Branches of Philosophy Lecture 2 RPC 2014©

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Branches of Philosophy Lecture 2 RPC 2014©

  1. 1. BRANCHES OF PHILOSOPHY Lecture 2 Prepared by Raizza Corpuz
  2. 2. BRANCHES OF PHILOSOPHY
  3. 3. Branches of Philosophy Ethics Politics Religion Metaphysics Logic Epistemology Aesthetics Science
  4. 4. Ethics Questions: How should we live? What is good and evil? What is the best way to live? What is Justice? Is right and wrong the same everywhere or different everywhere?
  5. 5. Ethics A philosophical study on the morality (goodness or badness) of human actions (conduct) What should one do? Descriptive – Sociology Normative – Prescriptive Meta ethics – How do we arrive at moral judgment?
  6. 6. Epistemology Explores the nature and limitations of knowledge Definition of knowledge Investigates how knowledge is obtained Explores the relationship between belief, truth and knowledge
  7. 7. Epistemology Questions: What is knowledge? How is knowledge acquired? How do we know what we know?
  8. 8. What is Epistemology? Epistemology (from Greek ἐπιστήμη - episteme-, "knowledge, science" + λόγος, "logos") or theory of knowledge is the branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope (limitations) of knowledge • How knowledge is relates to truth, belief, and justification. • The means of production of knowledge
  9. 9. Epistemological Questions What is knowledge? How is knowledge acquired? What do people know? How do we know what we know? Is human knowledge trustworthy? Can our senses be trusted? Difference between opinion, knowledge and wisdom
  10. 10. Metaphysics Knowledge Science • Explores the fundamental nature of reality and being Ontology Existence Objects Properties Space and Time Cause and Effect
  11. 11. Metaphysics Questions: What is real? What is reality? What is reality like?
  12. 12. METAPHYSICS Questions: 1.Reality 2.Time 3.Space 4.Presentism 5.Relativistic Concept
  13. 13. Politics Political Philosophy Explores the relationship between citizens and governments Liberty Legal Justice Property Ownership Citizen's Rights System of Law
  14. 14. Politics Questions: How should government be organized? What makes a government legitimate? Who decides who the leaders should be? What laws are good and necessary? How should law be enforced?
  15. 15. Aesthetics Sensori-Emotional Values Explores the nature of beauty, art, and taste with the creation and appreciation of beauty
  16. 16. Aesthetics Questions What is beauty? What is art? What is the value of beauty and art? Who should judge what is beautiful or artistic? How should art and beauty be judged?
  17. 17. Aesthetics Discussion: • On the left is Marcel Duchamp's ready- made “sculpture” called “Fountain”. It's a factory-made urinal on a stand. • Is this “Art”? • Why / Why not? • Is it beautiful? Offensive? • Why?
  18. 18. Religion Philosophy of Religion Branch of philosophy concerned with questions regarding religion Nature & Existence of God Theology Examination of Religious Experience Analysis of Religious language and texts Relationship between Religion and Science
  19. 19. Religion Questions • Does God exist? • What is God? • What is the nature of the relationship between God and humans? • Is God active in the world? How? • Is there life after death? • What is the relationship between Religion and Ethics? ...Religion and Science?
  20. 20. Religion Pantheism What is God? God is the Universe and the Universe is God. There is no distinction between God and the universe (nature). Some forms of Buddhism are examples of pantheism.
  21. 21. Religion Panentheism What is God? God is in the Universe and the Universe is in God God is more than the Universe. God and the Universe are connected but not identical.
  22. 22. Philosophy of Science Science Concerned with the assumptions, foundations, methods and implications of science. Empirical Verification Inductive Logic Objectivity of the Observer
  23. 23. Philosophy of Science Questions • What is the natural world? • How should we study nature? • What methods are useful in the study of nature? • Can science establish Natural Laws which are absolute (true everywhere and for everyone)? • What are the limits of scientific knowledge?
  24. 24. Logic Rules for Thinking The systematic principles (or rules) for thinking rationally. Inferences are made by construction of Arguments Rules of Logic determine which arguments are VALID and which are FALACIES
  25. 25. LOGIC A philosophical study on the correct processes of thinking. The systematic study of argument The rule of inference Distinguishing valid from invalid argument Examination fallacies Using correct argument patterns
  26. 26. Logic A philosophical study on the correct processes of thinking. The systematic study of argument The rule of inference Distinguishing valid from invalid argument Examination fallacies Using correct argument patterns
  27. 27. And Jonathan Lear has said, • "Aristotle shares with modern logicians a fundamental interest in metatheory": his primary goal is not to offer a practical guide to argumentation but to study the properties of inferential systems themselves.
  28. 28. Logic, • from Classical Greek λόγος (logos), means originally the word, or what is spoken, (but comes to mean thought or reason). • The exact definition of logic is a matter of controversy among philosophers, but It is often said to be the study of arguments.
  29. 29. •Aristotle holds, exactly one member of any contradiction is true and one false: they cannot both be true, and they cannot both be false. • NO T/T or F/F Just: T/F
  30. 30. Aristotle's analysis of the simplest form of argument: the three-term Syllogism. • The standard example in philosophy has always been: • All men are mortal. [Premise1 in the form: All B's are C's.] • Socrates is a man. [Premise 2 in the form: (All) A is B.] • Therefore, Socrates is mortal. [Conclusion in the form: All A's are C's.]
  31. 31. E. G 1.) All men are mortal 2.) No gods are mortal Therefore: 3.) No men are gods. 1.) Everybody likes Fridays 2.) Today is Friday Therefore: 3.) Everybody likes today
  32. 32. • All B's are A's. • All C's are B's. • All C's are A's. The syllogism has two premises and a conclusion. Each premise is a proposition with a subject term and a predicate term. In the conclusion, the subject term is C and the predicate term is A. There is also a "middle term" B, which is the term linking the C's and the A's. Hence Aristotle regards the middle term as what provides the explanation (i.e., B explains why all C's are A's.)
  33. 33. THANK YOU!!!

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