Prepared by Raizza Corpuz
Postmodernism
• A general and wide-ranging term
which is applied to literature, art,
philosophy, architecture, fiction,
an...
"post"
• because it is denies the existence of
any ultimate principles, and it lacks
the optimism of there being a
scienti...
The paradox of the postmodern
position is that
• in placing all principles under the
scrutiny of its skepticism, it must
r...
• Postmodernism is both a historical,
chronological notion and a philosophical
ideology.
• postmodernism is primarily a re...
• On a postmodernist view there is no

such thing as objective reality, truth,
value, reason and so forth.

• All these ar...
Postmodern, Postmodernism,
Postmodernity
• Postmodern: a generic term that can be used
to refer either to postmodernism or...
Postmodern, Postmodernism,
Postmodernity
• Postmodernism: a term that refers to a selfconscious cultural movement that rea...
Postmodernity
• is a historical period that spans less than
century, starting from the second half of the
20th century and...
4 Groups according to Demeterio
III
1. events consists of the transformation of the
original capitalism into multinational...
2. the proliferation of the mass media, the
development of the electronic technology,
and the establishment of the global ...
3. consists of the transcontinental air transit,
multiculturalism. These brought about the
collapse of cultural and nation...
4. consists of the emergence and proliferation
of advocacy movements, such as feminism,
environmentalism, gay rights, and ...
Michel Foucault
(1926-1984)

• The
French
philosopher,
historian,
psychologist, political and gay activist
• Foucault’s cr...
•

Foucault demonstrated that knowledge is
never objective, reliable, and neutral, but is
something generated in accordanc...
• With this dictum he meant that a person who
possesses knowledge possesses power over
nature and over other persons.
• Fo...
Baudrillard.
Baudrillard
• set to unveil some of postmodernity’s darker
sides.
focuses
his
critique
on
• Baudrillard
postmodernity’s obsession for ...
• For example, a man who buys
an expensive watch is not
merely buying a useful timetelling device, but more so a
prestige ...
• The frugal modern person consumes goods,
but the extravagant postmodern person
consumes signs.
• goods are not anymore c...
Simulacra and Simulation

• In the book, Baudrillard

explains the trend of
cultural materialism in our
current society th...
Interpretation Simulacra and Simulation

Simulacra – An image or representation,
an unreal or vague semblance.
Simulation ...
• This materialism has led to apathy for the
real issues in the world, and reality itself
has faded from sight.
• As menti...
• Baudrillard calls the world of the spectacular
images hyper-reality
• An image becomes hyper-real when
postmodern people...
Jean-Froncois Lyotard
Lyotard’s Philosophical Stance
• First, knowledge has ceased to be a human
value in itself and has become a commodity
to b...
• This  commodification of knowledge,  Lyotard 
predicts,  will  have  an  astounding  impact  on 
education.
• In  the  n...
• Lyotard  notes  that  in  the  postmodern  world, 
knowledge  is  no  longer  pursued  for  its  own 
sake, but is gener...
Derrida
• theory  of  language  as  well  as  with  his  critical 
methodology 
• Derrida’s  theory  of  language  dismant...
• For  Derrida,  a  word,  or  a  sign,  does  not 
connect  us  to  the  secure  and  solid  ground  of 
the thing being ...
•  Behind  each  word,  or  sign,  is  not  a  tangible 
thing  being  referred  to,  but  traces  of  other 
signs, some ...
Deconstruction

• is  a  method  of  dissecting  a  text  in  order  to 
unearth  its  deep-seated  contradictions, 
incon...
Postmodern Philosophy a new Paradaigm
Postmodern Philosophy a new Paradaigm
Postmodern Philosophy a new Paradaigm
Postmodern Philosophy a new Paradaigm
Postmodern Philosophy a new Paradaigm
Postmodern Philosophy a new Paradaigm
Postmodern Philosophy a new Paradaigm
Postmodern Philosophy a new Paradaigm
Postmodern Philosophy a new Paradaigm
Postmodern Philosophy a new Paradaigm
Postmodern Philosophy a new Paradaigm
Postmodern Philosophy a new Paradaigm
Postmodern Philosophy a new Paradaigm
Postmodern Philosophy a new Paradaigm
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  • Insatiable-impossible to satisfy
  • Iconoclast- destroyer of images
    Idolatry- the worship of idols
  • Postmodern Philosophy a new Paradaigm

