80982258 philippine-history

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80982258 philippine-history

  1. 1. .,.. ) .'• ,I , •, ;. :) : . Maria Christine N. Halili 1'<11>/w.d & [);ott1b<Aod0~: ~BookStore IK Nft.a...or ~~, Sf. Sl. ,.... H04- 735·1,_..• 73a..os-17 l l71 C.M. Recto Avt" t.lt T.a.No.a.. 73S.SS.27• 735-55-34 tAenlle. ~llpplnea www.rtxl"ltrecdl{•,com
  2. 2. RBS Philippine Copyright, 2004 by Rex Book Store, Inc. Philippine History Fir&t Edition 2004 ISBN 971-23-3934-3 Cl,.•sification: Text!look (04·SS·0000l) IU!PliJNTI!D: FESROAJIY2006 Published, copyrighted 2004, and distributed by ~ Book Store, Inc. (RRSI) with main office at 856 Nic~tnor Reyes,Sr. St .•Samp~>loc, Manila; 1'el No. 735·13-64. Regioaal Offices: 11SanciangkoSL.,Cebu City, Tel.Nos. 251-e773, 254-e774; lS<l-AC.M. Recto St., Davao City, Tel. Nos. 221.02-72. 22G-3 l -67; 2nd St., Ledesco Village, Jaro, Iloilo City, Tel. No~. 336-46-18, 320-45·85;Zone 6 Pinmaludpod, Urdaneta, Pnngasinan, Tel. No. 568-3976; cor. J Serina and Vameota Blvd., Carmon, Cagayan d8 Om City, Tel. No. 858·6775; Magallane~ cor. Alonzo St., Legaspi City, Tel. No. 820-2270. www.rexlnteractive.com ~o portion ofthis book may becopied orreprod~d in books, pamphlets, putlines,or notes. whether printed, mimeographe<l. typewritten, phowcopied, or in any other fonn, for distribution or sale. without the writ· ten permission of th11 Publisher and Authors. The infringer shall be PTOSecuted in compliance with copyright, trademark, patent, and other pertinent laws. RBSI's Local Book As8acialion Memberships: Associa tion of Philippine Bookscllers(APB); Book Development Association ofthe Phijppines(BDAP); Philippine Educational Publishers Association (PEPA}; Book Exporters Association of the Philippines; Nationwide Book Network, Inc. f'EPA'a International Book Association Membe~ships: Asia Pacific Publishers As~ociation {APPA); A9sociation of South EH•t A9ian Publishers (ASEAP); International Publishers Association (IPA) Printed by I REX )RMiNGCOMpAI'Iy.iocc. 84-86 P. Florentino St.. Sta. MesaHeighI-s.Quewn City.Tel.:-<os.712-41-01,712-41-06, 712-4 1-08; fo'ax No. 711-54·12
  3. 3. Acknowledgment Above aU, the author wishes to thank the Almighty God for the blessings and guidance He has given her. For the realization of this venl'ure, .~he would like to express her sincere gratitude to the following author.~ whose works were referred to in the text:Dr.Sonia Zaide,Professor RenataConstantino, Professor Teodoro Agoncillo, Professor Milagros Guerrero, Dr. William Henry Scott, Dr. Raymundo Punongbay~~n, and Mr. Hector Santos,aswell ilS to New DayPublishersforallowingher to include in this book, the topic about the Code of Kalantiaw. Special thanks to Atty. P~ntaleon Ownlao, MIS.Liberty Santos- Dumlao, Mr. Daniel Ortega, Mr. Ray Naguit and Ms. Julita Javier for providing some data materials for the book a~ well as to Dr. Norma MoraIa, Deanof the College of Arts and SciencesofBulacan State UniveJSity fur her unending support. Special rnention.isgiven to her relativesand friends particular!}' Mr.Angel Recto, Ms. Mary Mayoyo, Ms. Josefina Ochoa, Ms. Je!lsica Chosas, t..b. Marissa Enriquez, and Mr. 'Ricardo Capule for their invaluable help in various ways. Finally, tp her parents, Mr. Romeo and Attv. Lolita Halili; her brothers, Antonio and Fre<:lerick; her sister:>, Annabelle and Merhama for theil: inspiration and prayers. M.C.N.H iii
  4. 4. Preface Knowing the inipre_,;,;ions left by past generatiom; tdls us that valuable lessons can be learned from hi.-;tory. The transition of the Filipino society hoin the earlyphases of tcchnologic;al development up to its preparation towanls glol>a lb:<~tion definitely reflects the chara<"ter of the local inhabitants as wtdl as the culture thathall been d~vtdoped after a long period of time. This college text titled Phi/ippill£' Hi,;fory tra~·es the early beginnings of the country's nah.tral ~vironment. its people and culture, shaped and changed by socioeconomic and geopolitical conditions. Thi.~ book intends to incorporate the notable events that took p l~ce in our country; unfurling the a~pirations of the prople and unfohling the possibilitie.~ oJ the future. S<:holars of hi,;tory have already written quite a number of specialized studies about thP. Philippines. The purposeof th.i:>book is to introduce the pa::;t, based on reC'E'nt re~carches. Specifically, this mod~t cont:ril>utionlo thestudy ofthe nation's history haq iffi mission of disseminating the ide~Is prt>Vailing in the socwty under varied circumstances and promoting the nationalistic spirit among people, to fulfill the concept of what a Filipino should be as defined and lived by our noblE' heme~ v M.C.N.H Guigullto. Bulacan
  5. 5. Course Outline I. Objectives A. General Objectives At the end of the course, the students are expected to: 1. Gather information about Philippine history marked by important events, places. dates a1•d p ersons forming the growth of !locictics and distinction of culture; 2. Understand the internal and external pressures involved in the tra~ition of societies and culture found in the country at different periods of time; 3. Appreciate the accomplishment:> offellowcountrymen for the weliare of the nation; 4. Re.ali7.eand avoid thl!'mistakescommitred in the past to guide the present and prepare the future; and 5. Develop a sense of identity and pride in beir>g a Filipino. B. Specific Objectives At the end of the midtenn period, the students ~re expected to: 1. Find out the meaning and the task of hi~tory; 2. Be awareof the theories inundeiStandinghistoryand to relate them to J?aSt events and curTent issues; 3. Detennine the sources of history and the historical errors; 4. Know the briefhistory of Philippine arthaeology; 5. ~ familiar with·tht: wuntry's geological form3tlon, gevgraphy, and natural resources; 6. Be able to identify and describe the v11.st majority and the indigenous people in the an;hipelago; and 7. Identify the circumstances surrounding the colonintion of the archipelago and the influences brought about by foreign interaction.
  6. 6. Attheend ofthe final tenn. the students areC)(pccted to: 1. Become aware of the values and beliefs of thepeople shaped and changed by socioeconomic and geopolitical influencesbroughtbywest~mcoloniz.els; 2. Analy7.e the factors that gave birth to Filipino nationalism; 3. Undenstand the struggle of the people for reforms and national independence during the Spani.~h colonial era; 4. Know the historical ba~is for the country's cli!irn on North Homeo; 5. Lookinto the circumstances surrumldingthebirth of the Filipino nation; 6. Understand the reasons behind the formation of militant groups; 7. Discuss the issues and problem,.; of the country after the recognition of the country's sovereignty; 8. Reevaluate the policies of the past adm.inistratio~; 9. Relate the events in other countries with the Philippines; and 10. Assess the socioeconomic and cultural development of the country through the years. II. Course Contents A. Knowing Philippine History 1. Meaning of History 2. Tiw Task ofHistory 3. Theories in Understanding llistory 4. Sour~ of History 5. Brid H~tory of Philippine Archaeology 6. Persisting Problems 7. Unhistorical Data viii
  7. 7. 8 . The Natural Setting and lt5 People l. How tht> Earth was in the Beginning 1.1 Based 01 Philippint> I,pgc.nd!> and Myths 1.2 Scientific Expl.mation 2. Geological Foundation 2.1 Geology and Prehistory. 2.2 I.,md Formation 3. The Archipelago's ::-.I;Hne 3.1 Pre-Spanish to Prest>nl ·1. Gt>Ography and Re;ourt."t'S 4.1 Location 4.2 Climate 4.3 Topography 4A flor~t and l'auna 5. The Filipino 5.1 TraiL~ and Values 5.2 Theork-s on the Origin o( the Hlipinos C. fi lipino Society and Culture During lhe l"rc-Sp.tnish Period 1. Early Period$ ofC ultural Develuprnt>nt 1.1 Stone Ag~: 12 MdJI Age 1.3 Age of Contact D. Spanish Conquest and the Coloni7.ation of the Philippines 1. fn S.:arch of Nc:-w l.ands 2. Magellan's l'ew Route to the East "!. Rediscovery of the l'hilippines 4. Magellan's Voyage to the Archipelago '5. Post·Magellan expeditions 6. Towards lhe J>acification of the Nahv€'~ 7. Early Sp anish Settlemenll> IX
  8. 8. 8. l.nstmments of Exploitation 9. Political Reorganization F.. Towards the Jlispanization of the Natives 1. Economy 2. Education 3. Arts and Science 4. Rt'ligion F. Foreign Affairs 1. Sino-Philippine Relations 2. Dutch Attempts 3. Briti!;h Ckcupation C. Struggle for Rights ~nd freedom 1. Revolt of Lakandula and Sulayrnan 2. First Pampanga Revolt 3. !fagat Salama! and the Tondo Conspiracy 4. Magalat':; Revolt .S. Revolt of the Irrayas ' 6. Rt'volt of Tamblot 7. Revolt uf Bankaw 8. !Wvolt of Ladia 9. Revolt of Oabm1 10. Maniago'11 Ri'Vult 11. Malong's Rl'V<>lt 12. Revolt ofGum,lpus lJ. Revolt of Pechv Alma~an 14. Sumoroy's RPVoll 15. Tapdr 's Revolt 16. Dagnhor's Revolt 17. Silang's l~evoll 18. Palaris's Re,•olt 19. Revolt in Defcns~ of the Spanish Constitution l(
  9. 9. 20. Revolt of the Bayot Brothers 21. RP.ligious Revolt of Hermano Pule 22. Muslim Y..'ars 23. Factors that Gave Rise to Nabona lism 24. Propaganda Movement 25. The Katipunan 26. Revolution of1896 27. Rivalry in the Peatipunan 28. The Biak-na-Bato Republic 29. Spanish-American War 30. Filipino-American Collaboration H. The Birth of a Nation 1. Proclamation of Philippine lndependcnre 2. "Battle" of Manit~ 3. The Mdloloo Republk I. The American Rule 1. War of Philippine independence from the United St.ltes 2. The Philippines under the American Civil Government 3. Our American Heritage 4. Philippine Independent Church 5. Tht> Colonuns 6. l...md Tenure System 7. The First l abor Groups 8. Communist Party of the Philippii•es 9. Sakdalism 10. Philippine l'olitic-5 During the Era J. Commonwealth Period 1. The Tran~ilion 2. Decades of Unrest 3. Entry of Japanese Imperial Forces xi
  10. 10. K. Th(' Japanes~ Occupation l. }apan<.'SC Martial Law :?.. The Second Philippine Republic J. Resistance and Reslo•·<~tinn l. The Conditions of the Republk Under Different Administrations l. Milnud A. J{ox<ls 2. Elpidio Quirino 3. R..1mon Magsaysay 4 Carlos P. Garcia 5. Diosdddo Mac.1pagal 6. Ferdinand E. Milrcos 7. Corazon C. Aquino 8. fidel V. Ramos 9. Joseph Estrada 10. Gloria Mncapag;~l-/ rroyo
  11. 11. {j;~~?~J,lG.Philippine History I. Understanding History ....................................................... 1 2. Source.~ offlistory ................................................................ 4 3. Unhistorical Data ................................................................ S CM!'Ier Test No. ! .................................... .................................. 13 ti'~··(~):;r;,~.N,aturalSettingand its Peuple 1. How th~ Earth Was in the & ginning .......................... 1(, 2. Geological Foundation ...................................................... 19 3. The Archipelago's N~me................................................... 21 4. Geography and R!!SOU<(;I!$ ................................................ 22 5. Country's Climat~ ............................................................. 30 6. The Filipino People ......................................................... 30 7. 'Iheori~s on th!! Origin of Filipinos.................................. 34 Chapter T<'~t No.2....................................................................... 36 ~~:~,®rr.~:colonial Philippines 1. Cultural Evolution of the Early rilipinos ....................... 40 2. Traditional Filipino Communitie$ .............................. ...55 Chapter Test :-Jo. 3 ......................................................................65 xiii
