The introduction of aquaculture intofamily farming systems in subtropical         Northeast Argentina            Ariel Zaj...
Province of Misiones29,5% population below poverty line(poorest province in Argentina)206 children died from malnutrition ...
1990s: neoliberal policiesState regulatory agencies dissolution                                           0.2Fall in price...
2000s: recovering from the crisisThe return of the state interventionDiversification strategy: aquaculture development as ...
Understanding the role of aquaculture In which kind of farm is aquaculture being introduced? How is aquaculture being mana...
MethodologyVisits to farmsInterviews with farmersFarmers meetingsStatistical analysis
In which kind of farm is aquaculture being               introduced? Cluster analysis (18 variables; n=68)   Family and la...
In which kind of farm is aquaculture being               introduced?Cluster 1. Perennial crops-based farmsStrong reliance ...
In which kind of farm is aquaculture being               introduced?Cluster 2. Forestry-livestock-based farmsLess on famil...
In which kind of farm is aquaculture being               introduced?Cluster 3. Tobacco-based farmsStrong reliance on famil...
In which kind of farm is aquaculture being               introduced?             Cluster 2. Forestry-livestock-based farms...
In which kind of farm is aquaculture being               introduced?             Pond area x farm cluster                 ...
How is aquaculture being managed in           these farms?                       Raised speciesCarp polyculture           ...
How is aquaculture being managed in             these farms?                 Husbandry techniques                         ...
How is aquaculture being managed in           these farms?               Fish production (kg) x pond area 500.00 450.00   ...
How is aquaculture contributing to income generation and      fish supply for rural markets/self-consumption?             ...
How is aquaculture contributing to income generation and         fish supply for rural markets/self-consumption?          ...
DiscussionThe role of aquaculture as a sourceof income generation is determinedby the pond area (or the # ofponds).The amo...
Discussion                           Public-funded programsn = 65         Proyecto         Manos a la obra    Municipio   ...
Some questions and challenges…Who is benefiting the most from aquaculturedevelopment?State-supported aquaculture programs:...
ConclusionsThe role of aquaculture as an incomegeneration activity depends on the kind ofsupport from the stateThe main ef...
Thank You!   Ariel Zajdband   zajdband@agro.uba.ar
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The introduction of aquaculture into family farming systems in subtropical NE Argentina

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The introduction of aquaculture into family farming systems in subtropical NE Argentina

