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- 1. Recovering Lost Sensor Data through Compressed Sensing Zainul Charbiwala Collaborators:Younghun Kim, Sadaf Zahedi, Supriyo Chakraborty, Ting He (IBM), Chatschik Bisdikian (IBM), Mani Srivastava
- 2. The Big Picture Lossy Communication Link zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 2
- 3. The Big Picture Lossy Communication Link zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 2
- 4. The Big Picture Lossy Communication Link zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 2
- 5. The Big Picture Lossy Communication Link How do we recover from this loss? zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 2
- 6. The Big Picture Lossy Communication Link How do we recover from this loss? • Retransmit the lost packets zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 2
- 7. The Big Picture Lossy Communication Link How do we recover from this loss? • Retransmit the lost packets zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 2
- 8. The Big Picture Generate Error Correction Bits Lossy Communication Link How do we recover from this loss? • Retransmit the lost packets • Proactively encode the data with some protection bits zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 2
- 9. The Big Picture Generate Error Correction Bits Lossy Communication Link How do we recover from this loss? • Retransmit the lost packets • Proactively encode the data with some protection bits zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 2
- 10. The Big Picture Generate Error Correction Bits Lossy Communication Link How do we recover from this loss? • Retransmit the lost packets • Proactively encode the data with some protection bits zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 2
- 11. The Big Picture Generate Error Correction Bits Lossy Communication Link How do we recover from this loss? • Retransmit the lost packets • Proactively encode the data with some protection bits • Can we do something better ? zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 2
- 12. The Big Picture - Using Compressed Sensing Lossy Communication Link CSEC zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 3
- 13. The Big Picture - Using Compressed Sensing Lossy Communication Link CSEC zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 3
- 14. The Big Picture - Using Compressed Sensing Generate Compressed Measurements Lossy Communication Link CSEC zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 3
- 15. The Big Picture - Using Compressed Sensing Generate Compressed Measurements Lossy Communication Link CSEC zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 3
- 16. The Big Picture - Using Compressed Sensing Generate Compressed Measurements Lossy Communication Link CSEC zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 3
- 17. The Big Picture - Using Compressed Sensing Generate Compressed Measurements Lossy Communication Link CSEC Recover from Received Compressed Measurements How does this work ? zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 3
- 18. The Big Picture - Using Compressed Sensing Generate Compressed Measurements Lossy Communication Link CSEC Recover from Received Compressed Measurements How does this work ? • Use knowledge of signal model and channel zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 3
- 19. The Big Picture - Using Compressed Sensing Generate Compressed Measurements Lossy Communication Link CSEC Recover from Received Compressed Measurements How does this work ? • Use knowledge of signal model and channel • CS uses randomized sampling/projections zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 3
- 20. The Big Picture - Using Compressed Sensing Generate Compressed Measurements Lossy Communication Link CSEC Recover from Received Compressed Measurements How does this work ? • Use knowledge of signal model and channel • CS uses randomized sampling/projections • Random losses look like additional randomness ! zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 3
- 21. The Big Picture - Using Compressed Sensing Generate Compressed Measurements Lossy Communication Link CSEC Recover from Received Compressed Measurements How does this work ? • Use knowledge of signal model and channel • CS uses randomized sampling/projections • Random losses look like additional randomness ! Rest of this talk focuses on describing “How” and “How Well” this works zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 3