  12. 12. 'i!~~.!')panisb Era 1. In Search ofNew Land~ ....................................................69 2. Mdgellan's New Route to the l:iast ................................... 70 ::!. Rediscovery of the Philippines ......................................... 72 4. 'lht> Sjlanish Conquest of the lo;lands .............................. 78 5. ·Inwards the Hispanization of the Natives ..................... 86 6. Chinese in the Philippi.n~ ................................................97 7. More Europeans in the Islands ....................................... 100 Chapter Test No. ·L ................................................................... 104 •i'~.(~).~t.~t_:~~lcfor Rights and Freedom 1. Revolt of Lakandula and Sulayman .............................. 110 2. First Pampanga Revolt .................................................... 110 3. The Tondo Conspiracy ..................................................... 111 4. MagaiM's Revolt ............................................................... 112 5. Revolt nf the IKorot11 ......................................................... 112 6. Revolt of the lrr.yas ......................................................... 112 7. Revolt of Tambl11t ............................................................. 113 8. .Bankaw's Revolt ............................................................... 113 9. The t{evolt of t,l<.ila .......................................................... 114 10. Revolt of Dabao ................................................................ 114 11. Sl•moroy's Revolt ............................................................. 115 12. ..laniago's Revolt .............................................................. 115 13. Andrel! :vfalong's Revolt .................................................. 116 H . 1he Revolt of Gumapo! ................................................... 117 15. Revolt of PL'<iro Almazan ................................................ 117 16. Tapar'!i Revolt ................................................................... ll8 17. Dagohov's Revolt ............................................................. 118 18. Sil<~ ng's- Revolt ........................ ......................................... 119 )CiV
  13. 13. 19. Palaris's Revolt ........................................................... 120 20. Basi Revolt ..................................................................... 121 21. R~!volt in Dl;.>fense of th.. Sp~ni~h Cono;titution ............ 121 22. R~!volt of the Bayot BroH•ers ........................................... 122 23. Religious Revolt of Ik•nnant<.> Pule ................................ 122 24. Muslim Var:s .................................................................... 123 25. The Rise of Filipilw Nationalism ................................... 127 26. Propaganda Movern~nt ................................................... 132 27. The Katipunan ............................................................. 137 28 Remlutivn of1896............................................................ 142 29. Riv.1lry in the K<~lipunan ................................................. 147 30. The Biak-na-B;"~to R.-public ............................................ 151 31. TheSpanish-Americon War ........................................... 153 32. Filipino-American Coll~boration ..........,....................... 155 Chapter T!!st No. 5 ............................................................... 158 1. Proclamation of Philippine Independence ................... 162 2. The Incredulous Battle of Manila .................................. 163 3. The Malulos Republic ...................................................... 165 Chapter Test No.6.................................................................... 170 1. War of Philippint' Independence from the U.S............ 174 2. A Government under America ...................................... 179 3. The Amerkan legacy ...................................................... 188 4. Philippine Independent Church .................................... 192 !'5. The Colorums ................................................................... 193 6. Land Tenure System..............................................,.. 195 XV
  14. 14. 7. The First Labor Groups ......... ................................. ... 196 8. Th.e Conullunist Party of the Philippines ..................... 198 9. Sakdalisrn .......................................................................... 199 Chapter Test No.7..................................................................... 201 ~~®.S:?.J;ttmflnwealth Pcrifld I. Th~ Transition .................................................................. 208 2. ~ade of Unrest .............................................................. 211 3. Entry ofJapane~e Imperial Force~ ................................. 212 Ch.lptt!r Tt>:>t No. 8.................................................................... 220 (~~;@,~eJapanese Occupatifln l . fapanese MartiaI L.1w ...................................................... 223 2. Life During the Wartime Yl>ars ....................................... 225 3. Reforming thl! Philippine Government ........................ 229 4. Th<> Second lwpublic of thl· Philippines ....................... 2.30 .5. He.slstance and Rl'!ltoration ............................................. 235 Chapter Test No.9..................................................................... 245 (iit;IIU!a'Wi>Jiii:< ~0 The Re)Jubllc··......w~~~-·~....,.:....~. 1. Roxas Administration (l '146-48} ..................................... 250 2. Quirino idministration (1948·53).................................. 2.'>4 3. Magsaysay Admini~tration (195..1-57) ............................ 258 4. C.lrcia Administration (1'157-61) .................................... 261 5. Macapagal Administration (1961-65) ............................ 262 6. :vl;trc<>s Administration {1965·1986)............................... 265 . 7. Aquinoidministr,,tion (1986-199::!} .............................. 279 8. Ramos Administration (1992·1998) ............................... 283 wi
  15. 15. 9. Estrada Administration (1998-2001) ............................... 287 '10. Arroyo Admini.~tration (2001-present) .......................... 298 Chapter Test No. 10................................................................... 306 Rderen<:es .................................................................................. 317 Index ........................................................................................... 321 xvii
  16. 16. ~1.-l!i.;.'h''·"" Knowing Philippine History 1. Understanding History In its broadc~t meaning. history is th~ :c;tudy ofpast even.t.~. It generally presents the known past. What is unknown is yet to be retrievt'd. The recording and analysis of t!.><p<!rienct's of a society comprise the totality of a people's history. As a historical being. man responds to the situation placed before him and thus his acts arebased onhi.-; thoughts. The society's way of facing the challenges depending IWO" ils capabilities uncovers the pattem of the society's history. Th~ thalkngenmjrespol•>i! . J}J!'P.'Y..Of the British historian Arnold Joseph Toynbee.11889-1975) is rooted on this presumption. The 12-volumc series of ASt11dyofHistory (1934·61) is based on Toynbcc's thesis that hi.Gtory reflects the progrcss ofciviIization.'i and societies. He viewed the past as a succession of civilizations rather than political entities. Bast'd on his hypothesis, the f~ilure of a civilil:ation to survive was the result of its inability to respond to challenges. Mankind's appxoach in 'coping with challenges determines history. l:ndcr variou~ circumRtancc:;, a power will wi~h lo extend its influence at the expense ofanother power. The threatened power will then reevaluate the challenge and adopt the cowse of action to curb the strategy of the opposing power. · To illustrate. in the stntggle ofdauntless Filipinos to regainlost rights and freedom during the Spanish era, the propagandists and revolutionaries responded to colonial oppression by resisting. The challenge was post-d by the colonial subjugation of the FihpinQS, generally characterized by injustice and corruption. The response was defia'nce to the prevailing ntle. Man's actions are not just involuntary movements especially when time allows him to plan his next action. These n:'Spon.'ieS pa;.~ through the process of re.SOnlng and analysis.Often, he d eal" with other people to discuss on how to answer,, certain situation. 1
  17. 17. Associated with the afort>mentioned premises, the c'Xchangr lh~ory of..AlY,in 5q.(f. may be clltefully thought about. His ~xchangt> theory refers to the systematic statemt<nt uf principle~ that govern the exchange of goods between individuals, between groups, bctween organizations and even between nations. This is bast>d on the idea of reciprocjty. There arc some motivational forccs lound in the society Jffccting the aclions of people involved in the siluation. A,~a.<e in point is the early fonn of trading among the native inhabitants called l'arter. Alliances of people, conununities as wt>ll as nation~ are also rooted in the idea of intel"(;hange. One of the most prominent thinkers of the 19'" century was Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Ileggl_ (1770-1831), a Gennar> idealist philosopher.Hegel conceived thesubject mattero£philosophy tobe TE"alily a5 a who!~. This reality he reftmed to as the Absolute Spirit. For him, the task of philosophy is to chart the development of the Absolute Spirit. Hegel's role ufhi~toriciJI man follows a princople,whi<h he called Wr/tgit-.1 or world 5pirit, which embodies id~als l1ke p<~tdotism, heroism and unHy. Since historical individuals are ideals and man follows his ideal, this thought which is guided by a particuliir ideal becom!!S what H~gcl called as Geisteswis;;•Hchnjtm or the world of spirit of thought. Thi:< nr~a of thought is the thcfi.i~. Thi-; combines with a particular !liluation or malter called Natunvis.senchaften, the antithe~i.s ur the complete opposite of the Geiste..~wissenchaft~•l- By thecombir>ationof thesis and antith~·sis. man achieves thesynthe~is, which is the historical reality. Applylng this theory in hist(>ry, thl•rc were guerilla fighters ir> World War 11 who were guidl•d by their sense of duty and responsibility to lead the people during the warfare. The situ.1tion was the Japanese invasion. The combination of their thoughts like parriotism and heroism rerulted to their historica l;~cts, m.tnifesled through their deeds and exploits in the battles that Wl!re fought against the Japanese forces during the war era. In understanding histo~~,JJ;_Othei..~Jii?!Y,I.Q be consi<lered is _eco>Wn!ic theory of Karl M&'rx, anotifer German ph•losopher. He asserts that the prevailing economic ~ystem determ.ines the form of societal organiT.aion and the political and intdlectual hi~tory olthe epoch, whlch thus attributeactions andev;,nts in history to economic 2
  18. 18. motives. Th~ struggl~ to maintain !if(' is the most enduring motivation for any human activity. To cite anin.~tance, the intensification of inter-island contacts and theincreasingspecialization in craftsmanship by early dwellt>rs were brou~ht about by economic consideration. Cenrurie:; of trade and personal relations with Southeast Asian neighbors led to the enrichment of Filipino life and culhtrc. A~ more d wcllcrs trildcd with foreig n m~rchRnts, influences in the field of commerce, scienn~. · religi<m, languag~ and the arts becam.... 1'lOre t>vict.,.!'lt as they were transmitted to other members of the society. Another example is thE' Spanish colonial t>ra. [t !oils !Jet'n !>aid that tht! three primary motives for vastexploration oflands were for God, gold and glory, but the main incentive w.ls for economic reasons. Colonies are important sources of raw materials and opporiUnillt'S fur invt'Stment. Spain was at th~ height of its vower in the 16"' century since it exercised political and economic control in its several colonies. The Conummist Mtulifesto written by Marx which contains the stM<!mcnt of principles of the Communist League, embodies the rnateriali.<.t concept ofhistory or historical rnateriaIism. TheMattif"~ ro states that the history ofsociety is a history ofstru~;glt'S between the ruling class and the oppressed masses.This is based on the tht•ory of scirntificsocinlroolution of Marx, wherein hestated that whensodety wa5 s till primitive; there wa~ social equilibrium bl•l wilh the introduction OfJ.l~'.Y_i_deas .an<J_ .t<?QIS of doing .thiJlgs, man became greatly c.oncemed with marerfal wealth. This led to a da5s stnaggle between the workers (proletariat) and the capitalists (bourge<Jisie). from thesepremises, Milrxconcluded that the capitalistclils~ would beoverthrownby theworkingclass through revolution and replaced by a da~!lles.~ society. Another approach to historical stud ies is the method of histo riO)>raphy developed by Ferna nd Braud11l (1902-1985), considered the fa ther of rustorical s tructuralism. Accord ing to Braude[, tn achieve a " tot~ ! history," all aspc<l!l of man's past are to be integrated. This new approach involve.~ the ~tudy of history in its Iotalview made possible by exllmining hecircumst11nces untlerlying such political, ~conomic, social, and cultural ~;v~nts. P/:lllipplne history is a people's history. A!< dE-fined by R~enato Constantino,. history is "the recorded strugglt> of people for ev-ei:. 3
