in the sky after it rains. 14. Matthew goes to chess class on Tuesday. • The words a, an, and the are special adjectives called articles. • Use a and an with singular nouns. • Use a if the next word starts with a consonant sound. • Use an if the next word starts with a vowel sound. Grammar Practice Book, Page 135 • The words a, an, and the are special adjectives called articles. • Use a and an with singular nouns. Use a if the next word starts with a consonant sound. • Use an if the next word starts with a vowel sound. • Use the with singular nouns that name a particular person, place, or thing. Use the before all plural nouns. Change the article in parentheses so that it correctly completes each sentence. Then rewrite the sentence on the line provided. 1. Matt’s friends called him (an) hero. 2. They thought it was (a) unusual situation. 3. “That’s (a) incredibly smart idea,” said Randi. 4. On (a) first Monday of each month, all the students studied together. 5. Studying together with others means taking (a) time to listen and help. 6. Matt has (a) oak tree in his front yard. 7. Tom received (a) acceptance letter from the local college. 8. (A) earth’s surface is seven parts water and three parts land. Grammar Practice Book, Page 136 See Grammar Transparency 106 for modeling and guided practice. See Grammar Transparency 107 for modeling and guided practice. Variations in Languages Many languages omit articles or do not have a similar distinction between a and the. It is best to address the use of articles in short lessons within the context of reading and writing activities. 529I
  34. 34. REVIEW ARTICLES Have students review using articles. Present corrected sentences from Days 1–3. Tell students to underline the articles in the sentences. MECHANICS AND USAGE: USING COLONS Use a colon before a long formal statement or quotation. Use a colon between independent clauses when the second clause explains the idea in the first. Use a colon after the salutation of a business letter. Use a colon to separate the hour and the minute of the time of day. IDENTIFY ARTICLES Distribute copies of newspaper or magazine articles for students in the class. Have students draw a circle around the articles used in the writing. Afterwards, discuss what students found as a class. PROOFREAD Have students proofread the following sentences, correcting any errors in grammar, usage, and punctuation. 1. Coming of age is an process that everyone must go through. (a) 2. Not all culture have a event to mark the coming of age. (cultures, an) ASSESS Use the Daily Language Activity and page 139 of the Grammar Practice Book for assessment. RETEACH Have students write three sentences, leaving blanks where the articles should appear. Then, have them trade papers with partners and fill in the blanks with appropriate articles. Make sure that students use a and an properly and use definite and indefinite articles properly. Invite students to share their work with the class. Use page 140 of the Grammar Practice Book for additional reteaching. Grammar Review and Practice Review and Proofread Assess and Reteach Grammar Practice Book, Page 137 Grammar Practice Book, Page 138 Grammar Practice Book, Pages 139–140 See Grammar Transparency 108 for modeling and guided practice. See Grammar Transparency 109 for modeling and guided practice. See Grammar Transparency 110 for modeling and guided practice. Ta-Na-E-Ka 529J
  35. 35. ELL Practice and Assessment, 140–141 Fluency Assessment End-of-WeekAssessments Administer the Test Weekly Reading Assessment, Passage and questions, pages 277–284 ASSESSED SKILLS • Compare and Contrast • Vocabulary Words • Word Parts: Latin Roots • Articles • Latin Roots Administer the Weekly Assessment online or on CD-ROM. Fluency Assess fluency for one group of students per week. Use the Oral Fluency Record Sheet to track the number of words read correctly. Fluency goal for all students: 140–160 words correct per minute (WCPM). Approaching Level Weeks 1, 3, 5 On Level Weeks 2, 4 Beyond Level Week 6 Alternative Assessments • ELL Assessment, pages 140–141 Weekly Assessment, 277–284 Assessment Tool 529K
