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January 2019
BY: ABDERAZAK
ALEWI
Outlines
 Smart Materials
 Actuator
 Types of Actuators
 Actuator Materials
 Factors considered for Actuator
 Demo
 Conclusion
Everything is getting
smarter !
(We hope humans don’t fall behind)
Smart Everything !
Smart City
Smart Home
Smart TV
Smart Car
Smart Phone
Smart
Cities
Smart
Buildings
Smart
Structures
Smart
Devices
Smart
Materials
Smart materials are materials that have one or more properties that can be
significantly alteredin a controlledfashionby external stimuli, such as stress,
temperature, moisture, ph, electricor magneticfields.
The concept of a smart system can be described as a “system that has intrinsic
sensor, actuator and control mechanisms whereby it is capable of sensing a
stimulus, responding to it, and reverting to its original state after the stimulus is
removed.”
Concept Definition
Why smart structures ?
Excitationfluctuates so Demand fluctuates
But Capacity is constant
Therefore level of safety is not consistent
What a smart structure does?
Abilityto change values of responsecontrollers to modify the response
based on fluctuationof excitementand demand
Smart Structural System
ability to sense any change in external actions
diagnose any problem at critical locations
measure and process data
take appropriate actions to improve system performance while
preserving structural integrity, safety, and serviceability
Applications for Smart Structure Devices
Structures subjectedto
extraordinary
vibrations
Important structures
with critical
functionality and high
safety requirements
Flexible structures with
high serviceability
requirements
It is a mechanical device that has the function of giving
the needed force to move another mechanical device. The
force produced by the actuator can come from several
sources.
Actuator
What is an actuator?
 Actuator is materials that respond to a stimulus in the formof a mechanical
property change suchas a dimensional or a viscosity change.
 Actuators are devices used to produce action or motion.
 Input (mainly electrical signal , air, fluids)
 Electrical signal can be low power or highpower.
 Actuators output can be position or rate i. e. linear displacementor velocity.
 Actuationcan be fromfew microns to few meters
Actuator Functional diagram
Types of Actuators:
PNEUMATICS ACTUATORS: are the devices used for converting pressure
energy of compressed air into the mechanical energy to perform useful work.
In other words, Actuators are used to perform the task of exerting the required
force at the end of the stroke or used to create displacement by the movement
of the piston.
Advantage
 Easy to implement
 Light weight
 It does not use hazardous materials and so it could be
usedin areas of extremetemperatures
 Low cost
 Sensing & actuation capabilities
Disadvantages
 Theyare less efficient comparedto other
actuators
 The air canbe contaminatedwithoil or
lubricants
HYDRAULIC ACTUATORS: involve a hollow cylinder having a piston inserted
in it. An unbalanced pressure applied to the piston provides force that can
move an external object.
Advantages
Small specific weight
opportunity of simple and reliable protection
of the enginefrom overloads
Variable hydraulic actuators are widely used
as drives of machine tools, rolling mills,
pressing and the foundry equipment, road
and building machines, transport and
agricultural machines
Usage
 Construction
 Excavating,
 Road machines
 Automobiles,
 Processing equipment - metal-
cutting machine tools,
Actuator Materials
Actuator Material Classes
Material Class Stimulus Response
Piezoelectric Electric Current Mechanical Strain
Electrostrictors Electric Current Mechanical Current
Magnetostrictors Magnetic/ Electric Field Mechanical Current
ShapeMemoryAlloys Temperature Change Mechanical Current
ElectroactivePolymers Electric Field/ pH Change Mechanical Current
ElectroheoloicalFluids Electric Fields Viscosity Change
MagnetorheologicalFluids Magnetic Field Viscosity Change
Ability of material to regain its original shape when heated to a temp, after being
deformed at a lower temp.
Shape memory effect occurs in a no: of alloys, which undergo a special type of
transformation called the “thermoplasticmartensitetransformation’’.
SMAs are useful for actuators as they change
 Shape
 Stiffness
 Position
 natural frequency and
 other mechanical characteristics
in responseto temp or electromagneticfields.The diverseapplications for these
metals havemade themincreasinglyimportant.
Types:-
 Copper - aluminium– nickel
 Copper - zinc – aluminium
 Iron - manganese – silicon
 Nickel- titanium(nitinol) – most useful
 Ni-Ti super elastic spring property has that this alloy exhibits
above transformation temperature
Applications…
 Automobile transmissions
 Shock Absorbers
 Small Pumps
 Automotive
 Aerospace-
 Medical
 consumer
 Materials, which change shape when placedin magnetic field.
