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Middle Ages: Theocentric philosophy


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Middle Ages: Theocentric philosophy

  1. 1. Medieval Philosophy Prepared by Raizza Corpuz
  3. 3. Faith is personal: INTERNAL, Within the power of the “I”. It is both the cognitive and the emotive. It is within the context of it and NOT bound with QUANDARY. BASIS Religion: EXTERNAL: bound with the choice we made. It can be change. It is structural and functional. PRACTICE RPC2013
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  6. 6. Medieval Philosophy • Medieval philosophy is the philosophy in the era now known as medieval or the Middle Ages, the period roughly extending from the fall of the Western Roma Empire in the fifth century AD to the Renaissance in the sixteenth century • Essentially “monotheistic” • From a state of polytheism to a belief in a one and only God. • God here is the center of man’s life RPC2013 Medieval philosophy is not to be separated from theology
  7. 7. Medieval Philosophy and the Problem of Evil RPC2013
  8. 8. The Dark Ages • • • The "Dark Ages" is a historical period emphasizing the cultural and economic deterioration that occurred in Europe following the decline of the Roma Empire. The label employs traditional “light-versus darkness” imagery to contrast the "darkness" of the period with earlier and later periods of "light“ (Middle Age). The period is characterized by a relative scarcity of historical and other written records at least for some areas of Europe, rendering it obscure to historians. Petrarch conceived the idea of a European "Dark Age". From Cycle of Famous Men and Women, c. 1450 RPC2013
  9. 9. Challenged Church Authority • In the 16th century, various humanists had begun to ask dangerous questions. • The Enlightenment allowed people to believe in progress, to “think outside the box,” and it led to the rise of individualism The Ninety-Five Theses, (1517) written by Martin Luther, described his hopes and wants for reform in the Catholic Church. This effectively challenged the pope'e authority and the infallibility of the general council, and eventually led to Luther being excommunicated from the church and declared a public enemy by the state.The 95 Theses were translated into German and Luther's RPC2013 ideas were circulated throughout the empire.
  10. 10. Medieval Philosophy • The term medieval refers to the Middle Ages, the time in European history between classical antiquity and the Italian Renaissance, from about 500 A.D. to about 1350 ( 13th) • Medieval philosophy is theocentric in its character. RPC2013
  11. 11. • During the decline of Greco-Roman civilization, Western philosophers turned their attention from the scientific investigation of nature and the search for happiness in this world, to the problem of salvation and life in another, better world. RPC2013
  12. 12. • The torch of civilization in Western Europe was carried mainly by the Christian Church, where thought were conducted under the context of Christian doctrines RPC2013
  13. 13. • By the 3rd century AD, Christianity had spread throughout the Roman Empire. • The religious teachings of the Gospels were combined by the Fathers of the Church with many of the philosophical concepts of the Greeks and Roman schools. RPC2013
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  15. 15. St. Augustine “You are great, O Lord, and man desires to praise you. You so excite him that to praise you is his joy. For you have made us for yourself and our hearts are restless until they rest in You.” RPC2013
  16. 16. Conversion • His mother urged him to be baptised. • Began to study under Saint Ambrose. • Became fascinated by intellectual nature of faith. • Was not baptised, at first, because he didn’t want to give up life of sin.
  17. 17. His Philosophical Beliefs • The man with his strenght does not exceed this viscious cycle of not being able to not want what cannot get • Only the grace of Christ save us • History is called original sin Jesus says that the Holy Spirit "will convince the world concerning sin" (Jn 16:8). As I tried to penetrate these words, I was led back to the opening pages of the Book of Genesis, to the event known as "original sin." RPC2013
  18. 18. • described the nature of this sin as follows: amor sui usque ad contemptum Dei —self-love to the point of contempt for God. • It was amor sui which drove our first parents toward that initial rebellion and then gave rise to the spread of sin throughout human history. RPC2013
  19. 19. • The Book of Genesis speaks of this: "you will be like God, knowing good and evil" (Gn 3:5), in other words, you yourselves will decide what is good and what is evil. • Man is not, in general, self-sufficient: marked by original sin, is called to communion with God, in Christ. • This non-self-sufficiency is also seen in the field of knowledge. It's Christ truth (as interior Teacher , through the illumination). RPC2013
  20. 20. Based only on his natural cognitive forces , the man would not go very far, however: it lacks a "center of permanent gravity", enabling him to judge in a stable and suitable the reality that is the object of his experience. RPC2013
  21. 21. Saint Augustine’s words. • “You have made us for yourself, and our hearts are restless until they rest in you.” Saint Augustine “Confessions”.
  22. 22. • He believed humans cannot experience true happiness until they find God. • His work centred around the notion that everything in the world is basically good. • He wrote many works over his lifetime. • He attempted to dispel heresy and blasphemous ideologies. His legacy.
  23. 23. St. Thomas Aquinas
  24. 24. The Nature of God • Aquinas developed a list of the five divine qualities: – God is simple, without composition of parts, such as body and soul, or matter and form. – God is perfect, lacking nothing. That is, God is distinguished from other beings on account of God's complete actuality. Thomas defined God as the ‘Ipse Actus Essendi subsistens,’ subsisting act of being. – God is infinite. That is, God is not finite in the ways that created beings are physically, intellectually, and emotionally limited. This infinity is to be distinguished from infinity of size and infinity of number. – God is immutable, incapable of change on the levels of God's essence and character. – God is one, without diversification within God's self. The unity of God is such that God's essence is the same as God's existence. In Thomas's words, "in itself the proposition 'God exists' is necessarily true, for in it subject and predicate are the same.”
  25. 25. Overview • An Italian-born monk who taught at the University of Paris • Born: January 28th, 1225 in Roccasecca, Sicily • Died: March 7th, 1274 in Fossanova, Sicily • Taught that faith came first and greatly expanded the scope of reason • Major figure in scholasticism
  26. 26. Reason • Aquinas retained the basic belief while studying reason • He believed that: – Humans could – through reason alone – know much of the natural order, moral law, and the nature of God – All essential knowledge could be organized coherently • Wrote a series of Summas (highest works) that employed careful logic to counter any possible objections to truth as revealed by reason and faith
  27. 27. Summas • Summa Theologica: Most well-known and best work of Aquinas • Intended as a sort of introduction to theology and the main theological points of Church doctrine • Three parts: – Part One: God’s existence, the creation of the world, angels, and the nature of man – Part Two: Morality (general and specific) – Part Three: Christ, the Sacraments, and the end of the world
  28. 28. Ethics • Four Cardinal Virtues: Prudence, Temperance, Justice, and Fortitude • Three Theological Virtues: Faith, Hope, and Charity • Four types of Law: – Eternal: direct word of God, governs all Creation – Natural: human adherence to eternal law, discovered by reason – Human: positive law (natural law applied to human government and society) – Divine: the law as defined in the scriptures
  29. 29. ST. ANSELM • Anselm's motto is “faith seeking understanding” (fides quaerens intellectum) • St. Anselm of Canterbury (1033–1109 CE) was a Christian philosopher. He was Archbishop of Canterbury from the age of 60 until his death
  30. 30. The Ontological Argument • Anselm is perhaps most famous for developing the ontological argument for the existence of God. 1.God is that than which nothing greater can be conceived. 2.It is greater to exist than to not exist. 3.Therefore, God exists. RPC2013
  31. 31. Acknowledgement Some Slides excerpted by Dr. Tenorio’s Lecture THANK YOU and GOD BLESS!! RPC2013