  36. 36. VOCABULARY WORDS VOCABULARY STRATEGY Word Parts: Latin Roots Items 1, 2, 3, 4 IF... 0–2 items correct . . . THEN... Reteach skills using the Additional Lessons page T7. Reteach skills: Log on to Vocabulary PuzzleMaker Evaluate for Intervention. COMPREHENSION Skill: Compare and Contrast Items 5, 6, 7, 8 0–2 items correct . . . Reteach skills using the Additional Lessons page T2. Evaluate for Intervention. GRAMMAR Articles Items 9, 10, 11 0–1 items correct . . . Reteach skills: Grammar Practice Book page 140. SPELLING Latin Roots Items 12, 13, 14 0–1 items correct . . . Reteach skills: Log on to FLUENCY 133–139 WCPM 0–132 WCPM Fluency Solutions Evaluate for Intervention. Diagnose Prescribe End-of-WeekAssessments R E A D I N G To place students in the Intervention Program, use the Diagnostic Assessment in the Intervention Teacher’s Edition. Triumphs AN INTERVENTION PROGRAM Ta-Na-E-Ka 529L
  37. 37. Approaching Level Options Phonics Objective Decode multisyllabic words with Latin roots in both familiar and unfamiliar text Materials • Student Book “Rites of Passage” WORDS WITH LATIN ROOTS Model/Guided Practice Write the Latin root spect on the board. Say: The root spect has the /e/ sound. Spect means “to look.” Write the word inspect on the board. Knowing the Latin root helps me pronounce and understand the word inspect. It is pronounced /in spekt’/. It means “look into.” Write the roots ject (throw) and liber (free) on the board and pronounce them. Help students determine the meanings of reject and liberty. Repeat the process with the Latin roots anim (life), grad (step), port (carry), and voc (voice). MULTISYLLABIC WORDS WITH LATIN ROOTS Write the Latin root aud on the board. Say: The Latin root aud has the /ô/ sound. Aud means “hear.” Write the word audible on the board. When I look at the word audible, I see the Latin root aud. I know it is pronounced /ôd/ and means “hear.” That helps me pronounce and understand this word with aud. Say the word aloud. It means “able to be heard.” Have small groups decode words with Latin roots. Write the following words on the board or provide students with the list. Say: Underline the Latin root. Then use what you know about the root to pronounce each word correctly and explain the word’s meaning. advocate subject dictate endurance vocalize injection credence graduate prospective Check each group’s progress and accuracy. Circulate and provide constructive feedback. WORD WEBS: WORDS WITH LATIN ROOTS IN CONTEXT Have small groups search “Rites of Passage” for words with Latin roots. Extend the activity to include other selections of students’ choice. Tell them to create webs with each root at the center and the words they find containing the root around it in the web. Monitor each group’s work for accuracy. Invite student groups to share words from their webs for each root. Have students pronounce the words and explain their meanings. For each skill below, additional lessons are provided. You can use these lessons on consecutive days after teaching the lessons presented during the week. • Compare and Contrast, T2 • Word Parts: Latin Roots, T7 Additional Resources Encourage students to consult a dictionary if they are uncertain about the pronunciation of a Latin root in a word. Tell students that a word’s etymology— the information provided in a dictionary about a word’s origins or history—usually explains the meaning of its Latin root. Work with students to locate and comprehend etymologies provided in a dictionary for words with Latin roots. Constructive Feedback To help students build speed and accuracy when reading multisyllabic words, use the additional decodable text on page 26 of the Teacher’s Resource Book. Decodable Text 529M
  38. 38. Objective Read accurately with good prosody at a rate of 140–150 WCPM Materials • Approaching Practice Book A, p. 159 MODEL EXPRESSIVE READING Model reading the fluency passage on Approaching Practice Book A page 159. Tell students to pay close attention to how punctuation affects your reading. Then have students echo-read, first as a group and then one by one. Listen for accuracy. REPEATED READING Have students practice reading the passage aloud as you circulate and provide constructive feedback. During independent reading time, partners can take turns reading the passage. Have one student read each sentence aloud and the other repeat the sentence. TIMED READING At the end of the week, direct students to do a timed reading of the passage that they have been practicing. With each student: Place the passage from Approaching Practice Book A page 159 facedown. When you say “Go,” the student begins reading the passage aloud. When you say “Stop,” the student stops reading the passage. As students read, note any miscues. Stop