Common Era (also Current Era or Christian Era), abbreviated as CE, is an alternative naming of the calendar era Anno Domini (&quot;in the year of the/our Lord&quot;, abbreviated AD). BCE is the abbreviation for Before the Common/Current/Christian Era (an alternative to Before Christ, abbreviated BC).
St ambrose was a bishop of Milan who became one of the most influential ecclesiastical figures of the 4th century. MANICHAEISM a dualistic religious system with Christian, Gnostic, and pagan elements, f
Prudence-discreet Fortitude-strength of mind
BIG QUESTION in MEDIEVAL
WHAT IS FAITH?
WHAT IS RELIGION?
Faith is personal: INTERNAL, Within the power
of the “I”. It is both the cognitive and the
emotive. It is within the context of it and NOT
bound with QUANDARY.
Religion: EXTERNAL: bound with the choice we
made. It can be change. It is structural and
• Medieval philosophy is the
philosophy in the era now
known as medieval or the
Middle Ages, the period
roughly extending from the fall
of the Western Roma Empire
in the fifth century AD to the
Renaissance in the sixteenth
• Essentially “monotheistic”
• From a state of polytheism to a
belief in a one and only God.
• God here is the center of
man’s life Medieval philosophy is not to be
separated from theology
Medieval Philosophy and the
Problem of Evil
The Dark Ages
• The "Dark Ages" is a historical
period emphasizing the cultural
and economic deterioration that
occurred in Europe following the
decline of the Roma Empire.
• The label employs traditional
“light-versus darkness” imagery to
contrast the "darkness" of the
period with earlier and later
periods of "light“ (Middle Age).
• The period is characterized by a
relative scarcity of historical and
other written records at least for
some areas of Europe, rendering it
obscure to historians.
Petrarch conceived the idea of a European "Dark Age".
From Cycle of Famous Men and Women, c. 1450
Challenged Church AuthorityChallenged Church Authority
• In the 16th century,In the 16th century,
various humanistsvarious humanists
had begun to askhad begun to ask
dangerous questions.dangerous questions.
• The EnlightenmentThe Enlightenment
allowed people toallowed people to
believe in progress,believe in progress,
to “think outside theto “think outside the
box,” and it led tobox,” and it led to
the rise ofthe rise of
The Ninety-Five Theses, (1517) written by Martin
Luther, described his hopes and wants for reform in the
Catholic Church. This effectively challenged the pope'e
authority and the infallibility of the general council, and
eventually led to Luther being excommunicated from
the church and declared a public enemy by the
state.The 95 Theses were translated into German and
Luther's ideas were circulated throughout the empire.RPC2013
• The term medieval refers to the Middle Ages, the time in
European history between classical antiquity and the Italian
Renaissance, from about 500 A.D. to about 1350 ( 13th
• Medieval philosophy is theocentric in its character.
• During the decline of Greco-Roman civilization, Western
philosophers turned their attention from the scientific
investigation of nature and the search for happiness in this
world, to the problem of salvation and life in another, better
• The torch of civilization in Western Europe was carried
mainly by the Christian Church, where thought were
conducted under the context of Christian doctrines
• By the 3rd
century AD, Christianity
had spread throughout the Roman
• The religious teachings of the
Gospels were combined by the
Fathers of the Church with many of
the philosophical concepts of the
Greeks and Roman schools.RPC2013
“You are great, O Lord, and man desires to praise you. You so excite him that
to praise you is his joy. For you have made us for yourself and our hearts
are restless until they rest in You.”
St. Augustine (354–430 C.E) : Uses aspects of
Neoplatonism to understand, explain Christianity.
• He regret that once he believed in
Manichaeism means taught an
cosmology describing the struggle
between a good, spiritual world of
light, and an evil , material world of
• Began to study under Saint Ambrose.
• Became fascinated by intellectual
nature of faith.
• Was not baptized, at first, because he
didn’t want to give up life of sin.
His Philosophical Beliefs
• The man with his strength does not exceed
this vicious cycle of not being able to not want
what cannot get
• Only the grace of Christ save us
• History is called original sin
Jesus says that the Holy Spirit "will convince the world
concerning sin" (Jn 16:8). As I tried to penetrate these words,
I was led back to the opening pages of the Book of Genesis, to
the event known as "original sin."
• described the nature of this sin as
follows: amor sui usque ad contemptum Dei
—self-love to the point of contempt for God.
