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Medieval Philosophy


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St Augustine St Thomas Aquinas and St Anselm
medieval philosophy new 2015

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Medieval Philosophy

  1. 1. Medieval Philosophy PreparedbyRaizzaP. Corpuz
  3. 3. Faith is personal: INTERNAL, Within the power of the “I”. It is both the cognitive and the emotive. It is within the context of it and NOT bound with QUANDARY. BASIS Religion: EXTERNAL: bound with the choice we made. It can be change. It is structural and functional. PRACTICERPC2013
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  6. 6. Medieval Philosophy • Medieval philosophy is the philosophy in the era now known as medieval or the Middle Ages, the period roughly extending from the fall of the Western Roma Empire in the fifth century AD to the Renaissance in the sixteenth century • Essentially “monotheistic” • From a state of polytheism to a belief in a one and only God. • God here is the center of man’s life Medieval philosophy is not to be separated from theology RPC2013
  7. 7. Medieval Philosophy and the Problem of Evil RPC2013
  8. 8. The Dark Ages • The "Dark Ages" is a historical period emphasizing the cultural and economic deterioration that occurred in Europe following the decline of the Roma Empire. • The label employs traditional “light-versus darkness” imagery to contrast the "darkness" of the period with earlier and later periods of "light“ (Middle Age). • The period is characterized by a relative scarcity of historical and other written records at least for some areas of Europe, rendering it obscure to historians. Petrarch conceived the idea of a European "Dark Age". From Cycle of Famous Men and Women, c. 1450 RPC2013
  9. 9. Challenged Church AuthorityChallenged Church Authority • In the 16th century,In the 16th century, various humanistsvarious humanists had begun to askhad begun to ask dangerous questions.dangerous questions. • The EnlightenmentThe Enlightenment allowed people toallowed people to believe in progress,believe in progress, to “think outside theto “think outside the box,” and it led tobox,” and it led to the rise ofthe rise of individualismindividualism The Ninety-Five Theses, (1517) written by Martin Luther, described his hopes and wants for reform in the Catholic Church. This effectively challenged the pope'e authority and the infallibility of the general council, and eventually led to Luther being excommunicated from the church and declared a public enemy by the state.The 95 Theses were translated into German and Luther's ideas were circulated throughout the empire.RPC2013
  10. 10. Medieval Philosophy • The term medieval refers to the Middle Ages, the time in European history between classical antiquity and the Italian Renaissance, from about 500 A.D. to about 1350 ( 13th ) • Medieval philosophy is theocentric in its character. • During the decline of Greco-Roman civilization, Western philosophers turned their attention from the scientific investigation of nature and the search for happiness in this world, to the problem of salvation and life in another, better world • The torch of civilization in Western Europe was carried mainly by the Christian Church, where thought were conducted under the context of Christian doctrines RPC2013
  11. 11. • By the 3rd century AD, Christianity had spread throughout the Roman Empire. • The religious teachings of the Gospels were combined by the Fathers of the Church with many of the philosophical concepts of the Greeks and Roman schools.RPC2013
  12. 12. FOCUS: ON RELIGION and FAITH RPC2013
  13. 13. St. Augustine “You are great, O Lord, and man desires to praise you. You so excite him that to praise you is his joy. For you have made us for yourself and our hearts are restless until they rest in You.” St. Augustine (354–430 C.E) : Uses aspects of Neoplatonism to understand, explain Christianity. RPC2013
  14. 14. Conversion • He regret that once he believed in Manichaeism means taught an elaborate dualistic cosmology describing the struggle between a good, spiritual world of light, and an evil , material world of darkness. • Began to study under Saint Ambrose. • Became fascinated by intellectual nature of faith. • Was not baptized, at first, because he didn’t want to give up life of sin.
  15. 15. His Philosophical Beliefs • The man with his strength does not exceed this vicious cycle of not being able to not want what cannot get • Only the grace of Christ save us • History is called original sin Jesus says that the Holy Spirit "will convince the world concerning sin" (Jn 16:8). As I tried to penetrate these words, I was led back to the opening pages of the Book of Genesis, to the event known as "original sin." RPC2013
  16. 16. • described the nature of this sin as follows: amor sui usque ad contemptum Dei —self-love to the point of contempt for God. • It was amor sui which drove our first parents toward that initial rebellion and then gave rise to the spread of sin throughout human history. RPC2013
  17. 17. • The Book of Genesis speaks of this: "you will be like God, knowing good and evil" (Gn 3:5), in other words, you yourselves will decide what is good and what is evil. • Man is not, in general, self-sufficient: marked by original sin, is called to communion with God, in Christ. • This non-self-sufficiency is also seen in the field of knowledge. It's Christ truth (as interior Teacher , through the illumination). RPC2013
