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  1. 1. PHILOSOPHY: MIDTERM LECTUREPrepared by: Raizza P. Corpuz
  2. 2. ANCIENT EPOCH Prepared by RPC2014
  4. 4. • Socrates The Socratic Method DIALECTIC: A method of seeking truth through a series of questions and answers. The Socratic method is a “dialectic” method teaching. To solve a problem, it is broken down into a series of questions, the answers to which gradually distill the answer a person would seek. Prepared by RPC2014
  5. 5. Socrates Ethics Socrates' primary concern in philosophy was, “How should we live?” 3 Questions What is good? What is right? What is just (justice)? Prepared by RPC2014
  6. 6. Socrates Ethics Socrates' ethics assumes that Education is the key to living an ethical life. No one desires evil. No one errs or does wrong willingly or knowingly. Virtue—all virtue—is knowledge. Virtue = positive moral behavior Prepared by RPC2014
  7. 7. Plato Socrates' Student Founded the Academy – First institution for higher education First Western philosopher whose writings have survived Most of what we know about Socrates comes from Plato's writings Agreed with Pythagoras that Mathematics were essential in understanding the world Prepared by RPC2014
  8. 8. WILL Plato Ethics Humans are made of 3 conflicting elements: Passions Intellect Will Most people live life allowing the PASSIONS, INTELLECT and WILL to be in conflict with one another. INTELLECT PASSIONS Prepared by RPC2014
  9. 9. Plato Ethics Ideal living is when the INTELLECT controls the PASSIONS through the WILL INTELLECT WILL PASSIONS Prepared by RPC2014
  10. 10. Plato Metaphysics Reality can be divided into two realms: The Visible World Forms - Ideas Prepared by RPC2014
  11. 11. Plato Metaphysics The Visible World Lower - Imperfect World experienced by our senses Physical Bound by Space and Time Always changing Always “becoming” Prepared by RPC2014
  12. 12. Plato Metaphysics Realm of Forms-Ideas Higher - Perfect ULTIMATE REALITY Not accessible to our senses Non-Physical Not Bound by Space and Time Never Changing Always “is” HORSE Prepared by RPC2014
  13. 13. Plato's Cave Prepared by RPC2014
  15. 15. Plato Politics: The Ideal Republic Philosophically Aware Rulers (Governing Class) Police Class (Protective Class) General Population (Worker Class) Prepared by RPC2014
  16. 16. Aristotle Logic 3 Areas of Learning Theoretical Practical Productive Logic is a Tool underlying all learning Prepared by RPC2014
  17. 17. AristotleLogic Categories Sets the boundary of terms Essential in forming an argument Dogs PugsAnimals Prepared by RPC2014
  18. 18. Aristotle The 4 Causes To really “know” something you need to know the causes of it. Example: What is a house? Material Cause The “materials” that make up the thing. Bricks are the material cause of a Brick House Prepared by RPC2014
  19. 19. Material Cause Insufficiency of the Material Cause The materials that make up a thing are not the same as the thing itself. A pile of Bricks is not a House Some things can be made of different materials. Houses can be made of Bricks or Wood or Metal. Formal Cause The FORM of the thing. The pattern, shape, characteristics of a thing. Not the same as Plato's idea of Forms, i.e. no realm of forms. The Form does not have an existence apart from the thing as in Plato's concept of Forms Prepared by RPC2014
  20. 20. Efficient Cause The cause that changes the materials into the thing. The Tools/Instruments used to create the thing. Final Cause The reason, purpose or goal of a thing. Ex. The purpose of a house is to shelter a people. Final Cause is evidence of an Intelligent Designer who provides things with purpose Teleology – Nature Intelligent DesignPrepared by RPC2014
  21. 21. Acquired by Habit Not innate Habit develops a disposition to act virtuously The Golden Mean: Mid-point between 2 extremes Courage Cowardice RECKLESNESS Ethics: Virtues Prepared by RPC2014
  22. 22. Ethics: Virtuous Life Know what is Right Do what is Right Practical Wisdom - Make Right Decisions based on Good Reasons Contemplation of the Best things NOT just Good things – Good is the enemy of the Best Motivation for Doing Anything is Flourishing (Full - Meaningful) A key theme in Aristotle's thought is that happiness is the goal of life. Eudaimonia or Happiness Prepared by RPC2014