- 22. Talk Outline ‣ A Quick Intro to Compressed Sensing ‣ CS Erasure Coding for Recovering Lost Sensor Data ‣ Evaluating CSEC’s cost and performance ‣ Concluding Remarks zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 4
- 23. Why Compressed Sensing ? Physical Sampling Compression Communication Application Signal zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 5
- 24. Why Compressed Sensing ? Physical Sampling Compression Communication Application Signal Physical Compressive Communication Decoding Application Signal Sampling Shifts computation to a capable server zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 5
- 25. Transform Domain Analysis zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 6
- 26. Transform Domain Analysis ‣ We usually acquire signals in the time or spatial domain zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 6
- 27. Transform Domain Analysis ‣ We usually acquire signals in the time or spatial domain ‣ By looking at the signal in another domain, the signal may be represented more compactly zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 6
- 28. Transform Domain Analysis ‣ We usually acquire signals in the time or spatial domain ‣ By looking at the signal in another domain, the signal may be represented more compactly zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 6
- 29. Transform Domain Analysis ‣ We usually acquire signals in the time or spatial domain ‣ By looking at the signal in another domain, the signal may be represented more compactly ‣ Eg: a sine wave can be expressed by 3 parameters: frequency, amplitude and phase. zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 6
- 30. Transform Domain Analysis ‣ We usually acquire signals in the time or spatial domain ‣ By looking at the signal in another domain, the signal may be represented more compactly ‣ Eg: a sine wave can be expressed by 3 parameters: frequency, amplitude and phase. ‣ Or, in this case, by the index of the FFT coefﬁcient and its complex value zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 6
- 31. Transform Domain Analysis ‣ We usually acquire signals in the time or spatial domain ‣ By looking at the signal in another domain, the signal may be represented more compactly ‣ Eg: a sine wave can be expressed by 3 parameters: frequency, amplitude and phase. ‣ Or, in this case, by the index of the FFT coefﬁcient and its complex value ‣ Sine wave is sparse in frequency domain zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 6
- 32. Lossy Compression zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 7
- 33. Lossy Compression ‣ This is known as Transform Domain Compression zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 7
- 34. Lossy Compression ‣ This is known as Transform Domain Compression ‣ The domain in which the signal can be most compactly represented depends on the signal zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 7
- 35. Lossy Compression ‣ This is known as Transform Domain Compression ‣ The domain in which the signal can be most compactly represented depends on the signal ‣ The signal processing world has been coming up with domains for many classes of signals zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 7
- 36. Lossy Compression ‣ This is known as Transform Domain Compression ‣ The domain in which the signal can be most compactly represented depends on the signal ‣ The signal processing world has been coming up with domains for many classes of signals ‣ A necessary property for transforms is invertibility zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 7
- 37. Lossy Compression ‣ This is known as Transform Domain Compression ‣ The domain in which the signal can be most compactly represented depends on the signal ‣ The signal processing world has been coming up with domains for many classes of signals ‣ A necessary property for transforms is invertibility ‣ It would also be nice if there were efﬁcient algorithms to convert the signals to transform between domains zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 7
- 38. Lossy Compression ‣ This is known as Transform Domain Compression ‣ The domain in which the signal can be most compactly represented depends on the signal ‣ The signal processing world has been coming up with domains for many classes of signals ‣ A necessary property for transforms is invertibility ‣ It would also be nice if there were efﬁcient algorithms to convert the signals to transform between domains ‣ But why is it called lossy compression? zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 7