  19. 19. increa:;ing freedom and for newer and higher rPilli7.ation of the human person." It is not about the ~tory of man as the indiv,dua!, but man as the associated man. Man interacts with nature ami with other men, thtL~ consciously changing his own per:;pective and to some extent, the sy~tem of environment. Based on Constantino's supposition that Phi!ippilll.' history is a stQry uf ~truggle, the study has to be rC.15Se55ed with a n11tion~list perspective in the interestof objectivity. This is to allow themodl!m Filipino to fmm a cl~ar picltJre of his ancestors' conditions and sentim•mts (rom the puintof view ofFilipino writers to «>rrect some h1storie<•l impressions made by colonial historiography. History is not merely the work of heroes and great men as elucidated by Constantino in his book, 'rile Philippines: A Past Rt>uisitt•d. He pointed out lhal lhe masses of individuals as wdl as the social forcc5 gener11ted by wlle-ctive li"e~ and struggles have to be- includt"d. Men must struggle togt!ther to sun:ivt? the exigencies of natural or social forces int~rvening their development. The associated man, as part of the society, through their collective lives make history. Without a society, history i,; highly improhahle. Constantino further menlionPd lhilt history·is not necess~rily presentinga long, unbrokenchain ofevents. It illustratt!smovement ofJ>eopleand idea!<twer timeand space. They mayeven be in conflict with one <~nother. It is now the ta:~k of thl.' histori<m to we11ve particular events into •l totill view w that these experiences can be .summed up and analyzed. 1hus, the study of hi~<tory c;111 ~<erw ~:<a glidt• to present and succeeding generations In facing the ch.•lk•nge-s of the tim~s. By projecting the people's aspirations, a people's history will en~bl~ us tograsp the direction of the country':~ devclopmtontand identity the factors that impedt? real progress. Truly, tl:w need for a real pcop.lc's historybecomes moreurgent as we Filipino$search for tntly Filipino solutions to the problems besetting our counhy l!. Sources of History Sources of inlorm.Hion provide the evidence from which the historian obtain.-;facts about the past. Jnwriting history. I h~ historia.n not only relies on pa~l thoughts rather reen~cts it in·the context of analyzing the documents and other records left. Thi~ is illl indispensable coc1dition in the quest for historical facts. 4
  20. 20. Source~ of history may beclassified as primary and secondary. Primary SOIH(es are those that have w itnessed the event that took place or have been part of the incident being studied. The~e include written records (e.g. nan atiYes, manuscriprn, public documents, letters, diaries). fos.<;il~. a.rtifac~ and testimony from living witnes.o;es. On theOtherhand,,;eoondary sources have notbeen part of the cvPnt being considered such as n:.agazines, n,ewspapers, pamphlets, .typescripLo;, and actides written about the primary sources. .1'rehi~tory, a term givcn by 19'1 ' cenfury French ~ho Iars, covers the pa:;t human experiences prior to theexistenceofwrittenrecords. The basic source of prehistory is archaeology, which is a sub- discipline of anthropology (i.e., the study of all a~pects ol human life and culture). Archaeology is the study of past cultures. Archaeologists study artifacts (maleria lequipment made by people of the past like tools, pottery. and jewelry) and fos.~ils (preserved remains of plants, animals, and p~ple of a remote geological past). Archaeological excavation refers to the systema1ic recovery and study of these pieces of material evidence. Ardaeology gives us an idea how things might have looked like at a particular time. Cultural artifacts i:nay be looked at as <x.mcrete expressions of the and~nt ~ttlers' way in dealing with the problem of adapt<Jtion to the environment. Their achievements in material and social culllre show mu~h of their behavior,. values, and beliefs a.-, welll'S their in~_llcctual maturity. Unfortunately, the reconstruction ofPhilippineprehistory will always be incomplete. ~any of the objects recovered have disintegra1cd over time. Materials like wood, barks of trees, and clothing decompose easily particularly in a tropical climate such a.~ ours. Dcvlces.mad~stone. cJ~vsoil,.metal andthelike,can survive .most iikeiy i-h~ socij?ty that created II and thtis; bepresently known through the efforts of the archaeologist,;. Early archaeological undertakings in the PhJlippines began with the first major expedition inJ~l}~.!!.~.<;tunan,fi..L~ ~.1:9e..itl .the islandof MafinsuCJUeando.thersite~~in CentralPhilippine~. Most of hi~ collections are now with the ~usee de 1' homrne.inl'.:uis, and some in :l:Jdlo<!:!:i~t There were also sporadic ~ds and pot-hunt.ing act i vih ~s in various parts of the. ~rshipelag()_, prior to th i~ major archaeological excavation. FeodorJagor,a German tTav~>..ler, reported having encountered a priest in Naga, Camarincs S~r who collected artifacts from ancient graveyards. 5
  21. 21. Dr. Antonio de Morga, in his Suusos de La~ ls/as Filipinas (Historical Events of the Philippine rslands), deY.ribed the and enl artifacts that were re<:overed by farmers in Luzon, particularly in llocos, Pangasi.nan, Pampanga,and Manil~ . These were day vessels of di>rkbr<l"'"n color and some marked with characters. These items are no longer being manufactured in the i.~lands. Jose Ri7.al, the country'sforemosthero wasnott>d to havl' foWld ground and polished stone tools during his exile in Dapitan, Zamboanga del Norte. The second major archaeological exploration was carried out by Cad Guthe from the University of Michigan (rom 1922 to 1925. With his team, they conducted several test-digli in Palawan, »ohol, Korthern ilindamo and other places in Central Philippiru!s. The purpose of thi.~ :Michigan archaeological expedition was to collect Chinese ceramics exported to the Philippines from China, to look intn theearly Filipino-Chineserelationship. The collection, resulting from !he cxcavation, consisted of more than 30 cubic tons of prt>historicartifacts. 'They are now keptat the UniversityofMichigan. From 1926 to the outbreak of the Second World War, much of the archaoological discoveries were done by Henry Otley Beyer (1883-1966) born in Edgewood. Iowa who halt married Lingayu Gambuk, the 15year-old daughterofa powerfullfugaochiefin1910. The dls<:overy of a major archaeological site in Novaliches in 192£>, resulting from the cortstructton of a dam for Manila's water supply, was Beyer's first archaeological resench in the country. In 1947, Beyer published the Outline ReviewofPhi11ppit11' ArdllJrology by 1,</QIIri,; and Prwinces, a pion~ring research activity in Philippine prehistory. Larry Wilson, a mining prospector, assisted St-yer in !he exploration of numt>rous Pleistocenesites in Northern Luzon. It was »eyer who first disdO!>ed the importance of Palawan in the search for early man in the Philippines. All over the archipelago, the fOS&ilized remains of large mammals that roamed the islands during the Middle 1-'ld~ toccne Epoch have been discovered in the 1920s. The fossils o( el epha~, !>tegodons, rhinoceroses,and deerhave beendiscovered inCagayao, Pangasinan, Rizal, Panay Island and in Northeastern Mindanao.The elephos, ~tegodon, and rhinoceros are now extinct in the COUltry. 6
  22. 22. In Cabarmyan Island in Lingay~n Gulf, fossilized tooth of a dwarf elephant was reported to have been retrieved. This specie of d war£ele-phantwassubsequently identified and named f.lt>p/11:s beyeri afler H. OtiP.y lleyer, considered as the Father of Philippine Arch~wlogy and Pn•history. Von Koonigswald, ~ palfontologist known for his work on Java Man, gave the name for this specie. After the SecondWorldWar. increased in~i in ltte prehistoric beginning!'! of ~ Philippines evolved. Archaeology w~ later on introduced as part of the curriculum at the Univer!;ily of the Philippines. Wilhelm G. Solheim nconducted the first post·warexcavations in :vtasbate lsl,md from 1951 to 1953. Alfredo Evangcli~;ta and E. Ar~enio Manut~l a~"isted him in undertakk•g ehe work. Behvcen 1950 and 1954, Solheim was the reSt~a rch associate at the Museum ofArchaeology .1nd 13thnology of the University of the Fhilippines and the librarian and curator of the American Historical Collection of tht- U.S. embassy in Manila. His earliest works in Philippine archaeology was in 1951, w ith the publications on .uch.1cological fieldwork in San1'arciso, Tayabas (nowQuezon). Ilis activities ino uded extensive field experience in Southea..~t Asia, as well as the various islands of the Pacific Region. from 1958 to 1962, Robert B. foxa.nd Allredo Evangelista, both working for the National :1uscum ot the Philippines, undertook series oftest-digs in thecave~ ofCagraray,Aihayand Bato, Sotsogon. Tradt-ware ceramics from China and l1•<1lland were recovered in Calatagan. Fox led the TabonCaves Archaeological Project inSouthwestern l'alawan, resulting in the unearthingof late Plei!ltocene human f0$ils and stone tools and implements. Charcoal materials analyzed by carbon-1·1 technique revealed the presence of man in the area between 2.2,000 to 24,000 years ago. Human fossil bones of at lea•l three individuaL<: were found. Th~e ind udL'<.i a large frontalbone, witl1the urows and part of the nasal bonl'S a5 well as fragments ofa mandible and teeth. Classified asmodem manor1/amo Sapims, these are theearliest known human ulhabitants of the Philippines. Ne il Mcintosh of the University of Sydney in Australia undertook the 11nalysis and X·ritys of the T<tbon skullcap and mandibll! in 1975. Clt'titils showed the presenct~ of a thin f~sure on 7
  23. 23. the right side of the skull whlch according to Mclnt~xh, mayhave been the cause ofdeath. of th.~ individual. lt was probably d ue to a fall or a bump on the head. . Other .minor digginp;; and explorations followed in the 1960s, particularly in the southern regions of the Visayas and ~1indanao, led by anthropologists of the University ofSan Carlos !n Cebu and Silliman University in Dumaguete City. Negros Oriental. In 1963- 64, Marcelino Maceda ofSan Carlos Univefsity, te<-hnically a~~istcd by the National Museum, conducted archaeological excavations at Kulaman Pl;>teau in Bukidnon and recovered a numberoflitnestone burialjars. North of this place, Samuel Briones,a graduate sludent atSilliman University reported the presence of limestoneburialjars in several caves he visited in 1966. In Cebu, Karl Huttcrer and Rosa Tenazas of San Carlos Uni"ersity rt"Covered prehi.~toric artifacts in the middle o(Cebu City. Tcnazas carried out archaeological cxcavatians in the Laguna area and recovered valuable materials, mo~tly 10'' and 14'" century artifacts in1968-69. ln Lemery, Batangasa group of students from Ateneo de Manila conducted archaeological diggin.gs from 1968to 1970. The teamwas composed ofCecilia Y. Locsin, Maria Isabel Ongpin, and Socorro P. Paremo. ln the 1970s, the National Museum of the Philippines, led by its chiefarch~eologist Robert B. Fox, begansystematic archaeological work inCagayan Valley. This marked the ardent quest for prehistoric man in the area. Comparable to those previously reported animals (such a,; clcphas, stegodons, and rhinoceroses), new fossil di.'icoveries ~uch as those of crocodiles, giant torloi~e.q, pigs, and deer w~re found in Cagayilfl. In 1971, Karl H utterer rt'turned to the site he previously explored in Basey River in Southem Samar. The following year, Wilhehn Solheim II and Avelino Legaspi d ug in the area of Davao del Sur. They found tools made from large shells, manufactured through a flaking technique slmllar to that used in making stone tools. 3. !,;.nhii!itorical Data TherE' are some narratives that have beenpreviously accepted in Philippinehistoryas fact5 but laterwerefound outtobehistorical 8