 Result of re-orientation of the magnetic domains, which produces internal
strainin the material
 Utilizedin Switches andsensors
Classification
o materials of fixedstructure
 metal, ceramic and polymeric composites
 Elastomers filledwith ferromagnetic material powders (carbonyl iron)
 Solidmagnetocaloricmaterials
o Materials of variable internal structure
 MR Fluids
 FerroFluids
 Porous materials saturatedwithMR Fluids
Applications
 Active noise and vibration cancellation
 Sonar
 Fuel injection
 Medical
 Nozzle anti-clogging system (paper)
 Screening applications
 Metals casting industry
• It convert energy formed by compressed air at high pressure into ether linear
or rotary motion
• Materials that exhibit an electrical polarization with an applied mechanical
stress
• Expand and contract with the application of
voltage.
• Piezoceramics are the most widely used smart
material
1. Piezoceramic
 relatively stiff
 Large piezoelectric constant
2. Piezopolymer
 Relatively flexible
 Large voltage capacity
The 2 types of piezoelectric
Piezoelectric actuators
 Pierre andJacques Curie discoveredthe piezoelectric effect in 1880.
 The application of electric field to a piezoelectric crystal leads to a physical
deformationof the crystals.
 Piezoelectric materials are Quartz, Ceramics, PZT (lead zirconate titanade)
Advantages
Short response time
An ability to create high forces
A high efficiency and a high mechanical
durability
Disadvantage
Have small strains. (0.1-2%)
High supply voltage needed. (60-1000V)
Large hysteresis. (Actuator doesn’t go back
to exactly where it started).
Configuration
• A piezoceramic crystal is coated with silver on bothsides.
• Gluedto a brass, nickel alloy, or stainless steel disk
• Brass: commercial and industrial use (not subjected to environment)
• Nickel alloy: use where it subjectedto environment
• Stainless steel: uses where it subjected to solevent, corrosive chemical,
underwater.
APPLICATIONS
• Micro positioned
• Adaptive optics
• Civil Engineering
WORKING OF PIEZOCERAMIC MATERIALS IN
VIBRATION CONTROL
OPERATIONSEQUENCES
Step 1
• Structure experiences a kind of vibration .
• Structural responses are recorded with the help of sensors.
Step 2
• Transmitting to controller.
• Compares the signals with predetermined control algorithm.
• And generate proper control signals.
Step 3
• Control signal is then send to actuator which is in contact with structures.
• Reduces the vibration of structure.
APPLICATIONS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING
Cantilever structures
Truss Structures
Frame Structures
Cable stayed structures
FACTORS CONSIDERED FOR ACTUATOR MATERIALS
o Actuationvoltage
o Speedof actuation
o Actuationforce
o Stored energy
o Electrical resistivity
o Mechanical quality factors
o Resistance to fracture
o Young’s modulus
o Density
o Stress
o Resistivity
 The most promising technologies for lifetime efficiency and improved reliability include the use of smart
materials and structures
 Smart materials have all the possible potentials to improve existing technology and add new functionality to
product.
 An actuator is a component of a machine that is responsible for moving or controlling a mechanism or system.
 an actuator requires a control signal and a source of energy. the control signal is relatively low energy and may be
electric voltage or current, pneumatic or hydraulic pressure, or even human power. the supplied main energy
source may be electric current, hydraulic fluid pressure, or pneumatic pressure. when the control signal is
received, the actuator responds by converting the energy into mechanical motion
 an actuator is the mechanism by which a control system acts upon an environment. the control system can be
simple (a fixed mechanical or electronic system), software-based (e.g. a printer
Conclusions
Special References for this Presentation
 “Introductionto Actuators”Dr. BishakhBhattacharya
 “ActuatorandActuatorMaterials” Shebina. A
 “PresentationonActuators” ManishKumar Verma
 “Characterization,AnalysisandFabricationsof SoftDielectricElastomerActuatorsCapableof
Complex3D Deformation”WilliamLai
 “HydraulicActuators” Sajjad
 “SmartMaterialsandStructures” SaumyaRanjan Behura
 “SmartMaterials” PatilSatyajit Sarjerao
 “SmartSystemsforStructuralResponseControl” NaveedAnwar, Ph
 “Technicalseminaron “SMARTMATERIALS”Ananth kr Shivaraj N
Smart materials (actuator)

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Smart materials (actuator)

  • 2. Outlines  Smart Materials  Actuator  Types of Actuators  Actuator Materials  Factors considered for Actuator  Demo  Conclusion
  • 3. Everything is getting smarter ! (We hope humans don’t fall behind)
  • 4. Smart Everything ! Smart City Smart Home Smart TV Smart Car Smart Phone
  • 5.
