PHILOSOPHICAL EPOCH Lecture 3 (history of the past)

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PHILOSOPHY

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  • BC: Before Christ
    AD: "Anno Domini (In the year of the Lord)
    CE: Common Era
    B.C.E: Before the Common, Christian, or Current Era
  • Consequently happening
  • After two centuries, Adam Smith remains a towering figure in the history of economic thought.
    Known primarily for a single work—An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776), the first comprehensive system of political economy.
  • —set free, as it were, the complex elements of status, authority, and wealth that had been for so long consolidated
  • PHILOSOPHICAL EPOCH Lecture 3 (history of the past)

    1. 1. Lecture 3 (History of the Past) Brief Historical PHILOSOPHY Prepared by RPC 2014©
    2. 2. THE PHILOSOPHICAL EPOCH  ESSENTIAL POSIT:  the identity of each epoch to which has its own characteristics  the evolutionary phase or development of the human mind in the history Prepared by RPC 2014©
    3. 3. Ancient Philosophy  philosophical activities of the early Greek world  operated over a period some 1000 years from middle of the 1st millennium B.C to the middle of the 1st millennium A.D  Pre-Socratic period is characteristically COSMOCENTRIC which speaks of non perceptible items such as numbers, deities and universal kinds.  Pre-Socratics proposed bold theories on the largest possible scale  the analysis and evolution of patterns of reasoning and argument Prepared by RPC 2014©
    4. 4.  the importance of understanding in the pursuit of good life  the need to analyze the nature of the human person  the importance of the concept of justice in defining the nature of a political system  they used their reason to understand the world, without appealing to religion, revelation, authority or tradition  they taught other people to use their own reason, and think for themselves Prepared by RPC 2014©
    5. 5. MEDIEVAL PHILOSOPHY  the term medieval refers to the Middle Ages , the time in European history between classical antiquity and the Italian Renaissance, from about 500 A.D to about 1350  theocentric in its character  during the decline of Greco-Roman civilization, Western philosophers turned their attention from the scientific investigation of nature and the search for happiness in this world, to the problem of salvation and life in another, better world Prepared by RPC 2014©
    6. 6.  the torch of civilization in Western Europe was carried mainly by the Christian Church, where thought were conducted under the context of Christian doctrines  by the 3rd century A.D, Christianity had spread throughout the Roman Empire.  The religious teachings of the gospels were combined by the Fathers of the Church with many of the philosophical concepts of the Greek and Roman schools. Prepared by RPC 2014©
    7. 7.  The tendency of philosophers during this period was to seek orthodoxy as well as truth. Nearly all medieval thinkers- Jewish, Christian and Muslim-were determined merge or synthesize philosophy with religion.  Islamic civilization performed the function of preserving the culture of classical antiquity, particularly the philosophy of Aristotle  Their thoughts were mire imposing than informative due to the prevalence and dominance of paganism and barbarism  Much of what we now regard as Christian doctrine had its origins in Greek and Hellenistic philosophy Prepared by RPC 2014©
    8. 8. 1700-1900 1600 1500
    9. 9. Towards the EPOCH 1700 1800 1900 Industrial RevolutionFrench Revolution
    10. 10. Industrial Revolution Renaissance Reformation Scientific Revolution Civil Revolution 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 1700 1900
    11. 11. Middle Ages & Renaissance Period 1. Humanistic and devoted to history 2. Christian theology were taken up by intellectual leaders 3. Humanism as the most significant aspect of ancient philosophy
    12. 12. MODERN PHILOSOPHY  characteristically anthropocentric  RENAISSANCE and REFORMATION  The Renaissance was a literary and cultural movement that spread through western Europe in the 14th and 15th centuries  Representation of the transitional period for philosophy from medieval synthesis to modern analysis Prepared by RPC 2014©
    13. 13.  The 15th and 16th centuries were a period of radical social, political and intellectual developments.  The explorations of the world, the Reformation with its emphasis on individual faith the rise of commercial urban society, and the dramatic appearance of new ideas in all areas of culture stimulated the development of a new philosophical world view  Reject the scholastics excessive reliance on the authority of earlier scholars and theologians  Challenged ecclesiastical authority and made individual believers responsible for their own relation to God, Prepared by RPC 2014©
    14. 14.  Renaissance thinkers proposed an analogous elimination of all appeals to authority in education and science  Emphasized the value of the classics for their own sake, rather than for their relevance to Christianity  Educational practiced was revolutionized by the recovery of ancient doctrines, the rejection of institutional authority and renewed emphasis on individual freedom  Philosophers drifted away from abstract speculations in life after death and developed an intense interest in the visible world and in knowledge derived from concrete sensory experiencePrepared by RPC 2014©
    15. 15.  Political institutions, ethical principles ceased to be regarded as reflections of divine command and came to be seen as practical devices created by humans  PHILOSOPHICAL VIEW: experience and reason became the sole standards of truth  Conspicuous rise in the individualism and secularism: the areas of humanism, religious reformation, politics and skepticism Prepared by RPC 2014©
    16. 16. ENLIGHTENMENT PHILOSOPHY  Term used to described the trends in thought during 18th century before French Revolution of 1789-1799  The period of a new enlightened reason, science and respect for humanity, ( rom darkness and ignorance to light)  New discoveries in science and the spirit of cultural relativism  The power of human reason, the us of judicious reason, progress in knowledge, in technical achievement and in moral values. Prepared by RPC 2014©
    17. 17.  Most Enlightenment thinkers did not renounce religion altogether, some accept DEISM, the existence of God but rejecting the practice of Christian Theology  Worldly happiness was placed before religious salvation  No fixed ideas but new methods of thought, explored new ideas in different ways Prepared by RPC 2014©
    18. 18. 1700-1800 Mid 18th Century Capitalism Civil Revolution Industrial Revolution
    19. 19. French Revolution and the Industrial Revolution  the breakup of the old order—an order that had rested on kinship, land, social class, religion, local community and monarchy
    20. 20. CONTEMPORARY PHILOSOPHY  Literally means “the philosophy of our time” Evolutionary Philosophy- the late 19th Century • Second half of 19th century was based more on biology and history rather than mathematics and physics • Shifted to new ideologies in science, politics and sociology • The growth of industrial prosperity, population and urbanization • Growth of working class, labor movement • Advances in Science, increasing secularization ( transformation of society) and growth of materialism Prepared by RPC 2014©
    21. 21. A New World Order- Transition to the 20th Century  Imperialism, industrialization and advancements in technology and production  Rise of nationalism, militarism and political alliances Prepared by RPC 2014©
    22. 22. Made the biggest advances on two fronts of philosophy: 1. Radical appraisal of the nature of human knowledge – an attempt to understand the human condition in a universe no longer seen as created by God 2. Seeks to express allegiance to rigor and precision, science, logical techniques and perhaps most distinctively of all- careful investigation of language as the best means of investigating concepts Prepared by RPC 2014©
    23. 23. THANK YOU! REFERENCES: Dr. Alex Tenorio: Lecture in Introduction to Philosophy (2005) Images: Google image Prepared by RPC 2014©

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