  24. 24. errors. It is to the credit of manyhistorians who investigate and take position of what they have discovered out in their careful research. These unhistorical accounts include the Maragtasstory, th4! Code of Kalantiaw. and the legend of Princess Urduja. " ¥ara.gtas is the story about the ten Malay datu fron}.!klmeo who settled into the Philippine islands. According to the Maragtas, at aromtd 12'>0 A.D., ten Bomean dufu and their famil.lcs left their kingdom in search of new homes across the ~ea to escape the merciless ruleofSultan Makatunaw. Ledby Datu Puti, ~e Bomeans landed in the island ofPanay and bought the lowlandli from the Ati king named Marikuda in exchange lor one gold snduk (native hat) and a long gold necklace for Queen Maningwantiwan. After the land ~le and pactof&iendship. theAtiswentto thehiUs.llu! Malay datus seltled in the lowlands. Datus Puti, Balensusa, a~td Dumangsil sailed northward to Lw.on and landed in the region around Lake Bonbon (Ta.tl). There they built their !!t!ttlements. Dumangsil and Balcn.<>u~a's families occupied other neighboring regions now known as laguna and the Bicol Peninsula. Datu Puti left for Borneo after he knew that his men were leading pcaC4!fullive!;. The other seven.datu,stayed in Panay. They divided the island into three districts. Hantik (now A~tiquc) was under patu ~umakwel. Qatu Paiburong ruled Irong·lrong (now Iloilo). Datu ~angkaya governed Aklan (now Aldan and Capiz). Led by D;~tu Suroakwel, a politicill con.ft.'<icration ofbarangays (Madya-as) was formed for purposes of protection and dose family relations.The story as told by Fr. Franci~co Santaren, furlherd~ribes the expan.<tion of the Malay ~el tlers to other parts of the archipelago. The legal code written by Datu Sumakwel also known- as the Maragtas Code was previously known as the uoldcst known written body of laws" in the Philippines. / William Henry Sc:ott made the stldy of prehistoric source rnah!tiaIs for thestudyofPhilippine history, thesubjectofhlsdoctoral di~rtationatthe UniversityofSantoTomas. Hedefendedhi..'> paper before a panel of well-known historians on Jvne 16, 1968. The pa.rn!l.ists includeTeodoro Agonclllo, Gregorio Zaide, Mercede~ Grau Santamaria, Nicolas Zafra, and Father Horacio de la Costa, SJ. 9
  25. 25. The researchofScottshowed that Maragtas isnot a p:rchispank documentbuta book written by Pedro Monteclaro, a localhistorian of P;miy. Montedaro's publisher in 1907, noted that thi.:; .Maragtas should notbe considered as facts, all of which are accurate and true. The pt1blli>her poin~ out that many of the author's data do not tally with what we hear fromold men. The ;tuthorwrote that two of hi!; m.a.nuscripts were rottenand hardlylegible.I'oneofthesewritten materials was preserved for future generationli. He made no explanation aboul thedatea~ wella.~ theoriginofhis sources.Neither were there claims toclarity. There ill no traditionofrecording hL<>tory nor !~gal decision in Panay during the precolonial times. Thus the Maragtas could neither support the presence of any pre-Spanish Confodt.rntinn oflv!Jidiaas (also spelled as Madyaas) nor uphold tM exiltcnce of a Sumakwel Code. Previously regarded a~ the :;econd oldest legal code in the Philippine:> was the.Code.of'Kblantiaw. Thi~ code was said tobe a set of ancient laws promulgated in 1433 by Datu &ndara Kalantiaw (Spanil;h spelling, Calanliao) of Aldan, the third Muslim ruler of Panay. The code itself was contained in one oJ the c}:lapters of the f,a~ antiguas leyendas tit' /a isla de Negros (Ancient Legends of Negros Island) writtenby Fr. fosc Maria Pavon,a Sparush secularpriestwho became a parish priest of 'Himamaylan, Ncgros Occtdentalin1838· 1839. Jo$1! E. Mai'Co of Negros OccidePtal d~overed the alleged Pavonmanuscriptsand presented it to Dr. jam~Robertson,Dire:tor ofthe Philippine Libraryand M~um in1914. According to Marco's confession, heobtained the two manuscript volumes from someone who had stolen them from tht! H!mamaylan COilWnto during the Revolution. Direc.tor Robertson had the Pavon manuscripts published in its English ltanslation in 1917. The Philippine Slud!e; Program of the University of Chicago reprinted the translation in 1957. Eventually, filipino hi~torians and textbook writers acknowledged the auth~nlicily of the Pavon manuscripts without any doubt. In tMunprecedented doctoralstudyofScott, he concluded that the Pavon manuscripts were not genuine and that the Code of Kalantia.w was a hoax. He presented his serious objections to this fak<: "historical" code. They are as follows: 10
  26. 26. 1. There iBnacvide~ that Fr. Pavon, the aUegcd author of the manuscript, wa6 ever in the Prulippines in 1838, or .ea.risl:t P'riest of the town in 1839, the dates of the !nM'u:;cript. Thedisrovcrer oftheaUeged manuscript. Jose E. Mareo, was also involved in tt>c sale of other fake historical document~. There is no histotical evidence for the exisrence ofDatu Kalantiaw,ora code ofhis name other than the documents presented by Jose Marco. 2. The conbmt:; of the manuscript arc of dubious value. For example, the ;~uthor prays for the preservation of the King ofSpain in 1838 and dedicate~ a book to him in 1839, but Spainhad no king between 18:33 and 1874. 3. The author also states that the month of :-.Jovember was called a bad month for it brought air laden with putrified microbes ofevilfevers. It was only in the 1850s that Louis Pasreur discovered the theory of infectious germs. The word "microbe" itself was invented by Dr. Charles EmmanuelSed.illot.Heproposed the term forthefin>t time in a ledun:! before the Academy of Sciences in 1878. ol. The Ka!antiaw Code contains many strange edicts that contradict the character of the Filipino. For example, the code prescribed deathpenalty for the crime of tresspassing on the datu's house, but imposed only 11 year's slavery for stealing his "''ife. Eventually, Scott's doctoral dL<;.<;~r1atinn was publ.ish~d by the USTPress (Un.itas, Vol. :41, 1968). Thefollowing year,Jtwa~ rei.~sued with the title, Prthistoric Source Mnt~ls for 1/ze Study of Philippine !:fistory (l)ST Pre~~, 1969).· The same book was published in the second J:'e•lo;ed edition by ~ew Day Publisher.~ (Quezon City) i.n 1984. In ltu! lastchapter ofthebook, Lookingfor thePrP.hispnnic Filipino issued in 1992 by New Day Publishers,·Scott wrote a chapter titled, Ksllantiaw: The Code that Never Was.Scott's condusion:s hilve notbeen cha!!enged by any hlstorim to date. Another narrative that many Filipinos have learned is about the legendary warrior princess named Urduja. She has been ;~dopted as a symbol ofa woman ofdi~tinguishedcou ra~, an inspil'ation for women in the country. 11
  27. 27. Unfortunately, this tale is another historical error that has created false impressions and should be corrected. The story reportedly came from ~uhammad Ibn Abdullah Ibn Batuta also known as Ibn Batuta (1304-1371!), an Arab travcl~r from Morocco. His bookRih/alt (Travels) includesde5criplions of lhc 'Bpantinecourt of Constantinople (now Istanbul) and the Black Deatnof Baghdad (1348). Accordingto histTavdaccounts, whilesom~<w hert>in Soulheast A~an waters, he reached the land of Tmvnlisi after a voyage of 71 days. and China was15daysaw<~ywith a favorable wind.lnTu1mlisi, he mentioned a mysterious amazon named Princess Urduja who WOUd only marry the man who could beat her in fistfights. She presided overa courtso fascinating and majestic. Shegave Ibn f3atuta gifts ofsilk, spices, sheep, buffaloes, and two elephant-loads of rice. The legend of Princess Urduja is quiie amusing but hi~torian~ could not certify its authcntidty. Modem historians agr~ lhal Princes:; Urduja was just an illusory ~reation of Ibn Batuta, a contemporaryofMarco Polo(1254-1324), the Venetian tre~velec whose accounts in the East, particularly China (the English translation of the original title ofthebook w~s '/'he Drscripfion oftire World recorded by Rustkhello, a rormmC(! writer from Pisa), drt>w lhc attention of a great number of Europeans and stimulated interest m Asian trade. Efforts to correct historical errors are still ongoing. Many hi~torians even investigate for th~mselve~ the validity of sources and data. Th~ concern of historians has been to collect and r~cord facts about the past and to discover new £.1cts with utmost care and truthfulness. The damage c,ntsed by deception is surely immea:mrable but the blunder itself is a challenge th<lt every individual should face. The determination Lo uncover the past necessarily involves· the usf! of auxillary disciplines and literary form-;. 12
  28. 28. Chapter Test No. 1 Name: _________________________ Date: _________ Cowse,Year,and Section:_______________ I. Multiple Choice. Choose the letter with the correct answer. Write your answers on the blanks provided : (15 pts.) _____ 1. Based on his theory, actions and events in history m.1y ~attributed to economic motives. a. Alvin Scaff c. Karl Marx b. Arnold Toynbee d. l'emand Braudcl _ _ _ 2. Hegel's N~furwi~senchaftm, the antithesis refers to this. a. historical reality c. particula1 ideal lie particular situation .~ world of spirit of or matter thought _____ 3. According to him, Philippine history is a story of struggle. a. · Renato Constantino c. Antonio de Morga b. Sonia Zaide d. Robert Fox ____ 4. The item below is a secondary source. a. diary ·c. juumal b. fossil t.l. love Jetter ____ S. This is an example uf an artifact. a. jaw bone b. 0 puttery c. soil · d . jewelry _ _ 6. He wrote the SuerS<~!' .te l.n5 /~Ia.~ Jo"ilipiuns. a. Feodor Jagor c. Alfredo F.vangeli~ta b. . Antonio de Morga d. ArRcnio Manuel 13
  29. 29. 7. Asidefrom those in Madrid, mostofthecollections ofAlfred ~arche in his 1881 major cxca,•ation are found in this city. a. Cehu c. New York b. Manila ·d. P.ui.~ __ __ 8. TI1is is the p~ of the Michigan archaeological expedition from 1922 to 1925. a. exploration of numerous Pleistocene sites in Northern Luzon · b. collect Chinese ceramics exported to the Philippines from China c. gather artifacts from ancient graveyards d. search for prehistoric m.aJ in Cagayan Valley _ _ 9. The remains of the Tabon M.1n was discovered under the leadership of this archacolngi~l. a. Otley Beyer c. Antonio de Morga b. Wilhelm Soheim II d: Robert Fox __ 10. 1n the l~te 1960s, Karl Ilutterer and R= Tcnaz.;s of this university recovered prehistoric artifact'~ in the middle ofCebu City. a. Atcneo de Manila b. Silliman University c. 53n Carlos University d. University of Michigan 11. He wrol't! in 1907 that h>.·o of his written sources for the Surnakwel Codt' were rotten and almost unreadable. a. Jose E. Marco c. Jose Maria Pavon b. Pt'dro Monteclaro d. James Robertson 12. According tu Ibn Batuta, Princess Urduja ruled in this kingdom which he travelled 13 days away from China. a. Tawali:;i c. Pangasinan b. Thalamasin d. Borneo 14
  30. 30. n This is the modern day name of Champ.,. a. java c. South Vietnam b. IX!meo d. India 14. In this alleged manuscript, theauthorprays forthe pre:sP.rvation oftheKing ofSpain in t838but 5pain had no king betv11een 1833 to 1874. a. Kaantiaw Code c. Maragtas Code b. Sumakwel Cod<! d . Madya-as _ __ 15. In the :vlaragtas story, the ten Borne<'n datus bought this island from the A ti king named M<Jrikudo. a. Cebu c. Panay b. 1'egros d. Sat:l'lir n. E,<;..~ay: (10 pts. each) 1. How do events take plare in history as pointed o ut by Geozg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Alvin Scaff? 2. What made William Henry Scott conclude that the K<1lanli~w Code is a fake historical code? 15