  • 7. Smart materials are materials that have one or more properties that can be significantly alteredin a controlledfashionby external stimuli, such as stress, temperature, moisture, ph, electricor magneticfields. The concept of a smart system can be described as a “system that has intrinsic sensor, actuator and control mechanisms whereby it is capable of sensing a stimulus, responding to it, and reverting to its original state after the stimulus is removed.” Concept Definition
  • 8. Why smart structures ? Excitationfluctuates so Demand fluctuates But Capacity is constant Therefore level of safety is not consistent What a smart structure does? Abilityto change values of responsecontrollers to modify the response based on fluctuationof excitementand demand
  • 9.
  • 10. Smart Structural System ability to sense any change in external actions diagnose any problem at critical locations measure and process data take appropriate actions to improve system performance while preserving structural integrity, safety, and serviceability
  • 11. Applications for Smart Structure Devices Structures subjectedto extraordinary vibrations Important structures with critical functionality and high safety requirements Flexible structures with high serviceability requirements
  • 12. It is a mechanical device that has the function of giving the needed force to move another mechanical device. The force produced by the actuator can come from several sources. Actuator
  • 13. What is an actuator?  Actuator is materials that respond to a stimulus in the formof a mechanical property change suchas a dimensional or a viscosity change.  Actuators are devices used to produce action or motion.  Input (mainly electrical signal , air, fluids)  Electrical signal can be low power or highpower.  Actuators output can be position or rate i. e. linear displacementor velocity.  Actuationcan be fromfew microns to few meters
  • 16. PNEUMATICS ACTUATORS: are the devices used for converting pressure energy of compressed air into the mechanical energy to perform useful work. In other words, Actuators are used to perform the task of exerting the required force at the end of the stroke or used to create displacement by the movement of the piston. Advantage  Easy to implement  Light weight  It does not use hazardous materials and so it could be usedin areas of extremetemperatures  Low cost  Sensing & actuation capabilities Disadvantages  Theyare less efficient comparedto other actuators  The air canbe contaminatedwithoil or lubricants
  • 17. HYDRAULIC ACTUATORS: involve a hollow cylinder having a piston inserted in it. An unbalanced pressure applied to the piston provides force that can move an external object. Advantages Small specific weight opportunity of simple and reliable protection of the enginefrom overloads Variable hydraulic actuators are widely used as drives of machine tools, rolling mills, pressing and the foundry equipment, road and building machines, transport and agricultural machines Usage  Construction  Excavating,  Road machines  Automobiles,  Processing equipment - metal- cutting machine tools,
  • 18.
  • 20. Actuator Material Classes Material Class Stimulus Response Piezoelectric Electric Current Mechanical Strain Electrostrictors Electric Current Mechanical Current Magnetostrictors Magnetic/ Electric Field Mechanical Current ShapeMemoryAlloys Temperature Change Mechanical Current ElectroactivePolymers Electric Field/ pH Change Mechanical Current ElectroheoloicalFluids Electric Fields Viscosity Change MagnetorheologicalFluids Magnetic Field Viscosity Change
  • 21.
  • 22. Ability of material to regain its original shape when heated to a temp, after being deformed at a lower temp. Shape memory effect occurs in a no: of alloys, which undergo a special type of transformation called the “thermoplasticmartensitetransformation’’. SMAs are useful for actuators as they change  Shape  Stiffness  Position  natural frequency and  other mechanical characteristics in responseto temp or electromagneticfields.The diverseapplications for these metals havemade themincreasinglyimportant.