• It was amor sui which drove our first parents
toward that initial rebellion and then gave rise
to the spread of sin throughout human
• The Book of Genesis speaks of this: "you will
be like God, knowing good and evil" (Gn 3:5),
in other words, you yourselves will
decide what is good and what is
• Man is not, in general, self-sufficient: marked
by original sin, is called to communion with
God, in Christ.
• This non-self-sufficiency is also seen in the
field of knowledge. It's Christ truth (as
interior Teacher , through the illumination).
Confessions (Latin: Confessiones)
•is the name of an autobiographical wok, consisting of 13
•The work outlines Augustine's sinful youth and his
conversion to Christianity
•Sinful Youth: fleshly desires for women
The City of God
• Answers profound questions of theology
such as the suffering of the righteous, the existence
of evil, the conflict between free will and divine
omniscience, and the doctrine of original sin.
• He believed humans
cannot experience true
happiness until they
• His work centred
around the notion that
everything in the world
is basically good.
• He wrote many works
over his lifetime.
• He attempted to dispel
• An Italian-born monk who taught at the
University of Paris
• Born: January 28th
, 1225 in Roccasecca, Sicily
• Died: March 7th
, 1274 in Fossanova, Sicily
• Taught that faith came first and greatly
expanded the scope of reason
• Major figure in scholasticism
The Nature of God
• Aquinas developed a list of the (5)
five divine qualities:
1. God is simple, without
composition of parts, such
as body and soul, or matter
2. God is perfect, lacking
nothing. That is, God is
distinguished from other
beings on account of God's
defined God as the ‘Ipse
Actus Essendi subsistens,’
subsisting act of being.
3. God is infinite. That is, God is not finite in the ways that
created beings are physically, intellectually, and emotionally
limited. This infinity is to be distinguished from infinity of size
and infinity of number.
4. God is immutable, incapable of change on the levels of
God's essence and character.
5. God is one, without diversification within God's self. The
unity of God is such that God's essence is the same as God's
existence. In Thomas's words, "in itself the proposition 'God
exists' is necessarily true, for in it subject and predicate are
• Aquinas retained the basic belief
while studying reason
• He believed that:
1. Humans could – through reason
alone – know much of the natural
order, moral law, and the nature
2. All essential knowledge could be
• Wrote a series of Summas
(highest works) that employed
careful logic to counter any
possible objections to truth as
revealed by reason and faith
• Summa Theologica: Most well-known
and best work of Aquinas
• Intended as a sort of introduction to
theology and the main theological
points of Church doctrine
• Three parts:
– Part One: God’s existence, the creation
of the world, angels, and the nature of
– Part Two: Morality (general and specific)
– Part Three: Christ, the Sacraments, and
the end of the world
• Four Cardinal Virtues:
• Three Theological Virtues: .
Four types of Law:
1. Eternal: direct word of God, governs all Creation
2. Natural: human adherence to eternal law,
discovered by reason
3. Human: positive law (natural law applied to
human government and society)
4. Divine: the law as defined in the scriptures
The Existence of God can be
proved in five ways.
1. Argument from Motion
2. Argument from Efficient Causes
3. Argument from Possibility and Necessity
4. Argument from Gradation of Being
5. Argument from Design
***EXPLANATION FROM 1st
The Argument From MotionSt. Thomas Aquinas:
•studying the works of the Greek philosopher Aristotle
concluded from common observation:
that an object that is in motion (e.g. the planets, a rolling
stone) is put in motion by some other object or force.
From this, Aquinas believes that
ultimately there must have been an
UNMOVED MOVER (GOD) who first put
things in motion.
• Anselm's motto is “faith seeking
understanding” (fides quaerens intellectum)
• St. Anselm of Canterbury (1033–1109 CE) was
a Christian philosopher.
• He was Archbishop of Canterbury from the age
of 60 until his death
The Ontological Argument
• Anselm is perhaps most famous for
developing the ontological argument for the
existence of God.
1.God is that than which nothing greater can be
2.It is greater to exist than to not exist.
3.Therefore, God exists.
To one who has faith, no
explanation is necessary. To one
without faith, no explanation is
The Evolution of Medieval Thought (1962) by David Knowles Random House
St. Augustine (1960). The Confessions of St. Augustine. New York. by John K.
St. Augustine (1960). The Confessions of St. Augustine. New York. by John K.
A History of Philosophy 2: Medieval Philosophy by Frederick Charles
The Christian Philosophy of St. Thomas Aquinas by Étienne Gilson
Some Slides excerpt by Dr. Tenorio’s Lecture
THANK YOU and GOD BLESS!!