    1. 1. Prepared by Raizza Corpuz
    2. 2. Postmodernism • A general and wide-ranging term which is applied to literature, art, philosophy, architecture, fiction, and cultural and literary criticism, among others. • a reaction to the assumed certainty of scientific, or objective, efforts to explain reality
    3. 3. "post" • because it is denies the existence of any ultimate principles, and it lacks the optimism of there being a scientific, philosophical, or religious truth which will explain everything for everybody - a characteristic of the so-called "modern" mind.
    4. 4. The paradox of the postmodern position is that • in placing all principles under the scrutiny of its skepticism, it must realize that even its own principles are not beyond questioning
    5. 5. • Postmodernism is both a historical, chronological notion and a philosophical ideology. • postmodernism is primarily a reinterpretation of what knowledge is and what counts as knowledge. • it represents a form of cultural relativism about such things as reality, truth, reason, value, linguistic meaning, the self, and other notions
    6. 6. • On a postmodernist view there is no such thing as objective reality, truth, value, reason and so forth. • All these are social constructions, creations of linguistic practices and, as such, are relative not to individuals but to social groups that share a narrative.
    7. 7. Postmodern, Postmodernism, Postmodernity • Postmodern: a generic term that can be used to refer either to postmodernism or postmodernity • Postmodernity: a term that refers to the historical period after modernity, as more specifically seen in the sequence: prehistory, ancient times, medieval period, modernity, and postmodernity.
    8. 8. Postmodern, Postmodernism, Postmodernity • Postmodernism: a term that refers to a selfconscious cultural movement that reacted against the principles and ideals of the modernist movements in literature, art, architecture, film, philosophy, etc.
    9. 9. Postmodernity • is a historical period that spans less than century, starting from the second half of the 20th century and persisting up to the present • there are a number of historical events in postmodernity that gave the period its distinctive outlook and way of life.
    10. 10. 4 Groups according to Demeterio III 1. events consists of the transformation of the original capitalism into multinational and consumer capitalism, and the harnessing of nuclear energy.
    11. 11. 2. the proliferation of the mass media, the development of the electronic technology, and the establishment of the global network of the world wide web. These resulted to the rapid and continuous interchange of information, knowledge and culture, that subsequently created postmodernity’s global village phenomenon.
    12. 12. 3. consists of the transcontinental air transit, multiculturalism. These brought about the collapse of cultural and national boundaries, that did not only reinforced the global village phenomenon but also contrasted sharply with modernity’s faith and belief on the nation state as well as its fervent nationalism.
    13. 13. 4. consists of the emergence and proliferation of advocacy movements, such as feminism, environmentalism, gay rights, and anti-war activisms. These mark postmodernity’s reaction against the hegemonies of patriarchy, of science and technology, and of other forms of totalitarianism.
    14. 14. Michel Foucault (1926-1984) • The French philosopher, historian, psychologist, political and gay activist • Foucault’s critique of the modernity’s compulsion for the control, normalization, and standardization of the human subject stems from his observation on how the ruling classes’ values and cultures have stifled the ways of life of the marginalized people, such as the workers, the poor, the homosexual, the colored, and those who are in prison
    15. 15. • Foucault demonstrated that knowledge is never objective, reliable, and neutral, but is something generated in accordance to the desires of the powerful, only to be used as a tool for the domination and subjugation of the less powerful.
    16. 16. • With this dictum he meant that a person who possesses knowledge possesses power over nature and over other persons. • Foucault modifies Bacon’s dictum by stressing that knowledge and power are never separate. The quest for knowledge is already motivated by a quest for power.
    17. 17. Baudrillard.
    18. 18. Baudrillard
    19. 19. • set to unveil some of postmodernity’s darker sides. focuses his critique on • Baudrillard postmodernity’s obsession for consumption • the main reason why the postmodern person has become an insatiable consumer is the fact that he/she has transformed from a consumer of goods into a consumer of signs.