- 39. Lossy Compression ‣ When we transform the signal to the right domain, some coefﬁcients stand out but lots will be near zero ‣ The top few coeffs describe the signal “well enough” zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 8
- 40. Lossy Compression ‣ When we transform the signal to the right domain, some coefﬁcients stand out but lots will be near zero ‣ The top few coeffs describe the signal “well enough” zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 8
- 41. Lossy Compression ‣ When we transform the signal to the right domain, some coefﬁcients stand out but lots will be near zero ‣ The top few coeffs describe the signal “well enough” zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 8
- 42. Lossy Compression zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 9
- 43. Lossy Compression • JPEG(100%) : 407462 bytes, ~ 2x gain zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 9
- 44. Lossy Compression • JPEG(100%) : • JPEG (10%) : 407462 bytes, ~ 7544 bytes, 2x gain ~ 100x gain zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 9
- 45. Lossy Compression • JPEG(100%) : • JPEG (10%) : • JPEG (1%) : 407462 bytes, ~ 7544 bytes, 2942 bytes, 2x gain ~ 100x gain ~ 260x gain zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 9
- 46. Compressing a Sine Wave zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 10
- 47. Compressing a Sine Wave ‣ Assume we’re interesting in acquiring a single sine wave x(t) in a noiseless environment zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 10
- 48. Compressing a Sine Wave ‣ Assume we’re interesting in acquiring a single sine wave x(t) in a noiseless environment ‣ An inﬁnite duration sine wave can be expressed using three parameters: frequency f, amplitude a and phase φ. zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 10
- 49. Compressing a Sine Wave ‣ Assume we’re interesting in acquiring a single sine wave x(t) in a noiseless environment ‣ An inﬁnite duration sine wave can be expressed using three parameters: frequency f, amplitude a and phase φ. ‣ Question: What’s the best way to ﬁnd the parameters ? zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 10
- 50. Compressing a Sine Wave zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 11
- 51. Compressing a Sine Wave ‣ Technically, to estimate three parameters one needs three good measurements zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 11
- 52. Compressing a Sine Wave ‣ Technically, to estimate three parameters one needs three good measurements ‣ Questions: zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 11
- 53. Compressing a Sine Wave ‣ Technically, to estimate three parameters one needs three good measurements ‣ Questions: ‣ What are “good” measurements ? zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 11
- 54. Compressing a Sine Wave ‣ Technically, to estimate three parameters one needs three good measurements ‣ Questions: ‣ What are “good” measurements ? ‣ How do you estimate f, a, φ from three measurements ? zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 11
- 55. Compressed Sensing zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 12
- 56. Compressed Sensing ‣ With three samples: z1, z2, z3 of the sine wave at times t1, t2, t3 zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 12
- 57. Compressed Sensing ‣ With three samples: z1, z2, z3 of the sine wave at times t1, t2, t3 ‣ We know that any solution of f, a and φ must meet the three constraints and spans a 3D space: zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 12
- 58. Compressed Sensing ‣ With three samples: z1, z2, z3 of the sine wave at times t1, t2, t3 ‣ We know that any solution of f, a and φ must meet the three constraints and spans a 3D space: z i = x(t i ) = a sin(2π ft i + φ ) ∀i ∈{1, 2, 3} zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 12
- 59. Compressed Sensing ‣ With three samples: z1, z2, z3 of the sine wave at times t1, t2, t3 ‣ We know that any solution of f, a and φ must meet the three constraints and spans a 3D space: z i = x(t i ) = a sin(2π ft i + φ ) ∀i ∈{1, 2, 3} φ ‣ Feasible solution space is much smaller a zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 12
