Ancient philosophy


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Ancient philosophy

  1. 1. ANCIENT PHILOSOPHY Prepared by: Raizza P. Corpuz
  2. 2. Ancient Greek Philosophers School of Athens - Raphael Sanzio
  3. 3. ANCIENT PHILOSOPHY: BIRTH OF PHILOSOPHY • Philosophy originated in the Greek city states along the coast of Asia Minor around 600 BC – Because they were not as bound by tradition as city-states on mainland Greece – Because they were also constantly in touch with the ancient science and speculation of the Middle East – They were, in short, more open to intellectual innovation and speculation than counterparts on the mainland 07/14/13 RPC 2013
  4. 4. Philosophical Epochs Ancient Philosophy • Ancient Philosophy07/14/13 RPC 2013
  5. 5. References • The Power of Ideas, by Brooke Moor and Kenneth Bruder; Essentials of Philosophy : The Basic Concepts of the World's Greatest Thinkers, by James Mannion; the series of lectures The Great Ideas of Philosophy, by Prof. Daniel N. Robinson from Oxford University; 07/14/13 RPC 2013
  6. 6. THE PRE-SOCRATICS • The early Greek philosophers saw the world around them and asked questions about it. Instead of attributing its creation to anthropomorphic gods, they sought rational explanations. • One idea the Pre-Socratic philosophers had was that there was a single underlying substance that held within itself principles of change. • This underlying substance and its inherent principles could become anything. In addition to looking at the building blocks of matter, the early philosophers looked at the stars, music, and number systems. Later philosophers focused entirely on conduct or ethics. • Instead of asking what made the world, they asked what was the best way to live.07/14/13 RPC 2013
  7. 7. THE PRE-SOCRATICS • The Western philosophical tradition began in ancient Greece in the 6th century BCE. The first philosophers are called “Presocratics” which designates that they came before Socrates. • The Presocratics were from either the eastern or western regions of the Greek world. Athens — home of Socrates, Plato and Aristotle — is in the central Greek region and was late in joining the philosophical game. 07/14/13 RPC 2013
  8. 8. • The Presocratic’s most distinguishing feature is emphasis on questions of physics; indeed, Aristotle refers to them as “Investigators of Nature”. Their scientific interests included mathematics, astronomy, and biology. As the first philosophers, though, they emphasized the rational unity of things, and rejected mythological explanations of the world. 07/14/13 RPC 2013
  9. 9. ANAXAGORAS • He believed that the universe was originally an undifferentiated mass until it was worked upon by mind (nous), a spiritual component. (Anaxagoras was the first to attach importance to the concept of mind.) He believed there were no pure stuffs in the universe but that everything shared a part of everything else: • "There is a portion of everything in everything."Into the chaos in which the seeds of all things were jumbled, mind inserted motion. As it gained speed, a vortex formed and objects separated out. 07/14/13 RPC 2013
  10. 10. Anaximander • Anaximander thought the principle of all things was infinity. He also said the moon borrowed its light from the sun, which was made up of fire. He made a globe and, according to Diogenes Laertes was the first to draw a map of the inhabited world. Anaximander is credited with inventing the gnomon (pointer) on the sundial. 07/14/13 RPC 2013
  11. 11. • Empedocles of Acragas (c. 495-435 B.C.) was known as a poet, statesman, and physician, as well as philosopher. Empedocles encouraged people to look upon him as a miracle worker. Philosophically he believed in the four elements. 07/14/13 RPC 2013
  12. 12. • Heraclitus (fl. 69th Olympiad, 504-501 B.C.) is the first philosopher known to use the word kosmos for world order, which he says ever was and ever will be, not created by god or man. Heraclitus is thought to have abdicated the throne of Ephesus in favor of his brother. He was known as Weeping Philosopher and Heraclitus the Obscure. 07/14/13 RPC 2013
  13. 13. • Parmenides (b c. 510 B.C.) was a Greek philosopher. He argued against the existence of a void, a theory used by later philosophers in the expression "nature abhors a vacuum," which stimulated experiments to disprove it. Parmenides argued that change and motion are only delusions. 07/14/13 RPC 2013
  14. 14. The Pythagorean School • Probably the most famous of the early Greek philosophers that are known collectively as the Pre-Socratics is the 6th century B.C. philosopher Pythagoras, who may have actually lived and may have invented the theorem named for him -- or not. 07/14/13 RPC 2013
  15. 15. • Anyone who can recall math classes will remember the first lessons of plane geometry that usually start with the Pythagorean theorem about right-angled triangles: a²+b²=c². In spite of its name, the Pythagorean theorem was not discovered by Pythagoras. 07/14/13 RPC 2013
  16. 16. • This shows how Pythagoras’ formulation immediately led to a new mathematical problem, namely that of incommensurables. At his time the concept of irrational numbers was not known and it is uncertain how Pythagoras dealt with the problem. • From Pythagoras we observe that an answer to a problem in science may give raise to new questions. For each door we open, we find another closed door behind it. 07/14/13 RPC 2013
  17. 17. • Greek Philosophers – Pythagoras- universe followed the same laws that govern music & numbers • Pythagorean Theorem- determine the length of the sides of a triangle 07/14/13 RPC 2013
  18. 18. Socrates and his Followers WATCH A CLIP ABOUT THE ANCIENT PHILOSOPHY Ancient Greek Philosophy.flv 07/14/13 RPC 2013
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  20. 20. WHO IS SOCRATES?? Socrates - Encyclopedia channel.flv 07/14/13 RPC 2013
  21. 21. WHO IS SOCRATES based on the given CLIP? • SOCRATIC METHOD Dialectic Method DIALOGUE QUESTION and ANSWER ????? = KNOWLEDGE and VIRTUE A MAN OF VIRTUE 07/14/13 RPC 2013
  22. 22. What’s the significance of this picture? 07/14/13 RPC 2013
  23. 23. • Sophists- professional teachers – Taught students how to win arguments – Rejected the idea of an Absolute Right & Wrong 07/14/13 RPC 2013
  24. 24. “The unexamined life is not worth living. ... Wisdom begins in wonder. ... There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance.” (Socrates, 469 - 399 B.C.)
  25. 25. “The philosopher is in love with truth, that is, not with the changing world of sensation, which is the object of opinion, but with the unchanging reality which is the object of knowledge.” (Plato, 429 - 347 B.C.) 07/14/13 RPC 2013
  26. 26. “We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence, then, is not an act, but a habit. ... At his best, man is the noblest of all animals; separated from law and justice he is the worst.” (Aristotle, 384 - 322 B.C.) 07/14/13 RPC 2013
  27. 27. PhilosopherPhilosopher IdeasIdeas PythagorasPythagoras all relationships can be expressed in numbers; Pythagorean theorem SocratesSocrates absolute truth exists within everyone; Socratic method PlatoPlato government should be divided into three groups, ruled by philosopher-kings; men and women should have equal education and employment AristotleAristotle “golden mean”; use senses to make observations like a scientist; analyzed governments and decided that the best was a mixture of government by a few and democracy 07/14/13 RPC 2013
  29. 29. CONTINUATION……. 07/14/13 RPC 2013