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Philippine Political Condition: NATIONAL and LOCAL GOVERNANCE


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Philippine Politics LEC 4

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Philippine Political Condition: NATIONAL and LOCAL GOVERNANCE

  2. 2. DEMOGRAPHICS • The Republic of the Philippines is a sovereign state in archipelagic Southeast Asia, with 7,107 islands spanning more than 300,000 square kilometers of territory. • It is divided into three island groups: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao.
  3. 3. DEMOGRAPHICS Capital City Manila Seat of National Government Metro Manila (National Capital Region) Land Area 343,448 square kilometers (132,606 square miles) Climate Tropical, with an average year-round temperature of 27°C (82°F) Population 99,200,000 (as of the 1st Quarter of 2014) Demonym Filipino Currency Philippine peso Languages Filipino (national and official), English (official) Religions Roman Catholicism, Protestantism, Islam
  5. 5. SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT • The Philippines is a unitary presidential constitutional republic, with the President of the Philippines acting as both the head of state and the head of government.
  6. 6. SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT •Unitary - the control of national and local affairs is under the central or national government. •Presidential - the President is both head of state and head of government.
  7. 7. SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT • Constitutional - the powers of those who rule are defined and limited by the constitution • Republic - the power is exercised by a group of persons chosen by the people to act as their representatives
  8. 8. SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT • One basic corollary in a presidential system of government is the principle of separation of powers wherein legislation belongs to Congress, execution to the Executive, and settlement of legal controversies to the Judiciary.
  9. 9. The Legislative branch is authorized to make laws, alter, and repeal them through the power vested in the Philippine Congress. This institution is divided into the Senate and the House of Representatives. SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT
  10. 10. The Executive branch is composed of the President and the Vice President who are elected by direct popular vote and serve a term of six years. The Constitution grants the President authority to appoint his Cabinet. These departments form a large portion of the country’s bureaucracy. SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT
  11. 11. The Judicial branch holds the power to settle controversies involving rights that are legally demandable and enforceable. SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT
  12. 12. This branch determines whether or not there has been a grave abuse of discretion amounting to lack or excess of jurisdiction on the part and instrumentality of the government. It is made up of a Supreme Court and lower courts. SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT
  13. 13. The Constitution expressly grants the Supreme Court the power of Judicial Review as the power to declare a treaty, international or executive agreement, law, presidential decree, proclamation, order, instruction, ordinance or regulation unconstitutional. SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT
  15. 15. ACCOUNTABILITY • “A public office is a public trust. Public officers and employees shall serve with the highest degree of responsibility, integrity, loyalty and efficiency and shall remain accountable to the people.” Constitution of the Philippines 1973, Article XIII, Section 1
  16. 16. ACCOUNTABILITY • The institution of a system of checks and balances in an organization through which an administrator accounts for his stewardship of resources or authority.
  17. 17. DIFFERENT BRANCHES OF THE PHILIPPINE GOVERNMENT The structure of the Philippine government is divided into three branches: • the Legislative Department (Article 6); • the Executive Department (Article 7); and • the Judicial Department (Article 8).
  18. 18. THE PRINCIPLE OF SEPARATION OF POWERS Under the principle of co-equal and coordinate powers among the three (3) branches, the officers entrusted with each of these powers are not permitted to encroach/ tresspass upon the powers confided to the others.
  19. 19. PRINCIPLE OF CHECKS AND BALANCES •The three co-equal departments are established by the constitution in as balanced positions as possible. •To maintain this balance or to restore it if upset, each department is given certain powers with which to check the others.
  20. 20. SOURCES AND REFERENCES REFERENCES: Agoncillo, Teodoro A. Agoncillo & Fe B. Mangahas. 2010. Philippine History. C & E Publishing De Leon (1999). 1987 Philippines Constitution Halili (2010). Philippine History 2nd edition Rex Bookstore Inc. Zulueta (2013) Philippine History and Government through the years National Bookstore • • • • SPECIAL THANKS to Councilor Aina Sisante ;)