- 60. Compressed Sensing ‣ With three samples: z1, z2, z3 of the sine wave at times t1, t2, t3 ‣ We know that any solution of f, a and φ must meet the three constraints and spans a 3D space: z i = x(t i ) = a sin(2π ft i + φ ) ∀i ∈{1, 2, 3} φ ‣ Feasible solution space is much smaller ‣ As the number of constraints grows (from more measurements), the feasible solution a space shrinks ‣ Exhaustive search over this space reveals the right answer zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 12
- 61. Formulating the Problem ‣ We could also represent f, a and φ as a very long, but mostly empty FFT coefﬁcient vector. zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 13
- 62. Formulating the Problem ‣ We could also represent f, a and φ as a very long, but mostly empty FFT coefﬁcient vector. zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 13
- 63. Formulating the Problem ‣ We could also represent f, a and φ as a very long, but mostly empty FFT coefﬁcient vector. Sine wave. Amplitude represented by x color zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 13
- 64. Formulating the Problem ‣ We could also represent f, a and φ as a very long, but mostly empty FFT coefﬁcient vector. Sine wave. Amplitude represented by Ψ (Fourier Transform) x color zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 13
- 65. Formulating the Problem ‣ We could also represent f, a and φ as a very long, but mostly empty FFT coefﬁcient vector. Sine wave. Amplitude represented by y = Ψ (Fourier Transform) x color zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 13
- 66. Formulating the Problem ‣ We could also represent f, a and φ as a very long, but mostly empty FFT coefﬁcient vector. Sine wave. Amplitude represented by y = Ψ (Fourier Transform) x color − j2 π ft + φ ae zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 13
- 67. Sampling Matrix ‣ We could also write out the sampling process in matrix form zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 14
- 68. Sampling Matrix ‣ We could also write out the sampling process in matrix form x zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 14
- 69. Sampling Matrix ‣ We could also write out the sampling process in matrix form Φ x zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 14
- 70. Sampling Matrix ‣ We could also write out the sampling process in matrix form z = Φ x zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 14
- 71. Sampling Matrix ‣ We could also write out the sampling process in matrix form z = Φ x Three non-zero entries at some “good” locations zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 14
- 72. Sampling Matrix ‣ We could also write out the sampling process in matrix form Three measurements z = Φ x Three non-zero entries at some “good” locations zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 14
- 73. Sampling Matrix ‣ We could also write out the sampling process in matrix form Three measurements z = Φ x k n Three non-zero entries at some “good” locations zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 14
- 74. Exhaustive Search ‣ Objective of exhaustive search: ‣ Find an estimate of the vector y that meets the constraints and is the most compact representation of x (also called the sparsest representation) ‣ Our search is now guided by the fact that y is a sparse vector ‣ Rewriting constraints: z = Φx y = Ψx −1 z = ΦΨ y zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 15
- 75. Exhaustive Search ‣ Objective of exhaustive search: ‣ Find an estimate of the vector y that meets the constraints and is the most compact representation of x (also called the sparsest representation) ‣ Our search is now guided by the fact that y is a sparse vector ‣ Rewriting constraints: ˆ % y = arg min y l 0 % y z = Φx y = Ψx % s.t. z = ΦΨ y −1 z = ΦΨ y −1 y l0 @ {i : yi ≠ 0} zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 15
- 76. Exhaustive Search ‣ Objective of exhaustive search: ‣ Find an estimate of the vector y that meets the constraints and is the most compact representation of x (also called the sparsest representation) ‣ Our search is now guided by the fact that y is a sparse vector ‣ Rewriting constraints: ˆ % y = arg min y l 0 % y z = Φx y = Ψx % s.t. z = ΦΨ y −1 z = ΦΨ y −1 y l0 @ {i : yi ≠ 0} This optimization problem is NP-Hard ! zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 15