  1. 1. The introduction of aquaculture intofamily farming systems in subtropical Northeast Argentina Ariel Zajdband
  2. 2. Province of Misiones29,5% population below poverty line(poorest province in Argentina)206 children died from malnutrition and6,000 were malnourished in 201087% of farms are small-scale family farmsEuropean settlement in 1900s(“colonos”= settlers)Cash crops: yerba mate, tea, and tobacco(vertically integrated)
  3. 3. 1990s: neoliberal policiesState regulatory agencies dissolution 0.2Fall in prices of traditional crops 0.18 0.16 0.14 0.12Intensification of vertical integration 0.1 0.08 0.06Crisis of the family farm model 0.04 0.02 0 1990 1995 2000 Yerba mate leaf price (1990-2001) in US$.kg-1
  4. 4. 2000s: recovering from the crisisThe return of the state interventionDiversification strategy: aquaculture development as away of increasing farmers’ income~2,000 farmers involved in aquacultureDifferent public-funded programs to supportaquaculture development (e.g. pondconstruction, fingerling supply)
  5. 5. Understanding the role of aquaculture In which kind of farm is aquaculture being introduced? How is aquaculture being managed in these farms? How is aquaculture contributing to income generation and fish supply for rural markets/self- consumption?
  6. 6. MethodologyVisits to farmsInterviews with farmersFarmers meetingsStatistical analysis
  7. 7. In which kind of farm is aquaculture being introduced? Cluster analysis (18 variables; n=68) Family and labour- Land use area-related Animal Welfare level- related production-related related Household head’s age Industrial perennial # cattle Tractor crops area (has.) # of years of farm Afforested area (has.) # poultry Tea harvester occupation by family? # household members Tobacco area (has.) # swine Housing conditions (made of wood and tin / brick) # contracted temporal Domestic crops area Vehicle (no, car, workers (has.) pick-up) # off-farm family Foraging area (has.) workers Woodland area (has.)
  8. 8. In which kind of farm is aquaculture being introduced?Cluster 1. Perennial crops-based farmsStrong reliance on family labour (only5% contract temporal workers)Total surface ~ 25 haBased on perennial crop production;mostly yerba mate and tea: 8,5 ha/farm61% have a tea harvester100% Brick-made houses
  9. 9. In which kind of farm is aquaculture being introduced?Cluster 2. Forestry-livestock-based farmsLess on family labour (92% contracttemporal workers)Total surface ~ 40 haBased on cattle production (mean: 20heads/farm) and afforestation (mostlypine; mean: 11,67 ha/farm)33% have a tractor100% Brick-made houses
  10. 10. In which kind of farm is aquaculture being introduced?Cluster 3. Tobacco-based farmsStrong reliance on family labour (only5% contract temporal workers)Total surface ~ 20 haBased on tobacco (labour intensive)Higher woodland area (untapped)Only 17% have a car94% of houses made of wood and tin
  11. 11. In which kind of farm is aquaculture being introduced? Cluster 2. Forestry-livestock-based farms +WEALTH Cluster 1. Perennial crops-based farms - Cluster 3. Tobacco-based farms
  12. 12. In which kind of farm is aquaculture being introduced? Pond area x farm cluster High correlationCluster 3 between pond area and # ponds (r2=0,8954)Cluster 2Cluster 1 Total Pond Area (m2)
  13. 13. How is aquaculture being managed in these farms? Raised speciesCarp polyculture Self-Recruited-species grass carp (main species) Lambarí (Astyanax spp.) common carp silver carp bighead carpNative species Other pacú (P. mesopotamicus) Tilapia jundiá (R. quelen) sábalo (P. lineatus)
  14. 14. How is aquaculture being managed in these farms? Husbandry techniques 100% use animal manure 100% cattle 16% poultry Fertilization 5% swine 6% add inorganic fertilizers 2% 15-15-15Semi-intensive 4% urea systems 100% on-farm by-products 100% cassava Supplementary 93% corn 78% sugarcane feeding 62% avocado 11% add artificial feed 7% poultry feed 4% fish feed
  15. 15. How is aquaculture being managed in these farms? Fish production (kg) x pond area 500.00 450.00 Cluster 1 400.00 Cluster 2 350.00 Cluster 3 300.00 Linear (Cluster 1) 250.00 200.00 Linear (Cluster 2) 150.00 Linear (Cluster 3) y1 = 0,2597x - 18,797 100.00 R² = 0,9537 50.00 y2 = 0,2018x + 1,2526 R² = 0,8745 0.00 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 y3 = 0,2099x - 16,455 R² = 0,9367
  16. 16. How is aquaculture contributing to income generation and fish supply for rural markets/self-consumption? Destination of fish production (kg) x clustercluster 3 self-consumption (kg)cluster 2 gift (kg) sold (kg)cluster 1 0 50 100 150 200 Significative differences self-consumption (kg) gift (kg) sold (kg) mean sd mean sd mean sd cluster 1 93,10 17,43 11,19 8,05 67,62 76,35 cluster 2 77,00 15,85 22,00 10,85 82,50 104,86 cluster 3 72,14 16,84 8,57 7,70 31,61 106,85
  17. 17. How is aquaculture contributing to income generation and fish supply for rural markets/self-consumption? Destination of fish production (kg) x # ponds3 self-consumption (kg)2 gift (kg) sold (kg)1 0 100 200 300 400 500 Significative differences n harvested ponds self-consumption (kg) gift (kg) sold (kg) farms ponds mean SD mean SD Mean SD 1 84,87 19,12 12,10 8,67 37,24 47,04 38 38 2 73 19,23 9 7,42 208 24,90 5 10 3 72,5 17,68 35 14,14 337,5 53,03 2 6
  18. 18. DiscussionThe role of aquaculture as a sourceof income generation is determinedby the pond area (or the # ofponds).The amount of ponds per farm isdirectly related to the type ofprogram from which the farmer gothelp to introduce aquaculture.Only in 3 farms (4%) ponds werebuilt without the financial help of apublicly-funded program.
  19. 19. Discussion Public-funded programsn = 65 Proyecto Manos a la obra Municipio APTM Piscícola (n = 18) (n=2) (n=11) (n = 34)Funding National Ministry of Social Province of Cigarettesource Development Misiones sales taxPond 1 3 1-2 1constructionFingerling Yes Yes No NosupplyPayment US$ 400 in With harvested US$500 Discountedconditions 12 fish at tobacco installments harvest
  20. 20. Some questions and challenges…Who is benefiting the most from aquaculturedevelopment?State-supported aquaculture programs:segmented or not?How can we distribute fish so it can beaccessed by the poor?
  21. 21. ConclusionsThe role of aquaculture as an incomegeneration activity depends on the kind ofsupport from the stateThe main effect of aquaculture is the supply offish for farm householdsFish is not available for the poorest of thepoor (landless)
  22. 22. Thank You! Ariel Zajdband zajdband@agro.uba.ar

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