them after one minute. Help students record and graph the number of words they read correctly. Vocabulary Objective Apply vocabulary word meanings Materials • Vocabulary Cards • Transparencies 22a and 22b VOCABULARY WORDS Display the Vocabulary Cards for participate, ordeals, nourishing, encounter, grimaced, anticipated, dejectedly, and victorious. Help students locate and read the vocabulary words in “Rites of Passage” on Transparencies 22a and 22b. For words they do not know, help students determine the meanings based on how the words are used in context. Have students use each word in a new sentence. Then have students use the vocabulary words to write questions that ask for a choice. For example, Would you rather participate in a basketball game or a play? After students write their questions, have them ask and answer the questions with a classmate. If students are having difficulty reading dialogue expressively, choose a sentence with dialogue. Read it aloud and ask volunteers to say the sentence the way they would in a conversation. Then have students choral read the same sentence. Constructive Feedback Approaching Practice Book A, page 159 Ta-Na-E-Ka 529N
  39. 39. Approaching Level Options Vocabulary Pantomime and Gesture Tell students to use pantomime and gesture to show the meanings of some of the vocabulary words from “Rites of Passage.” Write the following words on the board: anticipated, victorious, nourishing, grimaced, dejectedly, ordeals, and participate. Have students work in pairs or groups of three to pantomime the word meanings. Have the remainder of the class guess which word the group is acting out. Objective Use Latin roots Materials • Student Book Ta-Na-E-Ka WORD PARTS: LATIN ROOTS Write the word liberty on the board. Tell students that the Latin root of liberty is liber, meaning free. How does the Latin meaning help you figure out what liberty means? Have students look in Ta-Na-E-Ka for other words that contain the Latin root liber and other Latin roots they have learned and create word towers, adding as many prefixes and suffixes as they can. (liberation, dejectedly) Comprehension Objective Compare and contrast Materials • Student Book “Rites of Passage” • Transparencies 22a and 22b STRATEGY MONITOR COMPREHENSION Remind students that good readers monitor comprehension by stopping periodically to evaluate what they have read. SKILL COMPARE AND CONTRAST Explain/Model Remind students that comparing and contrasting as they read will help them monitor their comprehension of the text. Comparing is telling how two things are alike; contrasting is telling how two things are different. Display Transparencies 22a and 22b. Reread the first paragraph of “Rites of Passage.” Ask volunteers to circle on the transparencies people or things named in the paragraph. Discuss the last sentence in the paragraph. Think Aloud The writer says all humans participate in rites of passage. That’s a comparison because it tells me one way that people are alike. Practice/Apply Reread the rest of “Rites of Passage,” and have volunteers continue to circle items. Have students list examples of two or more things that can be compared in “Rites of Passage.” Discuss with students the choices they have made and how comparing and contrasting helps them monitor comprehension. Review last week’s words (reputation, uttered, quickened, migrant, mistreated, wrath, illegally, ruptured) and this week’s words (participate, ordeals, nourishing, encounter, grimaced, anticipated, dejectedly, victorious). Have students use each word in a sentence. Rites of Passageby Luis Rivera Student Book, or Transparencies 22a and 22b 529O
  40. 40. Leveled Reader Lesson Objective Read to apply strategies and skills Materials • Leveled Reader Zach’s Best Shot • Student Book Ta-Na-E-Ka PREVIEW AND PREDICT Show the cover of Zach’s Best Shot. Read the title, author, and table of contents with students. Ask students what they think this story will be about, and have them set purposes for reading and note any questions they have. VOCABULARY WORDS Before reading, review the vocabulary words as needed. As you read together, discuss how each word is used in context. STRATEGY MONITOR COMPREHENSION Remind students that good readers monitor comprehension by stopping periodically to evaluate what they have read. Read pages 2–4 aloud. Think Aloud On page 2, the story starts in the middle of a scene, and I wasn’t sure what was going on. I