- 77. l1 Minimization ‣ Approximate the l0 norm to an l1 norm ˆ % y = arg min y l 1 % y y = ∑ yi l1 % −1 i s.t. z = ΦΨ y ‣ This problem can now be solved efﬁciently using linear programming techniques ‣ This approximation was not new ‣ The big leap in Compressed Sensing was a theorem that showed that under the right conditions, this approximation was exact! zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 16
- 78. The Restricted Isometry Property ˆ % y = arg min y l 1 % y % s.t. z = ΦΨ y −1 Rewrite as: % z = Ay For any positive integer constant s, ﬁnd the smallest δs such that: 2 2 2 (1 − δ s ) y ≤ Ay ≤ (1 + δ s ) y holds for all s-sparse vectors y A vector is said to s-sparse if it has at most s non-zero entries zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 17
- 79. The Restricted Isometry Property ˆ % y = arg min y l 1 % y % s.t. z = ΦΨ y −1 Rewrite as: % z = Ay For any positive integer constant s, ﬁnd the smallest δs such that: 2 2 2 (1 − δ s ) y ≤ Ay ≤ (1 + δ s ) y holds for all s-sparse vectors y A vector is said to s-sparse if it has at most s non-zero entries The closer δs(A) is to 0, the better the matrix combination A is at capturing unique features of the signal zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 17
- 80. CS Recovery Theorem Theorem: Assume that δs(A) <√2-1 for some matrix A, then the solution to the l1 minimization problem obeys: [Candes-Romberg- ˆ y− y ˆ ≤ C 0 y − ys Tao-05] l1 l1 C0 ˆ y− y l2 ≤ ˆ y − ys l1 s for some small positive constant C0 ys is an approximation of a non-sparse vector with only its s-largest entries If y is s-sparse, the reconstruction is exact zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 18
- 81. Gaussian Random Projections ‣ 1 Gaussian: independent realizations of N (0, ) n * y zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 19
- 82. Gaussian Random Projections ‣ 1 Gaussian: independent realizations of N (0, ) n Ψ-1 (Inverse Fourier Transform) * y zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 19
- 83. Gaussian Random Projections ‣ 1 Gaussian: independent realizations of N (0, ) n Φ * Ψ-1 (Inverse Fourier Transform) * y zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 19
- 84. Gaussian Random Projections ‣ 1 Gaussian: independent realizations of N (0, ) n z = Φ * Ψ-1 (Inverse Fourier Transform) * y zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 19
- 85. Bernoulli Random Projections ‣ +1 −1 Realizations of equiprobable Bernoulli RV , n n z = Φ * Ψ-1 (Inverse Fourier Transform) * y zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 20
- 86. Uniform Random Sampling ‣ Select samples uniformly randomly z = Φ * Ψ-1 (Inverse Fourier Transform) * y zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 21
- 87. Per-Module Energy Consumption on Mica ˆ y %! ;<= >?) 001 ;@=A3(1B $! 23456(789: #! H "! ! etection pro- "!&'( #!&'( $!&'( #+!&' "!#%&' "!#%&' on )* )* )* )* ,-.* ,*/001 "!!! ctions that de- ;<= >?) 001 ;@=A3(1B ;D<<A<E(1A85(78F: C+! m. Model pa- nergy accurate +!! MicaZ [18]. The #+! zed sampling is Irwin-Hall dis- ! "!&'( #!&'( $!&'( #+!&' "!#%&' "!#%&' niform random )* )* )* )* ,-.* ,*/001 rmed using an Figure 3: Power and Duty Cycle costs for Compres- -bit operation. sive Sensing versus Nyquist Sampling w/ local FFT. he 4KB ‣RAMFFT computation higher than transmission cost of each block for every one second window. This equates to ‣ Highest the achievable duty cycle ofrandom number generator consumer in CS is the the node, lower values for which further improve the overall energy eﬃciency. The ADC la- on of the com- tency is clearly visible here as - CSEC - Jan 2010 component for zainul@ee.ucla.edu the dominant 22
- 88. Compressive Sampling Physical Sampling Time domain Signal samples n x ∈° z = In x Physical Compressive Randomized Signal Sampling measurements n x ∈° z = Φx kxn k<n zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 23
- 89. Compressive Sampling Physical Sampling Compression Compressed Signal domain samples n x ∈° z = In x y = Ψz nxn Physical Compressive Compressed Decoding Signal Sampling domain samples n x ∈° z = Φx % y = arg min y l 1 kxn % y k<n % s.t. z = ΦΨ y −1 zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 24
- 90. Handling Missing Data Physical Compressed Sampling Compression Signal domain samples n x ∈° z = In x y = Ψz nxn zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 25
- 91. Handling Missing Data Physical Compressed Sampling Compression Signal domain samples n x ∈° z = In x y = Ψz nxn Missing Communication samples When communication channel is lossy: zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 25