  31. 31. The Natural Setting and its People t. How the Barth Was in the Beginning The Holy Bible tell! u5 that, "In thebeginning God created the heaven• and the earth" (Genesi.<1: 1). 'The first partofthebook relates Ihe 5tory ofcreation. God created man in His own image, male and fem~le. Adam and Eve, the first man and woman, became the progenitors of mankind. Indigenous Filipinos, on the other hand, have a number of snyth.s and legend:; about the creation of the earth, names of places and theoriginofplants. Some myths expl~in the form,ltion ofi~land!'> and islets 35 well as the creation of varied living creatures. Some stories say that in. the begiMing, there was only the sea and the sky. Based on a Visayan legend, there wa~ ,;]~;o a mythical bird named Mai!IWIsearching for a place In rest bul cannot find one. Then he pleaded the god of the sea, J<apta11 and the god uf the air, Magauayart to help him. Thegod~, asserting their might in anSvering the bird's request, ~howed their strength. The god of the s~a created tidal waves to beatthe sky. Inresponse, the god of the ~ir threw the wavesback by whirlwinds of rock and soil. Dryland was buill in the process. The fight continued for thuusands uf years, until Manau/ grew tired uf it. He <:ollected the rocks from the mountains and dropped them on both gods. This ended the bailie. 1he ma$ses of ro<"ks thrown by the mythical bird becamti' the islands of th~ Philippine archipelago. · After getting exhausted, Mmtnul flew to a nearby grove of tall bamboos to rest. v'lhen he alighted on the stalk, he heard a voice coming from the bamboo, asking to be freed from within. The bird pe-cked at the bambuo until it split apart. Out of the stalk came the first man. S1·Kn/ac and the first woman Si-Kavav. Thev were advi~ed by the earthquake a~ well as the fish of these~ and the birds of the air to marry so thai they would multiply on earth. Tlu~y did, so 16
  32. 32. Si-l<m){ly boreherfirst-bornson Sibo.Sam,lr, their firstdaughtercame next. Numerol•Slegends explain howplac:esgot !hOc'irnames. rn many mstanct:S, the name of a plan• is derived from .:1 bnd form of worJ l.inked to the stury. for example Tagaytay from #taga Jtay;" Mindoro, from the names of a couple Mina and Doro; and Manila, from til<! word M.1}nilad (there are 11ilnd plants in the place). Legend~ and myths at times provide a fandful counterpart to actua I explan~tions or things and ~vents. The l ~ge nd or f!E>mardo Carpio, called Hari 11g nrga Tagalog (King of the Tagalo~;s} pre.sen~ an imaginativt> explanation of how the country wa:; shaken by earthquakes. According to the legend, Bernardo Carpio was rebuked by lhc gods forhi• in.~nlcncc and leftendlessly ch.liru!din Montalban Gorge in Rizal Province. l-Ie was cursed l'o keep two mountain waiL! from colliding. Whenever he pausP.s to mgain strength, the walls ofMontalbanGorgestart closing in.Carpiopushes them bad< so that the mountains would not grind him into pi~ces. As a result, the Rround ~mtmd him shudders. The 11na!y!ical study of geology comm~nced with the publication of James Hutton's Tht'Ory oflhr r:nrth (2 volumes, 1795). !Iutton(ln&-1797),a British geologist, formula t~ the uniformilnnim theory of geology which maintains that the Jaws of nilhm~ have remained con.~tant. He further explained that the physical and chemicalpmc:e~ses that haveacted throughoutgt>ologic timeare the same processes seen today. laking the hydrologic cycle for instance, condensation always precedes predpitation. Processes such as volcanismanderosion that havecau_<;ed changes in thec<~rth'ssurfucc had been operating in the same manner over a very long period of time. lie rejected the theoryofcufastruphi>m, whi(h was thOc'ptE'vailing helicf during his time. Catastrophism asserts that only major catctstrophes could alter the formation of the earth. Map~ or charts covering the enticeworld or specific regions are contained in an atl~ Ptolt>my, an Alexandrian scholar produced the first collection of maps in about A.D. 150. In Lht> 16"' c.entury. Gerardus Mercator used the tenn atlas in the title ofhis colletiion of maps. "!he term was derived from the custom of plating the Greek mythological figure Atlas holding the t>arth on his ~h.oulders un the title pages of map <:ollections. The first modem atlas titled, Tlle.ntrum Orl:>is Terrarum (Theater of the Earth). was published in 1570 by Abraham OrMiu~, a Dutch cartographer. 17
  33. 33. Ortelius noticed that the Amerkan continents seemed to h<we been disjoined hom Europe and Africa. He realized that the coasts of lh!! thr!!e continents could be linked together like a huge jigsaw puzzle. Alfred Wegener(1880.1930), a C'.ennan meteorologist,also noted his inquiry regarding the three continents which, Ortelius had 300 years ago. He began tocombine som!! observations, which centered on the view that the east coast of South America fits within the contours uf the west <:oast of Africa. This suggests that the~e continents may have been partofonehugelandmass. Hepostulated that thesecontinent~ had simplydrifted apartover millions ofyear~. Wegener's 1):ootyofcontinentaldrift wascontained in his book, The Origin of Continent.< nud Oceans, published in 1915. He named the supen::ontinent, Pa11gw-a, a Greek word meaning "all land." Pangaea hadbegun"t>reakingup approximately200 million yearsago, earlier into a northern porlion. which he named Laurasia and a southernportion, termed Gondwanalandby the Au~trian geologist Eduard Suess. Wegener supported his theory with fos~il evidence. Plant and animal fossils from thccoastlincsofSouth Amerka and Africa found to match. Fos~ils in unlikely climates further defended his claim, such as the discovery of tropical plant fossils in Antarctica and of glacial deposit!! in Africa. DuringWegener's lifetinw, his theory did not receive scientific validationsince the technological means toprove ithad not yetbeen develo~. During those days, mostpeoplebelieved that all earlh's formations never move. Arthur Holmes (1890·1965), a Briti~h geologist advocated support for Wegener's theory. Jn l928, he proposed that the convection currents within the earth's mantle driven by radioactive heal might have caused the mechcmism fur continental drift. In the 1950s, scientists began ocean()graphic rewarch, which revealed thephenomenon known ~s5eafloorspreilding. In the 1960s, the theory ofplate tectonics was established. The plates of the earth move. The theory explains that the lithosphere (the outer layer of the earth) move sideways above a. less rigid layer called the ~sthenosphere, whicl is und~r ~xtremc pressure. Eventually, the theoryofcontinental driftgained far-reachingacceptance in the field of science. 18
  34. 34. The surfacl'ofthe earth i.o;continuallychangingbecauseofforce::; either from tht"intemal heat of the earth or the energy produ<'t'd by the sun. The fir.;t one results in the motion of tectonic plates while the latter, involves the movement of water from the earth's surface to the atmosphere and then back to earth, which L'> also known as hydrologk cycle which eventually results to the washing out·ofsoiL 2. Geological Foundation J>rior to the appearance of modern man in the Philippine archipelago, hi~tory has to depend on the war~ of ~cologists. The geologists s~ek to understand how the earth evolved into what it is todayand forecast possible geologic events. In Arthur Holmes' book 1'heAge ofthe Earth (1913}, he developed a geologic timescale, which he continued to work on until 19:'i9. 'The d.11cs given for certam geological formationsareWormedestirnalP.S,in termsofyears before the presenI (BI'). Accon1in& lopresent estimates, the piM el earth is between 4.6 a11d 4.8 billion ye,.rs BP. The first dinosaurs were believed to have appeared iround 225 million ycirs ago, during the Mesozoic Era. At about65 millions years ago, the dinosaurs thatonceoc.:upled the valleys, plains, and swampsbe-came extinCt. It isbdievetl that these huge creatures perished with a huge mc-toorit~ that hit the eaTUI or with shattering volcanic e ruptions. The Philippine soil iscompos~d ofnumerous rocks, which came from regions r.,r from the archipelago's present location. It w~ during the T"rliary period of the Cenozoic F.ra (54 million years- 2 million years BP) that the land structure of the Philippines was defined. In the northem part, the P.hilippine archipelagowa.~ believed to be adjoined to Formosa (now Taiwan) during the Eocene {53- 54 million years BP) and Oligocene epochs (37 - 38 million years BP). However, the Formosanconnection wassevered during the Miocene epoch (26 m illionyears BP). The comt>ined effect~ ofvolcanism and other tectonic movements of the basement complex brought about the disjunction. Asconnections with other areaschang~d, the internal structure of the archip"lago also underwent changes with.the flattening of thecrustalsurfael!of theexistinghighergrounds during the Pliocene epoch (7 ·-13 million years 'BP). The emergence of man onearth was estimated al 5 million yt"ars BP. 19
  35. 35. Pleistoceneepoch (1.6millionyears to 10,000 years BP), the first divisionof the Quaternaryperiod is theepoch prior ltJ the Holocene epoch (10,000 year.~ BP tothe present). During the Pleistoceneepoch, the earth underwent <1 series of altffnaling winn and c:old climates. In Europe. scientists agrt.>e that there occurred four cold phas<'s known geologically as Gtm.Z, Mindel Riss, and Wurm. In the United States, these cold phi!St!S were known as Jerscriru~, KaMan glacial, lllinoian-Iowan glacial, Md WL~consin glacial. lletween the cold phases arc the three interglacial or warm periods. Each interglacial period lasted for several thousand;; of years. The J>lei'ltocene marked the beginning ofevolutionary processes in both flora ami fdur.a. The freezing of the northern .:md southern hemisphere~ cau~ed an extensive spread of sea icc in the area and helped provide a suitable climate for ice-age animals like tilE' mastodon md saber-toothed tiger. Jn Asia, the Mongolian area and the Himalaya" were also topped with ice sh~eb. There was a widespread distribution of glacier:; in the higher regions of the Afric~n continent. In sum~ reg.ion:; of Africa and Asia, particularly along the southern coasts. th~re were no ice sheets. [nstead, the climatic condition was ch~r~cterized by extensive and continuous rain. This phenomenon i.~ known as thejluvinl conditio". Such condition gave rise to the gr(lwth of rainforests and marshes, which favored the survival of large animals, Based on rerentstudic~. the earth has undergone twenty cycles ofglaciation overthepast two million years. During thl:.'Pleistoc~ne, the gla<iers accumulated a big quantity of water in the form of ice, causing water levels in the world's oel!ans to drop. Tho:? t>arth's climate, which began warming some 18,000 years ,,go, cau5ed the oceans to regain their present lcvd5. The movements of Lite water resulting from vast glaciatioM and degl.1ciations in the tempera~ region cau!>Cd convergence, as well as the separation o ( landmass~. Ouring the glad;~l periods, ocean levels were much lower thereupon exposing the Sttnda Shelf and the Sahul Shelf. These are extensions of contin~nt~ otherv.-i:re known as continental ~helves . In Asia, the Sund~ Shelf, whic.h is an exte11sion of the coastal shelf ofSoutheast AsJa, included th~Malay Peninsul~,S1unatra, J<~va, and Borneo to 1-'alawan. From &lmeo, th!! Philippines was linked through a naLTOw proj~ction of island now occupied by Balabac. 20