  18. 18. INFLUENTIAL BOOK Confessions (Latin: Confessiones) •is the name of an autobiographical wok, consisting of 13 books •The work outlines Augustine's sinful youth and his conversion to Christianity •Sinful Youth: fleshly desires for women RPC2013
  19. 19. The City of God  • Answers profound questions of theology such as the suffering of the righteous, the existence  of evil, the conflict between free will and divine  omniscience, and the doctrine of original sin. RPC2013
  20. 20. His legacy • He believed humans        cannot  experience  true  happiness  until  they  find God. • His  work  centred  around  the  notion  that  everything in the world  is basically good. • He  wrote  many  works  over his lifetime. • He  attempted  to  dispel  heresy  and  blasphemous  ideologies.
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  22. 22. St. Thomas Aquinas
  23. 23. Overview • An  Italian-born  monk  who  taught  at  the  University of Paris • Born:  January 28th , 1225 in Roccasecca, Sicily • Died:  March 7th , 1274 in Fossanova, Sicily • Taught  that  faith  came  first  and  greatly  expanded the scope of reason • Major figure in scholasticism
  24. 24. The Nature of God • Aquinas developed a list of the (5)  five divine qualities: 1. God is simple,  without  composition of parts, such  as body and soul, or matter  and form.  2.  God is perfect, lacking  nothing.  That  is,  God  is  distinguished  from  other  beings on account of God's  complete actuality.  Thomas  defined  God  as  the  ‘Ipse Actus Essendi subsistens,’  subsisting act of being.
  25. 25. 3. God is infinite. That is, God is not finite in the ways that  created beings are physically, intellectually, and emotionally  limited. This infinity is to be distinguished from infinity of size  and infinity of number.  4.  God is immutable, incapable  of  change  on  the  levels  of  God's essence and character. 5. God is one, without diversification within God's self. The  unity of God is such that God's essence is the same as God's  existence. In Thomas's words, "in itself the proposition 'God  exists' is necessarily true, for in it subject and predicate are  the same.”  RPC2013
  26. 26. Reason  • Aquinas  retained  the  basic  belief  while studying reason • He believed that: 1. Humans  could  –  through  reason  alone – know much of the natural  order, moral law, and the nature  of God  2.  All  essential  knowledge  could  be  organized coherently • Wrote  a  series  of  Summas  (highest  works)  that  employed  careful  logic  to  counter  any  possible  objections  to  truth  as  revealed by reason and faith
  27. 27. Summas • Summa Theologica:  Most well-known  and best work of Aquinas • Intended as a sort of introduction to  theology and the main theological  points of Church doctrine  • Three parts: – Part One:  God’s existence, the creation  of the world, angels, and the nature of  man – Part Two:  Morality (general and specific) – Part Three:  Christ, the Sacraments, and  the end of the world
  28. 28. Ethics • Four Cardinal Virtues: 1.Prudence 2.Temperance 3. Justice 4.Fortitude • Three Theological Virtues: . 1.Faith 2.Hope 3.Charity
  29. 29. Four types of Law: 1. Eternal: direct word of God, governs all Creation 2. Natural: human adherence to eternal law, discovered by reason 3. Human: positive law (natural law applied to human government and society) 4. Divine: the law as defined in the scriptures RPC2013
  30. 30. The Existence of God can be proved in five ways. 1. Argument from Motion 2. Argument from Efficient Causes 3. Argument from Possibility and Necessity (Reduction argument) 4. Argument from Gradation of Being 5. Argument from Design -----VIDEO CLIP----- RPC2013
  31. 31. ***EXPLANATION FROM 1st CAUSE The Argument From MotionSt. Thomas Aquinas: •studying the works of the Greek philosopher Aristotle concluded from common observation: that an object that is in motion (e.g. the planets, a rolling stone) is put in motion by some other object or force. From this, Aquinas believes that ultimately there must have been an UNMOVED MOVER (GOD) who first put things in motion. RPC2013
  32. 32. ST. ANSELM • Anselm's motto is “faith seeking understanding” (fides quaerens intellectum) • St. Anselm of Canterbury (1033–1109 CE) was a Christian philosopher. • He was Archbishop of Canterbury from the age of 60 until his death
  33. 33. The Ontological Argument • Anselm is perhaps most famous for developing the ontological argument for the existence of God. 1.God is that than which nothing greater can be conceived. 2.It is greater to exist than to not exist. 3.Therefore, God exists. RPC2013
  34. 34. RPC2013 To one who has faith, no explanation is necessary. To one without faith, no explanation is possible. ---Thomas Aquinas
  35. 35. MERCY and COMPASSION RPC2013
  36. 36. References The Evolution of Medieval Thought (1962) by David Knowles Random House New York St. Augustine (1960). The Confessions of St. Augustine. New York. by John K. Ryan.) St. Augustine (1960). The Confessions of St. Augustine. New York. by John K. Ryan.) A History of Philosophy 2: Medieval Philosophy by Frederick Charles Copleston The Christian Philosophy of St. Thomas Aquinas by Étienne Gilson Some Slides excerpt by Dr. Tenorio’s Lecture Google Images THANK YOU and GOD BLESS!! RPC2013