  • 23. Types:-  Copper - aluminium– nickel  Copper - zinc – aluminium  Iron - manganese – silicon  Nickel- titanium(nitinol) – most useful  Ni-Ti super elastic spring property has that this alloy exhibits above transformation temperature
  • 24. Applications…  Automobile transmissions  Shock Absorbers  Small Pumps  Automotive  Aerospace-  Medical  consumer
  • 25.  Materials, which change shape when placedin magnetic field.  Result of re-orientation of the magnetic domains, which produces internal strainin the material  Utilizedin Switches andsensors Classification o materials of fixedstructure  metal, ceramic and polymeric composites  Elastomers filledwith ferromagnetic material powders (carbonyl iron)  Solidmagnetocaloricmaterials o Materials of variable internal structure  MR Fluids  FerroFluids  Porous materials saturatedwithMR Fluids
  • 26. Applications  Active noise and vibration cancellation  Sonar  Fuel injection  Medical  Nozzle anti-clogging system (paper)  Screening applications  Metals casting industry
  • 27. • It convert energy formed by compressed air at high pressure into ether linear or rotary motion • Materials that exhibit an electrical polarization with an applied mechanical stress • Expand and contract with the application of voltage. • Piezoceramics are the most widely used smart material
  • 28. 1. Piezoceramic  relatively stiff  Large piezoelectric constant 2. Piezopolymer  Relatively flexible  Large voltage capacity The 2 types of piezoelectric Piezoelectric actuators  Pierre andJacques Curie discoveredthe piezoelectric effect in 1880.  The application of electric field to a piezoelectric crystal leads to a physical deformationof the crystals.  Piezoelectric materials are Quartz, Ceramics, PZT (lead zirconate titanade)
  • 29. Advantages Short response time An ability to create high forces A high efficiency and a high mechanical durability Disadvantage Have small strains. (0.1-2%) High supply voltage needed. (60-1000V) Large hysteresis. (Actuator doesn’t go back to exactly where it started).
  • 30. Configuration • A piezoceramic crystal is coated with silver on bothsides. • Gluedto a brass, nickel alloy, or stainless steel disk • Brass: commercial and industrial use (not subjected to environment) • Nickel alloy: use where it subjectedto environment • Stainless steel: uses where it subjected to solevent, corrosive chemical, underwater. APPLICATIONS • Micro positioned • Adaptive optics • Civil Engineering
  • 31. WORKING OF PIEZOCERAMIC MATERIALS IN VIBRATION CONTROL
  • 32. OPERATIONSEQUENCES Step 1 • Structure experiences a kind of vibration . • Structural responses are recorded with the help of sensors. Step 2 • Transmitting to controller. • Compares the signals with predetermined control algorithm. • And generate proper control signals. Step 3 • Control signal is then send to actuator which is in contact with structures. • Reduces the vibration of structure.
  • 33. APPLICATIONS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING Cantilever structures Truss Structures Frame Structures Cable stayed structures
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  • 37. FACTORS CONSIDERED FOR ACTUATOR MATERIALS o Actuationvoltage o Speedof actuation o Actuationforce o Stored energy o Electrical resistivity o Mechanical quality factors o Resistance to fracture o Young’s modulus o Density o Stress o Resistivity
  • 38.  The most promising technologies for lifetime efficiency and improved reliability include the use of smart materials and structures  Smart materials have all the possible potentials to improve existing technology and add new functionality to product.  An actuator is a component of a machine that is responsible for moving or controlling a mechanism or system.  an actuator requires a control signal and a source of energy. the control signal is relatively low energy and may be electric voltage or current, pneumatic or hydraulic pressure, or even human power. the supplied main energy source may be electric current, hydraulic fluid pressure, or pneumatic pressure. when the control signal is received, the actuator responds by converting the energy into mechanical motion  an actuator is the mechanism by which a control system acts upon an environment. the control system can be simple (a fixed mechanical or electronic system), software-based (e.g. a printer Conclusions
  • 39. Special References for this Presentation  “Introductionto Actuators”Dr. BishakhBhattacharya  “ActuatorandActuatorMaterials” Shebina. A  “PresentationonActuators” ManishKumar Verma  “Characterization,AnalysisandFabricationsof SoftDielectricElastomerActuatorsCapableof Complex3D Deformation”WilliamLai  “HydraulicActuators” Sajjad  “SmartMaterialsandStructures” SaumyaRanjan Behura  “SmartMaterials” PatilSatyajit Sarjerao  “SmartSystemsforStructuralResponseControl” NaveedAnwar, Ph  “Technicalseminaron “SMARTMATERIALS”Ananth kr Shivaraj N