  36. 36. Pal~wan and Calamian~. ThecontinentalshelfknownasSahul Shelf isan e>-l't'<~sion ofthe coastal shelfofAustralia.It cov~red the islands of New Guinea and the Aru lslanrls of lndont>Sia. When the Sunda and Sahul Shelves were exposeJ, tht> land bridges were believed to have connected most of Indonesia, New Guinea and Atstralia. Dark-skinned people, ances tors to the Ausl ra loid.~. tTavelcd across the bridges to :-Jew Guinea and other islands of Mel;mesia. '!he Mongoloid p10ple thtm populil t~d New Guinea and gradually journeyed to the southeast by sailing canoes. Several changes in the land formation in tt>e archipelago took place toward the end of the Plei~tocPnc due to a number of factors likevolcruuceruptions,erosion, faulting, and foldinR ofthegeological base of thP. ifiland~. Tht> J>lcistoccnc lasted for a long perioc.l of ti•ne. Al the height of th~ interglacial period, a great riversystemflow~xl from the int~rior ot Asia n1<1inland and Australin poured into the outlying area~ . The riverine connections brought about toe drifting of species of fish. Till$ explains the strikingsimilarities offish fatm~ in EasiPrn Sumatra with tho:;e in Western Bomcu and species found in the Philippines. Similarly. then~ is a close (,lllnal and floral relationship between Eastern 1.fuldanao and North Borneo. The existence of the shlll<1W China Sea between the Asiao m..1inland ,1nd the Philippines, as well as the presence of a foredeep at the P.astem margin of the col.ntry, indicates that t h~ archipelago was once the edge of the Asi~n continentlll platform. These ~asons further surport the land b rid ~e~ theory that most scientist~ acc12pt. Some geologists like lJr. 13.lilcy'Willis questiont.>d the villidJty of the land bridges theory ~nd mentioned that the Philippinl'S is of 'olcanic origin. Based on the volcanic theor)~ the emergence of the isl;~nds "'~~ a result of the eruptions of sea .,.·ukMOe-5 in rP.mo tP. c~l(><:hs. 3· The Archipelago's Name During the pre-Spanish era. early Chinese t•·ad<!rs and geogrclpher~ already knew the Philippines. Sung Dyna~ty sources in 982 A.D. rcierr~d the islands BS Ma yi. Qal1 )u-kua. cl Chine5e :r~dc oificial, gave a detailoo ac.'O~~>t of his tr«vel to various parts •)l iht> i~land~ in 1225. whicli he called Mu-i. ~1
  37. 37. In 1521, Ferdinand Magellan named the islands, 1~/n,; d( S1111 l.il:m·q(Archipelago ofSt. Lazan•s) when he firstset foot onour native soil. Ma.ny other n.1mcs have bet>n given to the archipelago. lhe name Philippines came from the word Filipinns giv£'n by the 5panish na•igator Ruy Lopez de Vi!Jalobo~ in 1543 in hcmor of Prince Philip of Asturias, who became King Philip II of 5pain, ~uccessor to King Charlc5 I. '!heword F.-Jipina wa~ at first given by Villalobos'~ mE>n to refer to l.A!yte and Samar. Later, it was given to the whc>le ar:chipt:!lago. In 1751, Fr. ]udn J. Delgado, a Jesuit historian called Manila, Pc'f'lrl of lirc· Oriml since it became a rich outlet of Asian trade even prior to the comingof th~ Spaniards in the archipt'lCigo.Dr. Jose lllial, the country's foremost hero, gave the name p,.,,, oftlrt·Orimt Sr•rs to his nal'iveland on the eve of his execution in 1896. The name Filipinn~ first appeared in a rare map published in Venice in 1554by Giovanni BatHst.1 Ramu.r,io, an Italian geographer. Th~ Spanish Filil'inas or Ft•lipi>r.1~ was later chiiih":!U to Philippine Islands (P.I.) during the Amerlc.an colonial era. It was n.'llamcd Republic of the Philippines (R.P.) after the recognition of its independence in 1946. There were some Filipin~ who proposed new names for the Philippines :;ince the name of our country was g•ven by the coloni.zens. Artemio Ricarte, a Katipunan general, wanted it to be called the Rizalillt' R~pu/J/ic, after Jose Rizal. former President Ferdinand Marcos propoeed the name Mahnrlikn (also tht> name of his guC!'rilla group in World War II), alter hi~ dream of making this nation (rt'at again. 4· Geography and Resources The Philippines, found in.the Western Pacific Ocean, has an asti'Onomicallocation of 4° 23'·21"25' N. l.atitudt:! and l16°·127"E. Longin•de. lt is situated in the SOLL!beastem portion of Asia. Taiwan bounds the country on the north, on the west by South China St:!a and Vietnam, on th~ east by the Pacific Ocean, on the south by the Celebes Se~ and Indonesia and, on the southwt>:>t by :vfalaysia and Singapore. ~<:atse of its centra l location in tht! Far East, the Philippines has been dubbed as the "Crossroads o/ the Pacific". 22
  38. 38. The country is an archipelago uf7,107 islands and islets. Jt has a total land area of 300,000 square kilom.,tt-rs. Manila is the capital and largest city of the country. It is also the chief port and main commercial cente( of the islands. Luzon, th~ biggest of the three major geographical groups has an area oLJ41,395 square kilometj!rs. Visayas has an area of..56,606 square kilometers; and Mindartao, with an ~a o~_101,999 :;quare kilometers. The northenuno.:~t point of the country is Y' Ami Isle, which is 78 miles from Taiwan. The southernmost point is Sauag Isle, only 34miles easl of Borneo. The Philippines has the longest irreb'lllarcoastline in theworld. 36.290 kilometer.;inlength. This is longer than t,hecoastline ofGreat Britain and twice the coastline of the United States. The cotu>try has 61 natural harbors(with20 lilndlocked straits). Manila Bay, th~ finest naturaIharbmin the Far East. has on area ofl,970 square kilumet~rs. Palawan, which forms the country's western boundary, has a t.ot<1of1,768 i~Jands and islets. Ithasmarvelous subterranean cav~~. W1explored divesites,unpolluted beaches..,nd dense tropical jW1gles. It is also a sanchtary to a variety of faW1a and flora. The cotntry h"s 16 regions whkh include the nocos Regiol, Cogayan Region, Central Luzon. Southern Tagalog, Bicol Region. Western Vis~yas, Central Visayas, Eastern Visaya~, Western Mindanao, ~orthem Mindanao, Southern Mindanao, Central Mindanao, Caraga Administrative Region, Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindllnclo (ARMM). Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR), and Metropolitim Manila. These I'l!giOns are comprised of provinces, which are ~-ubdividcd into districts. The districts consist of municipalities with a number ofbarangays. '!he L~lands in the Philippines are said to b" of volcanic origin; thus, it has grand moW1tain ranges and sununits of submerged mountiin mas.~. It has fertile valleys and plains as well asexten~ivc river systems. Forests onmountainslope.~, wheremostof the diverse plants and animals are found, provide m"terials for food, medicin~ and building shelter and natural habitats for wildlife. Some mountain.~ have be~n regarded as sites for spiritual r~generation. In the Tagalog region, some people find Mounts Makilirlg and Banahaw as mystic mountains tor reflection and recreation. According lo legend, Mount :>.fakiling m Laguna is the abode ofa godd~ named Marlang Makili.ng whoprotects the forest 23
  39. 39. thatcovers the mountiin. MountBanahaw along theQuezonborder isalsoconsidered apowerfulenergy sourceforpilgrims, spiritualists, and cults h,wing a blend of both indigenou.~ and Catholic beliefs and rituals. Three major mountain ranges are ~ituated in lorthem l.uT.On: the Sierra MadrP. Range, tllP. Cordillera Range, and the Caraballo Range. The Sierra Madre, which is the largest and l<.>nge:;t range in thecountry, faces the Pacific Ocean on the eastemcoast of Luzon. It begins near Aparri and proceeds further through !sabela, Cagayan, and Aurora provinces. The southern part of Sicrr,1 Madre include!'l Aurora, Quezon, l3ulacan, Rizal, and Laguna provinc~s. The Cordillera Mountains in the western p.1rt of Korthem l.u7.0n are parallel to the Sierra Madre Range. The Cagayan Valley occupies the region between these two mountain ranges. The Conhllera extends from !locos Norte down to the 8enguet and l.a Union areil. In the Cordillera Range, Mount Pulag, is the second highest peal< in the country. The mostproductivegold and copper mines in thecountry are located within the CordiUcra region. Ro<~dsalong themountainrange areknown for their zig1.ag curve!'.. The famous BanaucRice Tcrr.1ces, looking like stairways to heilven, i~ in the Cordilleras. lhcrc arc places when.• the ric<! fields reach from c~n altitude of 1,500 ieet to 4,500 feet. Thl! lf~1gaos haH· built these terrac~s ont of the mountain slopes using thl? barest of toob over htmdreds of years. Their devotionfor rice has compelled them to carve these majestic terraces on which to plant. ln regions inhabited by,,pure lfugao population. the walls of the terraccs arc of rotU1d hard river stones. TI1edtyofBaguio amidst themmmtainow;regionofCordillera i~ one of the most popular vacation dc.,linations in the country. Owing to tht> somic attractions as well as cool temperature oi the place, Bagttio has become the ''summer c"p•tal" of the country. The Caral.Milo R11nge, near NlJPva Ecija and Nueva Vi:r.<:aya, crosscuts the Si~rra Madre at its middle section and the southern end of the Cordilleras. To the south ofCaraballo i~ the Central Plain in Luzon. On thesouthwestern coast ufLw:on is tht! Zambal~ Mountain Range. Itextends from the shores of Western Pangasinan to parts of Du!acan and 6ataan. Luzon has a motmtai.nous extension to the southe,1st called Bicol Pcninstla. 24
  40. 40. In the Visayas, the mostprominent mountain ranges are found a(ross major islands. The islands in the Visaya~: have mountainous terrains except Samar and Bohol. In Mindanao, therearc four major mCIUtainranges: theDiwata Range, the Tago·Apo Range, the Kalatungan-Kitanglad Range, and the Daguma Range. The Diwata Rangehorders the Pacific coastand west of it lie,:; the valley ofAgusan. Tago-Apo Range fonns a parallel ridge to Diwala Range. Located in the area are the Balatukan Mountains, the volcanic peaks ofCamiguin, Kinabalin, Kumakata, and the :l.ioWlt Apo in Davao del Sur, which ill also the highest mountain in the country (2,954 meters high). The Kalatungan·Kitanglad MoWltain Range, which includ~ Mounts Butig, Kidongin. and Ragang is situated in the Lanao provinces. The Daguma Range exrends near Sarangani Bay in the south. Volcanoes at the boundaries of Dagurna Range are Mount Blik, south of Cotabatu City and Mount Parker, west of General Santos C:ily. Thecountryhas over50volcanoes.The mostactive among them are lraya in Batane~:, Pinatubo in Zambales, Taal in Batangas, Banahaw in Ql.lezon, Mayon in Albay, Bulu.san In Sorsogon, Kanlaon in Ncgros, Ilibok·Hil.ook in Carniguin, Makaturing in Lanao, and Apo in Oav~o del Sur. Mt. Pinatubo which has been donnant for 611 years ~tarted to emit ilnnes on April 2, 1991 after a hydrothermal explosion at the volcano's crater tuok p la~. The most destructive series of eruptions were on June 12·15, 1991. Its ashfalls reached as fa r as MetTo Manila, Mindoro, Palawan, and Cambodia to the east, worsening damage to the 07.0ne IaycL Sevt!ral places in the provinct!s of Zambales, Tarlac, and Pampanga, including Clark.iir Base inAngeles Cllywere filled with pyroclas tic flows and lahar (an Jndon~sian term for volcanic mudflow). Devastation to public and private propertieswas greatly unra,·orahle, placing these areas llldcr a state of calamity. The lahar deposits along Mt. Pinatubo still cascade~ duwn the lowlands after heavy rains. The~ vokanic mudflows are expect~! to last for years. They continue to defy the billion-peso dike built to contain l.1har flows. Taal Volcano. a regular tourist drawer, is 11 volcano within a volcano. It L~ rising from a lake,which is the crater ofa larger volcano, 25
  41. 41. now extinct. Since 1572, Taal Volcano had 33 recorded eruptions with violent ont'S that occulT('(! in 1749, 1754-, 1911, and 1965. Mount Mayon, world famous for its near-perfect conical shape, had its first recorded crupllon in 1616. It had cntplcd at lea.<>t 45 limes from then on. In 1814. it erupted disastrously. de~troying five town.~ ~urrounding its base. During theheight oi thE' volcano's fury, 1,200 people who took refuge inside the church of the town of Cagsawa (now Daraga} were killed. lhe ruins of the church tower solely remilin above ground after the tragedy. Kanlaon Volcano had cntpled six time~ in 1985 and thrice in 1986. In1989, it had a minor eruption. Fortunately, this did not cause any de'ltruction. There arc !lOme '·oleanoes whose hot rocks beneath arc being pent-tratt>d by groundwClter. When the heated underground water tt.>~(he~ tht.> surface, hot .springs are formed. Thc'.~P. hot springs are used as baths in the houses and resort~ around Mt. :'vfakiling and ~1t. Bulusan. Topographic elevations les:'> thnn 600 meters in altitude are considered hills. The mo~t popul,u of these in the country arc the Chocolate Hill<;, with more than 1,000 uf them in Bohol. During Ihe dry months of February tu1til May. these dollC-!.haped limestone hills tum chocolate-brown as the gr= wither. !nus the name was ~iv~n to it. Chocolate Hills is one of the geologicCll monum.mts of the country. The other four national geological monuments are Taal Volcano in Batangas, MontCJibl!ln Caves in Rizal Province,Sand Dunes in !loco~ Norte, and Hundred Islands in Pangasinan. The Department of Environment and Natural Resources (D ~R}, Philippine Touri~m Authority (PTA), and the Nationa I Comm[llre on Geological Sciences (NCGS) issued the declaration n( national geological monuments to highlight the protection of geological structures and feahtrcs with high scientific or llt.'sthetic/ environmental value. Thesegcol(l~ical monumentswould serve not only as travel destinations in lhP.countrybut also as laboratories for geologic~! research. Large ril.'ers traverse the principal islands of the country. The Cag.1yan River, with a length of 513 kilometer:;, is the longest river in the country. It t1ows irom the Caraballo Mountainsnt>ar the Nueva 26