  23. 23. “We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence, then, is not an act, but a habit. ... At his best, man is the noblest of all animals; separated from law and justice he is the worst.” (Aristotle, 384 - 322 B.C.) Prepared by RPC2014
  24. 24. Prepared by RPC2014 Medieval Philosophy
  25. 25. St. Augustine Prepared by RPC2014 “You are great, O Lord, and man desires to praise you. You so excite him that to praise you is his joy. For you have made us for yourself and our hearts are restless until they rest in You.” His Philosophical Beliefs • The man with his strength does not exceed this vicious cycle of not being able to not want what cannot get • Only the grace of Christ save us • History is called original sin Jesus says that the Holy Spirit "will convince the world concerning sin" (Jn 16:8). As I tried to penetrate these words, I was led back to the opening pages of the Book of Genesis, to the event known as "original sin."
  26. 26. • described the nature of this sin as follows: amor sui usque ad contemptum Dei—self-love to the point of contempt for God. • It was amor sui which drove our first parents toward that initial rebellion and then gave rise to the spread of sin throughout human history. RPC2013 You have made us for yourself, and our hearts are restless until they rest in you.” Saint Augustine “Confessions”.
  27. 27. His legacy • He believed humans cannot experience true happiness until they find God. • His work centered around the notion that everything in the world is basically good. • He wrote many works over his lifetime. • He attempted to dispel heresy and blasphemous ideologies.
  28. 28. St. Thomas Aquinas Prepared by RPC2014 Aquinas developed a list of the five divine qualities: 1. God is simple 2. God is perfect 3. God is infinite 4. God is immutable 5. God is one
  29. 29. The Nature of God Prepared by RPC2014 1. God is simple, without composition of parts, such as body and soul, or matter and form. 2. God is perfect, lacking nothing. That is, God is distinguished from other beings on account of God's complete actuality.Thomas defined God as the ‘Ipse Actus Essendi subsistens,’ subsisting act of being. 3. God is infinite. That is, God is not finite in the ways that created beings are physically, intellectually, and emotionally limited. This infinity is to be distinguished from infinity of size and infinity of number. 4. God is immutable, incapable of change on the levels of God's essence and character. 5. God is one, without diversification within God's self. The unity of God is such that God's essence is the same as God's existence. In Thomas's words, "in itself the proposition 'God exists' is necessarily true, for in it subject and predicate are the same.”
  30. 30. PHILOSOPHICAL CONTRIBUTION Prepared by RPC2014 Reason He believed that: • Humans could – through reason alone – know much of the natural order, moral law, and the nature of God • All essential knowledge could be organized coherently Wrote a series of Summas (highest works) that employed careful logic to counter any possible objections to truth as revealed by reason and faith
  31. 31. Ethics Prepared by RPC2014 • Four (4) Cardinal Virtues: Prudence, Temperance, Justice, and Fortitude • Three(3)Theological Virtues: Faith, Hope, and Charity • Four (4)types of Law: 1. Eternal: direct word of God, governs all Creation 2. Natural: human adherence to eternal law, discovered by reason 3. Human: positive law (natural law applied to human government and society) 4. Divine: the law as defined in the scriptures
  32. 32. ST. ANSELM Prepared by RPC2014 motto is: “faith seeking understanding” (fides quaerens intellectum)
  33. 33. The Ontological Argument Prepared by RPC2014 1. God is that than which nothing greater can be conceived. 2. It is greater to exist than to not exist. 3. Therefore, God exists. Anselm is perhaps most famous for developing the ontological argument for the existence of God.