- 92. Handling Missing Data Physical Compressed Sampling Compression Signal domain samples n x ∈° z = In x y = Ψz nxn Missing Communication samples When communication channel is lossy: • Use retransmissions to recover lost data zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 25
- 93. Handling Missing Data Physical Compressed Sampling Compression Signal domain samples n x ∈° z = In x y = Ψz nxn Missing Communication samples When communication channel is lossy: • Use retransmissions to recover lost data • Or, use error (erasure) correcting codes zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 25
- 94. Handling Missing Data Physical Compressed Sampling Compression Signal domain samples n x ∈° z = In x y = Ψz nxn Missing Communication samples zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 26
- 95. Handling Missing Data Physical Compressed Sampling Compression Signal domain samples n x ∈° z = In x y = Ψz nxn Recovered Channel Channel Missing Communication compressed Coding Decoding samples domain samples zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 26
- 96. Handling Missing Data Physical Compressed Sampling Compression Signal domain samples n x ∈° z = In x y = Ψz nxn Recovered Channel Channel Missing Communication compressed Coding Decoding samples domain samples + w = Ωy wl = Cw y = ( CΩ ) wl ˆ mxn m>n zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 26
- 97. Handling Missing Data Physical Compressed Sampling Compression Signal domain samples n x ∈° z = In x y = Ψz Done at nxn application layer Recovered Channel Channel Missing Communication compressed Coding Decoding samples domain samples + w = Ωy wl = Cw y = ( CΩ ) wl ˆ mxn m>n zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 26
- 98. Handling Missing Data Physical Compressed Sampling Compression Signal domain samples n x ∈° z = In x y = Ψz Done at nxn application layer Recovered Channel Channel Missing Communication compressed Coding Decoding samples domain samples + w = Ωy wl = Cw y = ( CΩ ) wl ˆ mxn m>n Done at physical layer Can’t exploit signal characteristics zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 26
- 99. CS Erasure Coding Physical Compressive Compressed Communication Decoding Signal Sampling domain samples n x ∈° z = Φx zl = Cz % y = arg min y l 1 kxn % y k<n % s.t. zl = CΦΨ y −1 zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 27
- 100. CS Erasure Coding Physical Compressive Compressed Communication Decoding Signal Sampling domain samples n x ∈° z = Φx zl = Cz % y = arg min y l 1 kxn % y k<n % s.t. zl = CΦΨ y −1 Physical Compressive Compressed Communication Decoding Signal Sampling domain samples n x ∈° z = Φx zl = Cz % y = arg min y l 1 mxn % y k<m<n % s.t. zl = CΦΨ y −1 zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 27
- 101. CS Erasure Coding Physical Compressive Compressed Communication Decoding Signal Sampling domain samples n x ∈° z = Φx zl = Cz % y = arg min y l 1 kxn % y k<n % s.t. zl = CΦΨ y −1 Over-sampling in CS is Erasure Coding ! Physical Compressive Compressed Communication Decoding Signal Sampling domain samples n x ∈° z = Φx zl = Cz % y = arg min y l 1 mxn % y k<m<n % s.t. zl = CΦΨ y −1 zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 27
- 102. Features of CS Erasure Coding ‣ No need of additional channel coding block ‣ Redundancy achieved by oversampling ‣ Recovery is resilient to incorrect channel estimates ‣ Traditional channel coding fails if redundancy is inadequate ‣ Decoding is free if CS was used for compression anyway zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 28
- 103. Features of CS Erasure Coding ‣ No need of additional channel coding block ‣ Redundancy achieved by oversampling ‣ Recovery is resilient to incorrect channel estimates ‣ Traditional channel coding fails if redundancy is inadequate ‣ Decoding is free if CS was used for compression anyway ‣ Intuition: ‣ Channel Coding spreads information out over measurements ‣ Compression (Source Coding) - compact information in few measurements ‣ CSEC - spreads information while compacting ! zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 28
- 104. Effects of Missing Samples on CS z = Φ x zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 29
- 105. Effects of Missing Samples on CS z = Φ x Missing samples at the receiver zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 29