  42. 42. Vizcaya-Nucva Ecija provincial boundary and proct:eds down into the Babuyan Channel in Northern Luzon. Other important river" in the COUJitry include Chico, Abra, Pampanga, Bicol, Pulangi, and Agusan. Between Samar and Le yt~ is the San juanico Stra it, the nanuwcststrail in theworld. Laguna de Bay is the largest freshwater lake in Southeast Asia. The deepest among tht.- l~kcs of T...t;una i~ Lake Calibato, whic.h is 176 ~ters deep. This is brought about by low silt inflow from its small watcu.hed area. In the middle of the tropkal blue and emerald green waters of the Sulu Sea and Palawan lies the Tubbat<Jha RP.ef, just one of the sandbars and reds known for its rich beautifuldivesitesand marine rewun:es. St>~birds, turtle~. giant clams, and other marine animals have been settling in the area. The reef covers an area of 12 miles within the island rnW1icipality of Cagayancillo in Palawan. In August, 1987, the reefwas declared a national rn:uine park. It gained gre,1ter di~tinction and international recognition when the UNESCO naml'd TubbMaha a World lleritage Site. Tht: largest plain in the archipelago is the Comtral Piain in_Luzon, known as the "Rice Gr~nary of the Philippines." The ~urroundin!_! greenery yields vegetables, tendriL~, sprouts, .flowers, and fruits. Amongme f.1mous Philippine fruitsacre lan7.0ncs, sweetmango,and the durian. There are about 10,000species uf flowering plants and ferns in the country. Among the flowers in the islands are the sampii)?Uita, gardenia, dama de noche, wilter lilies, orchids and il lot more. Of the 1,000 varieti..s of on:hids that bloom in the count')~ the waling- walillg (Vm•dQ samleriana) is regardP.d as thc "Queen of Philippine Orchids." Famous of the Philippine woods is narra, proclaimed as the country's national tree in accordance with an ~xecuhve proclamation of Governor General .Frank Mwphy dated February 1, 1934. Rc£errC<i to as the forests of the sea, mangrove swamp for~t; grow in saltwater or brackish water. The mangroves are among the significant ecosystems that characterize the coastal areas of the archipelago. They arc con.;idered minor forest type, compared to mixed lowland tropical rainfore~t ecosystem. Economically, the mangroves are beneficial, especially to the coastal dwellers. They provide poles for ~helter, wood for cooking, 27
  43. 43. chorcoal ~s domestic l'ner~;;y source and as a source of Income, nipa sap fo r tuba and vinegar, nipa shingles for roofing, ~nd ground for Bquaculture. Mang10ve-dcpcndent fishery products include ~hellfish, shrimps. and llk'ltlgrove crabs. These mangroves likewisc help prevent erosion of riverbanks The country abounds in animal life. Of the 201 ~pedes of mammals in thE' colntry, 179 are terrestrial and 22 are m~rine. The l'hillpplne carabao, a swamp type of domesticated water buffalc has long b~en an important work animal. Other animals include several species of deer, wild and clomesticat,;d pigs, cattle, rodents, reptiles, birds, <~nd mollusks. Some unique animals in the world are also found in the Philippines: the tamaraw or /3ubalus miudorrn.~is of Mindoro, whkh looks hke a dwarf carabao; the tarsier of Bohol, the smallest monkey in the v.<orld; and the Calamian deer or Ceruu$ calnminnm.>i> (pilanrluk) of Pal~wan, the world's smalh!stdeer. Tht"n! are about 25,000 species of insects in the islands. The largl:!st insect in the CotUtry i~ the giant moth (Ait<~CII5 at/115}, with a wingsp.m ofone foot. The largest llnd >mallest bats in the world are found in thecomttry. Ihl' lesser /l<ltheaded batsor the Jesser bamboo ba~ weigh around 2 grams. The golden-crowned flying fox weighs about 1.5 kilograms. It has a wingspan of 1.7 metel's. These two species of bats are found in Olonga.po City, :t.ambales at the Subic Bay Forest Re~rve (SBFR). . The world's second largest after the Harpy e.1gle found in the Amazon forests is the Philippine eagle (Pithecopagn jefferyi), found in the jungles of Luzon and .'vlindanao.lt has earned the titleof "King of Philippine Birds". It measurPS five ;md a half feet in height and a wing SJ>M of!even feeL It was previou~ly called the monkey-eating eagle. In th!' 1970s,.its nam<.> was changed since it was found out that it only ale monkeys occasionally. lis main food consists offlying lemurs, li:la.rds,and snakes.In1996. th., Philippine eagle wasoffiCially named the national bird of the country by virtue of a presidential proclamation. Other interesting birds in the country are the ki•ltlw, which the Spanish colonizers dubbed a~ "clock of th., mountains", the klltalt1 (Philippine Cockatoo), which mumbles and croons like a man, ,md the tin)• Philippin~ iakonet, only six and a half ccntimctcr5long. Also f01md in the Philippines i~ the world's rarest shell, called Glory of the Sea (Cotw11,;gloricmmris) and the Trid~cr1a giiln.(.which is
  44. 44. the world's large~t shell and has a length of one meter and weighs 600 pounds. The sm~llest shell in the world, the- Pi~idum, i.'< also found in our (Ount:ry. It i.~ less than lme millimeter in length. ln 1995, R.M. de Ia Paz and E.D. Gomez recordt>ll a totitl of 2,140 species of J>hiJippinc fishes. Among the commercially known fish found in numerou~ 111lhing grounds arC' the l%mgus (milkfish), dalas (mudfJSh), dilis (anchovy), kmzdrrl•· (catfish), laprrlaprr (scabass), galwzggong (romd scad), lwzguirrgi (rnaclcerel), llzmlwz (Indian ,;ardincs), and barites (tuna). Some of the endemic frcshwatcr species are con~idered endingered. TI1ese indude the Han'll.'{ll/;1 towilis, locally known as t.nvi/zs; Mt"Siichtlzys luwnm,i;, or;ii111YIIf~1H; and pmrr1akll PY:~miU'tl, the pygmygoby. 1;2wi/is, a freshwater species oisardines, are found in Lake Taal. &t~ng<~s. Si1zm·apun, thesmallPst conunercial fish, can only be found in Lak~ Buhi and L.1k.e Bato, Camarines Sur. lt m~a~ures bctwe~n 1 and 1.4 centimeters. The d warf·pygmy goby or !orally known a» ta/Jin~. lhc world's smallest v~rtebrate which ranges from 7.5 to 11 miJlimet~rs, is said to be dwelling in the 1'avotas and Malabon Rivers. It is strongly believP.d that the ttlbios is already extinct due to wMer pollution. The world's largest fish is al~o found in the- country. This i~ the whale ~ hark, which is 50 feet or more in length. It was iirst sight<>d off th~ coast of Marivele~, Munila Ba~: in 1816 by Filipino fishe rmen, who called 1t ~~>tiug /Julik (striped .~hark). The Philippine archipel;,go hl!s rich d~>posits oi gold, copper, inm, lead, manganese,nickel, chromite, sil,•er and other metal<;. Non· metallic mineral! include coal, salt. a:;phalt, asbestos, clay, marble and hme$!One. Gold mining is an ilndent industry in the country. Before the coming of theSpanish conqueron;, the Filipinm: werealrcady:mining gold in t'aracale, Carnarincs Norte. in the mmmtains of NorthE'rn I.17.0n a•1d the 1slands of :VIasbate and Mindanao. Mount Diwalwallocated at thenorlhPmend ofDavaodellorte ha.!; been the site of gold rush since 1963. ., he Bureau of )..1ines officially attributes the d iscovery of gold in the vicinity to the members of the Mandaya tribe. Goldnuggetswt>Te io,md. and those who h,wc entered and eng<~g~d in small-scale mininS were able to g~ in ,, lnt irom this busine!Q venture. 29
  45. 45. Sin(!:.' pre-colonial time.s, the Igorols have been Jnining copper in the mountains of Northern Luzon. 1;mkayan, the olde.st and largestcopperminein thecotmtrystill exists. Other copperdeposit:; are found in the island~ of ::-cgro.~ and Rapu-R.1pu {p.1rt of All:lay} and the province of ZambaiE's. Iron deposils MP. found in Larap, Camarin~;.>~ Nortt>; San Migut!l, Buldcan; Marinduque; and Samilr. Thegreatest iron-bearingareain the rountry is Smigao. The world's l<~rgcst deposit of nickel has been discovered in Nonoc Isle, off the coast of Northern Mindanao. Va~t marble deposits arc found in Mindoro, Romblon, Palawan, Cebu. and Flicol. Adequ~te deposits of coal are bt>ing tappl>d in Ct>bu, Sorsogon, Masl>atc, <md Silmguey Peninsula. 5· Country's Climate The Philippines has a tropical dimatl' with a nwan anntal rempcrature ofabout27"C (about80"F). Mountain slopes and peaks found in the archipelago are cooiE't: The country has two $easons, dry and w~;.>t. In most of the islands. rainy season occurs frum May to November. During this period. the wind blow:. from the soothwest. Often, thecountry<.'xpcricnccs typhoonsfrom themonths of June to October. "Jhe dry season occur.~ from Uec~mbcr lo April, when the wind blows from" the northeast. 6. The Filipino People Tile Philippinesoci~ty isa hannomousrruxture ofdiversity and homogenl:.'ity: Despite of diverse ethnic and c:ultural backgrounds, forces of assimilation have constantly worked to overcome the differences. Within the blood veins of the .hlipinos are a blend of its forefathers from Malay, Chi•)~Se, Negrito, Jndi;~n, Europt'an and American lineage. The intermarriage of a Filipino and <1 foreigner did happt!n, owing to the strategic location of the country to Southeast Asian neighbors and the colonial rule of Spain and America. The int~rmingling of people resulting to adaptation to dilferent <"ulture.;; made tht> muntry ~ melting J'OI of peoplt> and Clllture. Since the 19'" century, Fihpinos h,ove been rderred to as the ·Christiani:£ed Malays whoconstitute thebulkofthepopulation. They 30
  46. 46. are thedescendantsofthose whow~re colonizedby Western settlers. Nwncrically greater in nwnber are the Visayais (primarily in the central pMlion of the archipelago) and the Tagalogs. The Cebuanos, Ilonggos, ancl Waray-Waray comprise a big number among the Vi~ayans. In the Visaya~, the llonggos live in Western Negros, in Southern Mindoro and in Panay Island while the Ccbuanos predominate in Cebu, W~tern Leyte, Buhol, Eastern 1'egros, and in ~omc coast..'! areas of Mindanao. The Waray-Watays are in the provinces of Samar and Eastern Leyte. Mo&t of th" Tagalogs live in Manila, in Central Luzon, and Southern Luzon. People coming from certain provinces in the Tagalog region like Batangas, Bulacan,<1nd Qut.>zonhaveintonations oi their own. The Ilocanos are considered the third biggest group. They live particularlyin!locos1'orte,llows Sur, anci La UnionbutITh"'ny havc rrtigratcd locally and abroad. Other members of the populace include the Pangasine~$, Pampangueiius, Zamhals, lbilnags{Cagayanos), and Bicolanos. The Pangasinenses live in the Lingayen Gulf region of Pangasinan, including the province o£ Panga~inan. :Many of them have already migratP.d in other provinces of Central Luzon. The Pampangueiios or Kapampanganslivc inCentral Luzon,particularly in tht? province oi P<~mpanga. The non-Malaygroltp~ indude people ofSpanish and Chinese desr.ent. 'lhday, the country'has a growint; number of t'ilipino- Chinese who areengaged invarious conunercialadivities. They are part of the economically and politic~lly important minority. 1atur"' and ancestral beliefs have helped ~hapc the lifestyle of the tribal communities. The indigenous groups in various parts of the archipelago havl' kept their own cultural tradition distinct through the generations. Induuet! here are th~ vadous mountain people ofCordillera, whichcofll;ist<Jfthe b.ne)9i ofApayao; Kalingas. of Kali11ga; lfugaos, lgorots, lbalois, Kankanays, and Bontoks of Benguet and Mountain Province. The culture of the people in this region is quite different from that of the lowland communities. Although a numbr..'r of the populace arc Christians, still many of them arc p.1gans. 31