decided to read ahead and now I understand that Zach is taping an audition for his friend Manuel. SKILL COMPARE AND CONTRAST Remind students that understanding how to compare and contrast will help them understand the characters in a story. Discuss these questions with students. What similarities do the two boys share? In what ways are they different? Begin a Venn diagram on chart paper. READ AND RESPOND After students have read the entire story, have them paraphrase what takes place. Guide them in comparing and contrasting characters and events using the Venn diagram. Afterward, discuss how Zach became creative when it was time to do his oral presentation. MAKE CONNECTIONS ACROSS TEXTS Summarize and discuss Ta-Na-E-Ka and Zach’s Best Shot. Have students explain how monitoring comprehension helped them compare and contrast as they read. How are the experiences of Zach and Mary the same? How are they different? Compare and contrast how the two characters overcame their fears. Leveled Reader Ta-Na-E-Ka 529P
  41. 41. Vocabulary Objective Use vocabulary words and words with Latin roots in paragraphs Materials • Student Book “Rites of Passage” • dictionary VOCABULARY WORDS Have students review the meanings of the vocabulary words from “Rites of Passage.” Have students write a paragraph or brief story about either a real or made-up rite of passage, using all the vocabulary words. WORD PARTS: LATIN ROOTS Suggest that students use a dictionary to check vocabulary words containing Latin roots (dejectedly, victorious). Have them write down each word, underline the Latin root, and give a definition for each word. Then have students write word-family sentences or humorous paragraphs with the words. Literary Elements Objective Discuss moral and personification Materials • Student Book “A Fable by Aesop” MORAL AND PERSONIFICATION Discuss with students the importance of a moral and personification in “A Fable by Aesop.” Have students look through the story to find specific examples of moral and personification. Ask students to write a paragraph that has a moral and uses personification. Objective Read accurately with good prosody at a rate of 140–160 WCPM Materials • On Level Practice Book O, p. 159 REPEATED READING Model reading the fluency passage on page 159 of On Level Practice Book O. Tell students to pay close attention to the different characters’ voices and listen to how punctuation affects your reading. Then have students echo-read, first as a group and then one by one. Listen for accuracy. Have students practice reading the passage to each other. Circulate and provide feedback. Timed Reading At the end of the week, have students do a timed reading of the passage to check how many words they read correctly in one minute. On Level Options As I read, I will pay attention to punctuation and characters’ voices. Most kids would fall flat on their faces if they tried to read while 14 walking quickly, but not Stacey Taylor. She stepped nimbly over 24 sidewalk cracks, veered around a tricycle some little kid had left out, 36 and even gave her neighbor’s poodle a pat on the head—all without 49 ever lifting her nose from the book in her hands. 59 The book was the true story of an amazing reporter named Nellie 71 Bly. Back in the late 1800s, most people thought that only men should 83 be reporters. But Nellie Bly did daring things that male reporters were 95 afraid to do. No adventure was too bold for her, no ordeal too severe. 109 She had herself locked up in an insane asylum and wrote about how 122 badly the inmates were treated. She traveled around the world by boat, 134 train, and even rickshaw. 138 Wow, thought Stacey. Wouldn’t it be great to be a reporter like 150 Nellie Bly? She tried to think of something daring she could do. 162 Maybe she could discover what horrific secret ingredients were in the 173 cafeteria food. 175 Of course, for all she knew, the cafeteria served nourishing, 185 delicious food cooked by a gourmet chef. In fact, there were a lot of 199 things Stacey didn’t know about Walker Middle School. Today was the 210 first day of the school year, and she was just starting sixth grade. 223 1. What characteristics does Stacey admire in Nellie Bly? Make Inferences 2. How can you tell the author admires Nellie Bly? Author’s Perspective Words Read – = First Read – = Second Read – = On Level Practice Book O, page 159 Student Book A FAble Rites of Passageby Luis Rivera Student Book 529Q