- 106. Effects of Missing Samples on CS z = Φ x Missing samples at the Same as missing receiver rows in the sampling matrix zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 29
- 107. Effects of Missing Samples on CS z = Φ x What happens if we over-sample? zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 29
- 108. Effects of Missing Samples on CS z = Φ x What happens if we over-sample? • Can we recover the lost data? zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 29
- 109. Effects of Missing Samples on CS z = Φ x What happens if we over-sample? • Can we recover the lost data? • How much over-sampling is needed? zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 29
- 110. Some CS Results ‣ Theorem: If k samples of a length n signal are acquired uniformly randomly (if each sample is equiprobable) and reconstruction is performed in the Fourier basis: k [Rudelson06] s≤C · 4 ′ w.h.p. log (n) ‣ Where s is the sparsity of the signal zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 30
- 111. Extending CS Results ‣ Claim: When m>k samples are acquired uniformly randomly and communicated through a memoryless binary erasure channel that drops m-k samples, the received k samples are still equiprobable. ‣ Implies that bound on sparsity condition should hold. ‣ If bound is tight, over-sampling rate (m-k) is same as loss rate [Charbiwala10] zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 31
- 112. Evaluating the RIP Create CS Compute RIP Simulate Sampling+Domain constant of Channel Matrix received matrix Φ * Ψ-1 (Inverse Fourier Transform) 103 instances, size 256x1024 zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 32
- 113. Evaluating the RIP Create CS Compute RIP Simulate Sampling+Domain constant of Channel Matrix received matrix A= Φ* Ψ-1 103 instances, size 256x1024 zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 32
- 114. Evaluating the RIP Create CS Compute RIP Simulate Sampling+Domain constant of Channel Matrix received matrix A= Φ* Ψ-1 A’= C*Φ* Ψ-1 103 instances, size 256x1024 zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 32
- 115. RIP Veriﬁcation in Memoryless Channels Fourier Random Sampling Baseline performance - No Loss (Shading: Min - Max) zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 33
- 116. RIP Veriﬁcation in Memoryless Channels Fourier Random Sampling Baseline performance - No Loss (Shading: Min - Max) 20 % Loss - Increase in RIP constant zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 33
- 117. RIP Veriﬁcation in Memoryless Channels Fourier Random Sampling Baseline performance - No Loss (Shading: Min - Max) 20 % Loss - Increase in RIP constant 20 % Oversampling - RIP constant recovers zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 33
- 118. RIP Veriﬁcation in Bursty Channels Fourier Random Sampling Baseline performance - No Loss (Shading: Min - Max) zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 34
- 119. RIP Veriﬁcation in Bursty Channels Fourier Random Sampling Baseline performance - No Loss (Shading: Min - Max) 20 % Loss - Increase in RIP constant and large variation zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 34
- 120. RIP Veriﬁcation in Bursty Channels Fourier Random Sampling Baseline performance - No Loss (Shading: Min - Max) 20 % Loss - Increase in RIP constant and large variation 20 % Oversampling - RIP constant reduces but doesn’t recover zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 34
- 121. RIP Veriﬁcation in Bursty Channels Fourier Random Sampling Baseline performance - No Loss (Shading: Min - Max) 20 % Loss - Increase in RIP constant and large variation 20 % Oversampling - RIP constant reduces but doesn’t recover Oversampling + Interleaving - RIP constant recovers zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 34
- 122. Signal Recovery Performance Evaluation Create CS Interleave Lossy CS Reconstruction Signal Sampling Samples Channel Recovery Error? zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 35
- 123. In Memoryless Channels Baseline performance - No Loss zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 36
- 124. In Memoryless Channels Baseline performance - No Loss 20 % Loss - Drop in recovery probability zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 36
- 125. In Memoryless Channels Baseline performance - No Loss 20 % Loss - Drop in recovery probability 20 % Oversampling - complete recovery zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 36