  47. 47. The I<alingas tattoo their bodiC!l a!i a sign ofbravery. For them, prestige can be achievt>d through nrillorical ability. The lsnegs, like the Kalingas, tattoo their bodio:s as a status symbol. The lfugaos ha·e a high reg~rd for th" family's honor and dignity. They are forhidden to induce hostility. cause bloodshed or practice adultt>ry. HnRabi, a chairsculpted from a large mass of wood, plays an important part in the livf's of the lfugaos. This indicates the high position of the owno:r in tht' community. The Igorots live on rootcrops grown in their yard and on wild pigs. deer, and fowl in the fore~t. The lgorots of lht> pR~t· engage in headhunting to avenge the death of a lcin or tnbesman. This custom is least pra~ticed nowada~. The Bontoks ba~ically do hunting and agriculture for a living. They perform rituals like bngb<lto to ensure a bountiful harvest and the ulog, where the unmarried womnn stays in a place called ulo8 to I'C(C!vc male visitors and suitors. The lbalois and the Kankanays of Benguet and Southern MountainProvince are con..,idered themostsophisticated mountain region people bccause they are th"' most exposed to low!~nd life. Although the people ofCordillo:ra dweU in the highlmds, they no longer live in i5olation. The influences of modern civilization have ushered in new changes in their communities thro t,gh the year~;. Modem types of buildings nrc also found elsewhere.i.n tht rt>gion. The young generations that have g'onc to schools in the Chr~ti~n lowlands have almost adopted the way of life of the lowland communities. Other indigenous group,c; are the Gaddangs of Isabela, the Negrito.Qor Aetas of Zambalcs Jnd the hin!erlar)d.Q; the :'vlangya.ns of Mindoro; the Tagbanuas, Bill~k. Tau't Bato, Moll>of,s and Jama- Mapuns of PCllawan; Mam.1nwa (a Nl>grito group) or Surigao del Norte; the Kalibugilns, Subanuns, and Samal5 of Zamboanga del Sur; the Manobos, limrays, Iranuns, ~nd T bolis of Maguindanao, Cotabato, and Sultan Kuct<>ral; Mandayas of Davao Oriental; Bagobm;.md B'!aansof Davao del Sur; Yakan~ ofBasil.m; theTausugs oftht>SuluArchipelago, the B<1djaos of theSuluSca, and the Muslim groups of 1indamo. Leader.< of tribal comrnunit!es arc chosen for their skills and their ability to evoke suppor1 irom the communal group. They 32
  48. 48. believe in theexi.~tcnccof~vera! uns~en beingsbesiowmg blessings whenhonored and inflicting pain when displeased. Theindigf"nous peoplehaveildapted tovariousecologicalzones ranging from coastal to rugged mountain highlands. They prefer permanent settlements, l!xcept for Aetas who are highly nomadic. Badjaos live in houseboats, while others live in pile dwellings. Tht! Aetas have already established their intimate relationship with the woodlands as forest foragers and hunters. On the other hand, migration by Visayan settlers in Mindanao during the Americ.'Ul period cvmtually altered thf" population profile in the region. Increased immigration from the north drove more cultural communities in the hinterlands. Jlocanos, Tagalog:;, and Vi.sayans settled in som" provinct!s of Mindanao like Davao Oriental and Davao del Sur. ln rt!spu~t> to the call of pre5erving indigenous culture in the <:ountry, some ethnic tribes specifically the Ifugaos initiated moves adapting ancient practices with Christian religion, which ~holars refer toilS incullumtion. High literacy in thecountry may be attributed to Filipinos' love for eduolion. Viewed as d key to progress, educ~tion is believed to improve one's means of livelihood and stah1s. Filipino (formerly spell~·d Pilipino) is the national language oi the people although a gcod number of them are conversant in English. The English language is· commonly used for governmental, commercial, and instructional purpose~. Ineveryday communic.ltion, the Filipinos combine Englishand .l'ilipino resulling toa lingocalledTagli5h (fromTagalog and English). For instllnce. one could hear one say, "Happy aka for ynu. Sar1a you wo11't forg~t us" (I'm happy for you. Hope you won't forget us) or "Ok:ey na ang la.~at, ll11mk yvu .>a iyo!" (Everything'~ okay, thanks to you!) Age is highly valued in Philippine culture. The word po, or its variation ho is employed in conversation to show respect. The do~e approximation of its English translation is Sir or Madam. Adult male and female who arc unfamiliar to the speaker arc greeted as nr,lma and aft. Siblings in the family arc addresSE-d according to their position within the f11mily hierarchy likekuya or m.li!OI!g for theoldest hrother
  49. 49. and ate or mmumg for the oldest sister; diko and ditst' for the second brother .md $isti.'r; and sangko and sause, for the third oldest brother and sistec. Traditionally, Fil.ipin~ have dose family ties. Apart from their blood relatives, Christian Filipinoe; adopt new kins (iC11mpadre and kumare) through having sponsors (nino•zg and nirumg) during baptisms and weddings. They also extend help in the :;pirit of bayanihan (<:ooperiltion). Filipinos "''~ known for their hospitality. Tiley receive their visitors with warmth and friendship. They arealso thankful to those~ who havebeengood to them, manifesting theFilipino Villuc ofutang na Joob or one's debt of gratitude to those who have contributed to their success. For centuries, the Filipinos kt>pt faith in the Almighty God. Throughout the goodandbad time~, they can easilyassimilate, bend but never break like the strength ot the narra and the resilience of the bamboo. 7. Theories on the Origin ofFilipinos Long before the Spanish colonizers came into the Philippines, peoplewith distinct cultures had already inhabited the islands. The migr11tion thtory of H. Otley l:leyer, regarding the peopling of the archipelago became the m~t widely known version in Philippine prehistory.Accordingto Dr. Bo!yer, theancestorsofth~ rilipino~came in wrWt'S ofmigratio11. First to reach the archipdago was the caveman "Dawn Man" type, who was similar to theJava ~ian and otherAsian Homo sapit'M of~,§o,ooo year.; <lgo. Dr. Beyer called the first Filipino the "Dawn Man", for he emerged on the i!llands at th~ dawn of time. Next to settle in the islands were the aboriginal pygmy group or the N"egritos. They w.cre said to have reached the islands before the land bridges from Malay Peninsula, Borneo, and Australia disappeared. They camebetween 25,000, and 30)l00ycars ago. They were described to have black skin, darky kinky hair, ro,md black eyes, flat noses and with a usual height of 5 ieet. Third to arrive were the seafaring and tool-using Indonesian group who came about 5,000 to 6,000 ye<!rs ago. They came in ho<.'o waves of migration, with type A, arriving about 3,000 to 4,000 B.C. 34
  50. 50. and type B. about 1,500 to 500 B.C. lndont!liian A was tall, slender with light complexion, and thin lips. Indonesian Bwas shorter, with bulky body, dark complexion, and thick lips. They were able to displac~ the Negritos to the mountains with their more advanced (:ulture. ~ lastto reach thearchipelago were the seaf;~ringMalayswho introduced the Iron Age culture. They moved into the islands from 300 B.C. to the 14"· and 15"' centuries A.D. Beyer's migration theory became popular and unquestioned forquitea nwnberofyears. Presently, th~so·tal.ledWRvesofmigratio11 isnow hei.ngdi~missed bec"usethere i.:;nodefiniteevidence, whether archaeologic;~lor historical, tosupport it. Noevidenceofany "Dawn Man'' type (250,000 years ago) or hominid species have btoen found in the country. So far, the oldest human relicdiscovered is onlyabout 22,000 13P. In reality, Southeast Asian people shared many customs and tr,1diti<">ns withoutanyethnic group raciallyorculturally dontinant. It WiiS the We~tem colonizers who divided the Asian inhabitants into ethnic groups. In place of the waves of migration theory, modem scholal'!l suggest the so·called corepopulation theqry. Accordingto this theory, the inhabitants of the Philippines conSist of a core population to which came accretions of people who moved in from the region. Th~ movements of people were erratic rather than in sequential vvaves. The South~ast Asianpeople whoreached the Philippines du.rillg prehistoric times became the core population. Each group, the lt•donesians, Malays,and others,stoodasequal,withoutanyofthem racially ur culturally dominant. Thi.s core populiilion shared common cultural traits or base culture. They used similarly fashioned tool-;, pottery; and omaments; and upheld common beliefs and rituals. lf there were some differences, these may be due to some facton; like adaptation to the environment. Furthennore, th!! immigrants did not come into the archipelago in a fixed period of time nor with a definite destination. 35
  51. 51. ChapterTest No. 2 Na~: ____________ Date: ._ _ -·- __ _ Course, Year, and Section: _- -------------- I. Multiple Choice. Choooe the letter with the correct an~wer. Write your aruwer on the blanks provided: (15 pts.) __ 1. According to Visayan myth.~. the name of the mythical bird who ple~tded to the gods for help was ;.. Si·Kalac c. l<atala b. Manaul d. Si-Kavay ____ 2. The legend of Bernardo Carpio presents an explanation on how the country was a. created c. colonized b. changed d. shaken by earthquakes ____ 3. Jamt!s Hutton's theory now called <niformi- tarianism upholds that a. the movement of wat~r from the t!arth's surface to the ahnosphere and then back to earth i!l known as hydrologic cycle b. 200 million years ago, there were two land masses c. prior to the appearance of modem man em earth, history has to depend on the works of the geologists d. the laws of nature arc unchanging ____ 4. In the t6~~> century, the Dutch cartographer who noticed that the American continents seemed to have been separated from Europe and Africa was a. Abraham Oteliu c. Alfred Wegner b. Abraham Ortelius d . Alfred Wegener 36
  52. 52. 5. In the l>ook T/11• Or('{in of Contin<'IIIS aud Oco~ilrr~, Northern Hemi:;phere was called a. Gondw~naland c:. Pangaea b. Laurasi~ d. Antarctica 6. Wi<ie acce}>t<tnce or th~ theory of continental drift c~Tlu! eventually after a. pieces of fos..'lil c•·idcnc:r. wNe gathered in Alltarctic.1 h. the theory of pl~tc tPCtonics was established c. a shattering volcanic cnoption d . glacial depusi~ wr.n>. found in Africa 7. 'Ihe l'ormosan connection wa~ db'joined during the a. Miou:nc epoch c. Oligocene P.poch b. Pliocene epoch d. 1-'.ocene-epoch 8. The counterpart of Mindel glacial )J"riod in the · Unil'ed Stal~ i.~ ko10wn JS a. Wi:>consin glacial c. Illinoian-lowan glacial 1:>. jcr:r.cyian J>lac:iDl d . Kansan glacial '1. On the Aot~lralian side, the continental shell was known a:; a. Sunda c. Pangaea b. Sahul ·d. :'lew Guinea 10. The word felq>itw was at firstgiven by Villalobos's men to refer to a. Ccbu c. Samar and Lcytc h. L~yte d . Manila ll. Sung Dynasty so urces in 982 A.U. referred the Philippine isl:mdsas a. Ma·yi c. Ma-i b. :vta-1 d. Luz.oncs 12. The Katipunan g~neral who wanted thP. country to be named Rizaline Republic was a. emilio Aguin,, ldo c.. Artemio Ricarte b. Pio del Pibr ]7 d . Antonio Luna
  53. 53. 11. Ill. 13. The ~outhcrnmost point of the Philippines i.q a. PlLo;an Point c. Y' Ami Isle b. Saluag Isle d. Sulu 14. Based on the migration theory ofOtley Beyer, iron Age culture was introduced into tJ:tc Philipp~ ar:chlpclago by a. Malay~ c. N«gritos b. Indonesians d. Chinese 15. The Bagobo:; and B'laans are primarily found in a. Davao Oriental c. Maguindanao b. Davao del Sur d. Sulu Archipelago Matching l}rpe. Match Columns A and B. Write th~ l&ters only: (1 0 pffi.) ColuumA ColumnB Set! 1. R.1gang a. Mind<.Jro _ 2. Hibok-Hibok b. Lanao _3. Halcon·&co Mt. Range ( . Negros 4. Mt. Diwalwal d. Cc~miguin 5. Kanlaon Volcano e. Davao del Norte Set2 1. Kalaw a. largest bat 2. Katala b. with a winw;pan of one foot 3. Golden-crowned c. "dock" of the flying fox mountains _4. Pygmygoby d. croons like man _5. Giant moth e. endemic freshwater ~cie Essay: {S pts.each) 1. How does the country's geography affect the Filipino people? 38
  54. 54. 2. Identify and describe theculture of the indigenouspeople of the Philippines. 3. Why do modem day scholars oppose Beyer's waves of migr•.tion theory? 39

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