    20. 20. • For example, a man who buys an expensive watch is not merely buying a useful timetelling device, but more so a prestige symbol that is inscribed on the expensive watch. Such a prestige symbol will make the man feel good and powerful, specially when he compares himself with the other people around him whose watches happen to be cheaper.
    21. 21. • The frugal modern person consumes goods, but the extravagant postmodern person consumes signs. • goods are not anymore consumed mainly for their values and utilities. Rather, they are consumed for their prestige symbol. • Thus, they are no longer goods as such, but signs of prestige
    22. 22. Simulacra and Simulation • In the book, Baudrillard explains the trend of cultural materialism in our current society that has created subcultures and materialistic trends such as fashion, that have no actuality behind them. • They are purposeless and have engulfed in many different ways our society and everyone in it.
    23. 23. Interpretation Simulacra and Simulation Simulacra – An image or representation, an unreal or vague semblance. Simulation - The act or process of simulating, an imitation; a sham, assumption of a false appearance, imitation or representation, as of a potential situation or in experimental testing.
    24. 24. • This materialism has led to apathy for the real issues in the world, and reality itself has faded from sight. • As mentioned before, victims of the 9/11 were comparing the event to a film rather than real life events. • This book explains how through simulation, simulacra's become real, leading to a culture built on nothingness and how real information is distorted.
    25. 25. • Baudrillard calls the world of the spectacular images hyper-reality • An image becomes hyper-real when postmodern people considers it even more real than the real. • For instance, when the photo-spread of a lady in swimwear, which is a technologically created image, becomes the standard against which actual ladies in swimwear are judged and evaluated.
    26. 26. Jean-Froncois Lyotard
    27. 27. Lyotard’s Philosophical Stance • First, knowledge has ceased to be a human value in itself and has become a commodity to be stored, sold, and utilized for the pursuit of some other ends, such as quest for power. • Second, the postmodern world has become more and more tolerant to the proliferation of competing knowledges • Third, the postmodern world has become suspicious towards knowledges that claim the status of a meta-narrative or grand narrative. 
    28. 28. • This  commodification of knowledge,  Lyotard  predicts,  will  have  an  astounding  impact  on  education. • In  the  near  future,  education  as  we  know  it,  where the youth is systematically immersed in  the  tradition  of  humanistic  knowledge,  will  give way to a more economical and more pragmatic piecemeal education, where adults are trained with modules for whatever specific information they need for their specific jobs. 
    29. 29. • Lyotard  notes  that  in  the  postmodern  world,  knowledge  is  no  longer  pursued  for  its  own  sake, but is generated and exchanged just like  any other commodity • Bodies  of  knowledge  that  cannot  be  commodified are gradually abandoned. • Truth  is  no  longer  the  supreme  criteria  of  knowledge, but utility and marketability. 
    30. 30. Derrida • theory  of  language  as  well  as  with  his  critical  methodology  • Derrida’s  theory  of  language  dismantles  the  then dominant structuralist theory that neatly  claims that a word, or a sign, is made up of a  signifier (such as the word cat) and a signified  (such as the mental concept of a cat)
    31. 31. • For  Derrida,  a  word,  or  a  sign,  does  not  connect  us  to  the  secure  and  solid  ground  of  the thing being referred to.   •  Words, or signs, therefore, are not stable, but  are  like  a  shifting  terrain,  or  a  flickering  candlelight,  or  a  set  of  footprints  on  a  sandy  beach. 
    32. 32. •  Behind  each  word,  or  sign,  is  not  a  tangible  thing  being  referred  to,  but  traces  of  other  signs, some of which are present while others  are absent.  • Derrida’s  theory of language is the basis of his more famous critical methodology, the deconstruction
    33. 33. Deconstruction • is  a  method  of  dissecting  a  text  in  order  to  unearth  its  deep-seated  contradictions,  inconsistencies, and ambivalence.  •  It  is  a  method  of  showing  how  a  text  fails  from its very own internal criteria.  

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