- 126. In Memoryless Channels Baseline performance - No Loss 20 % Loss - Drop in recovery probability 20 % Oversampling - complete recovery Less than 20 % Oversampling - recovery does not fail completely zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 36
- 127. In Bursty Channels Baseline performance - No Loss zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 37
- 128. In Bursty Channels Baseline performance - No Loss 20 % Loss - Drop in recovery probability zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 37
- 129. In Bursty Channels Baseline performance - No Loss 20 % Loss - Drop in recovery probability 20 % Oversampling - doesn’t recover completely zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 37
- 130. In Bursty Channels Baseline performance - No Loss 20 % Loss - Drop in recovery probability Oversampling + Interleaving - Still incomplete recovery 20 % Oversampling - doesn’t recover completely zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 37
- 131. In Bursty Channels Worse than baseline Baseline performance - No Loss 20 % Loss - Drop in recovery probability Oversampling + Interleaving - Still incomplete recovery 20 % Oversampling - doesn’t recover completely Better than baseline ‣ Recovery incomplete because of low interleaving depth ‣ Recovery better at high sparsity because bursty channels deliver bigger packets on average, but with higher variance zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 37
- 132. In Bursty Channels Worse than baseline Baseline performance - No Loss 20 % Loss - Drop in recovery probability Oversampling + Interleaving - Still incomplete recovery 20 % Oversampling - doesn’t recover completely Better than baseline ‣ Recovery incomplete because of low interleaving depth ‣ Recovery better at high sparsity because bursty channels deliver bigger packets on average, but with higher variance zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 37
- 133. In Real 802.15.4 Channel Baseline performance - No Loss zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 38
- 134. In Real 802.15.4 Channel Baseline performance - No Loss 20 % Loss - Drop in recovery probability zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 38
- 135. In Real 802.15.4 Channel Baseline performance - No Loss 20 % Loss - Drop in recovery probability 20 % Oversampling - complete recovery zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 38
- 136. In Real 802.15.4 Channel Baseline performance - No Loss 20 % Loss - Drop in recovery probability 20 % Oversampling - complete recovery Less than 20 % Oversampling - recovery does not fail completely zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 38
- 137. Cost of CSEC 5 Rnd ADC FFT Radio TX RS 4 Energy/block (mJ) 3 2 1 0 m=256 S-n-S m=10 C-n-S m=64 CS k=320 S-n-S+RS k=16 C-n-S+RS k=80 CSEC Sense Sense, CS Sense Sense, CSEC and Compress and and Compress and Send (FFT) Send Send and Send and (1/4th with Send Send rate) Reed with Solomon RS zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 39
- 138. Cost of CSEC 5 Rnd ADC FFT Radio TX RS 4 Energy/block (mJ) 3 2 1 0 m=256 S-n-S m=10 C-n-S m=64 CS k=320 S-n-S+RS k=16 C-n-S+RS k=80 CSEC Sense Sense, CS Sense Sense, CSEC and Compress and and Compress and Send (FFT) Send Send and Send and (1/4th with Send Send rate) Reed with Solomon RS zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 39
- 139. Summary ‣ Oversampling is a valid erasure coding strategy for compressive reconstruction ‣ For binary erasure channels, an oversampling rate equal to loss rate is sufﬁcient (empirical) ‣ CS erasure coding can be rate-less like fountain codes ‣ Allows adaptation to varying channel conditions ‣ Can be computationally more efﬁcient than traditional erasure codes zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 40
- 140. Closing Remarks ‣ CSEC spreads information out while compacting ‣ No free lunch syndrome: Data rate requirement is higher than if using good source and channel coding independently ‣ But, then, computation cost is higher too ‣ CSEC requires knowledge of signal model ‣ If signal is non-stationary, model needs to be updated during recovery ‣ This can be done using over-sampling too ‣ CSEC requires knowledge of channel conditions ‣ Can use CS streaming with feedback zainul@ee.ucla.edu - CSEC - Jan 2010 41
- 141. Thank You

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