  34. 34. MODERN PHILOSOPHY Prepared by RPC2014
  35. 35. Prepared by RPC2014 THOMAS HOBBES Argued that natural law made absolute monarchy the best form of gov’t….. • Humans were natural selfish and violent • People couldn’t make their own decisions • If they did life would be “nasty, brutish, and short” • Only a strong ruler (Leviathan) could give people direction 1651 – Published Leviathan (Sea Monster)
  36. 36. Prepared by RPC2014 • People shaped by their experiences not natural violent • All people had 3 natural rights – life, liberty, & property • People are born with a “tabula rasa” or clean slate. • Purpose of gov’t = serve the people – people have the right to overthrow the gov’t if it is not serving its purpose • Social Contract – agreement b/w ruler & people
  37. 37. Prepared by RPC2014 • Separation of Power – equal divide power among the 3 Branches of gov’t • Executive (Monarch) enforce laws, Legislative (Parliament) makes laws, Judicial (Courts) interpret laws • By separating these powers, gov’t could not become too powerful – checks and balances • 1748 – published – Spirit of Laws
  38. 38. Prepared by RPC2014 • 1762 – published Social Contract • Gov’t should be based on a Social Contract • Everyone must agree to be governed by the general will – whats good for the people (foundation for totalitarian gov’t) • Humans being were naturally good but corrupted by society • Importance on Education and Civic Virtue – train ppl how to be good citizens. • People should pay more attention to emotions & feelings instead of new ideas –seek a balance
  40. 40. Søren Kierkegaard • 1813-1855, Danish • Considered to be the first Existential Philosopher • Considered as “the Father of Existentialism” • Insisted on the distinctiveness of personal experience/subjectivity. • He argues, “subjectivity is truth, truth is subjectivity
  41. 41. Human Nature • For Kierkegaard, human beings stand out as responsible individuals who must make free choices.
  42. 42. • According to him the deepest "inwardness" of the human being is the place of passionate choice wherein one must take a "leap of faith" despite one's finitude, the fact that we can never know with certainly the outcome of our choices despite our accountability for them. • His psychological work explored the emotions and feelings of individuals when faced with life choices.
  43. 43. There are three modes of existence that can be chosen by an individual. (3 Sphere/Stages of Life’s Way) 1.aesthetic = a redefined hedonism, consisting of the search for pleasure 2.ethical = involves intense commitment to one’s duty in faith and social obligations 3.religious = submission to God, and only God’s will
  44. 44. “Christianity is therefore not a doctrine, but the fact that God has existed.” "...the thing is to find a truth which is true for me, to find the idea for which I can live and die"
  45. 45. Arthur Schopenhauer • The World as Will and Idea / Representation • The human body and all its parts being the visible expression of the will and its several desires. The teeth, throat, and bowels for example being "objectified" hunger.
  46. 46. • For Schopenhauer, who is considered to be a pessimistic philosopher, the tragedy of life arises from the nature of the will, which constantly urges the individual toward the satisfaction of successive goals, none of which can provide permanent satisfaction for the infinite activity of the life force, or will
  47. 47. • The title of Schopenhauer’s masterwork contains the central thesis of his philosophy. • The world is a “phenomenon,” a representation or idea ; Schopenhauer makes no distinction between a phenomenon and an appearance; he says that the two are identical. • The world as we know it is an appearance or deception.
  48. 48. Jean Paul Sartre • 1905-1980 • 20th century’s greatest existential thinker • French • “Existence precedes essence”- – What makes you who you are by what you make of yourself. • We are all “condemned to be free” Believed that there is no authority that defines freedom or provides rules or guarantees decisions.
  49. 49. Existence – Humanism-- Essence
  50. 50. IT MEANS:
  51. 51. Being and Nothingness Existentialism is Humanism • Meaning there is total responsibility on the individual for all actions. • Sartre is convinced that human responsibility makes sense only if there is no God; otherwise divine foreknowledge and predestination necessarily exclude alternative options and consequently responsibility.
  52. 52. There are at least three circles in the extension of our responsibility: 1. Individual responsibility: If existence precedes essence man is responsible for his own actions (and his individuality) 2. Total Responsibility: If man is free to choose what he is going to make of himself, he is entirely responsible for what he is becoming;
  53. 53. 3. Universal Responsibility: If man is fully responsible for what he is presenting as the image of man, he is responsible for all men • Individual responsibility corresponds to the common sense notion of responsibility.
  54. 54. “Hell is other people”- NO EXIT Hell is other people because we can try and force the others to see us in the way we want them to see us, but they will always see us in the way they want to see us. The form which is easiest for them in most cases.
  55. 55. Friedrich Nietzsche
  56. 56. Friedrich Nietzsche and Nihilism • So in saying “God is dead” this was what he really meant: • Nietzsche sought to draw the consequences of the death of God, the collapse of any theistic support for morality • In such a situation the individual is forced back upon himself. AKA. Personal responsibility
  57. 57. There are two ways to take this: • On the one hand, if he is weakly constituted he may fall victim to despair in the face of nihilism, the recognition that life has no intrinsic meaning. • On the other hand, for a “strong” or creative individual nihilism presents a liberating opportunity to take responsibility for meaning, to exercise creativity by “transvaluing” her values, establishing a new “order of rank.”
  58. 58. • Friedrich Nietzsche is notable for having declared that God is dead and for having written several of his works in the presumption that man must find a new mode of being given the death of God.
  59. 59. GOD IS DEAD • Implications of the Death of God according to Nietzsche: • Rejection of absolute values. (Can’t have a "secularized" form of Christianity) • Nihilism (because most men in the West know no other values but Christian values) • "Active nihilism" a nihilism that seeks to destroy what it no longer believes
  60. 60. SUPERMAN • Ubermensch or superman [Zarathustra] is not superior in breeding or endowment, but in power and strength. • The superman confronts all the possible terrors and wretchedness of life and still joyously affirms it. • In Thus Spake Zarathustra Nietzsche proclaims, "Not `humanity’ but Superman is the goal." "Man is something that must be surpassed; man is a bridge and not a goal."
  61. 61. • Superman is not inevitable, the result of some determined process. It is more a myth, a goal for the will: "Superman is the meaning of the earth. Let your will say: Superman is to be the meaning of the earth." Superman cannot come unless superior individuals have the courage to transvalue all values.
  62. 62. • For Nietzsche a recognition that God is Dead to his own generation of men and women ought to come as a Joyous Wisdom allowing individuals to lead less guilt-ridden lives in a world that was no longer to be seen as being inherently sinful. • He considered that earthly lives could become more joyful, meaningful and "healthy" when not lived within narrow limits set by faith-related concerns for the state of an individual's eternal soul.
  63. 63. • Nietzsche seems to be suggesting that the acceptance that God is dead will also involve the ending of long-established standards of morality and of purpose. • Without the former and accepted widely standards society has to face up to the possible emergence of a nihilistic situation where peoples lives are not particularly constrained by faith- based considerations of morality or particularly guided by any faith-related sense of purpose.
  64. 64. • Given what he saw as the "unbelievability" of the "God-hypothesis" Nietzsche himself seemed to favour the creation of a new set of values "faithful to the earth." • This view perhaps being associable with the possibility of the "Overman" or "Superman."
  65. 65. • "I teach you the overman. Man is something that shall be overcome. • What have you done to overcome him? All beings so far have created something beyond themselves; and do you want to be the ebb of this great flood and even go back to the beasts rather than overcome man? What is the ape to man? A laughingstock or a painful embarrassment. And man shall be just that for the overman: a laughingstock or a painful embarrassment..."
  66. 66. Nihilism- nothingness • Nihilism- belief that traditional morals, values, ideas, etc. have no worth or value • The denial of existence as any basis for knowledge or truth • There is no meaning or purpose to existence (nil).
  67. 67. -END- Prepared by RPC2014