IP Classes of IP
TCP/IP Protocol Suite INTRODUCTION The identifier used in the IP layer of the TCP/IP protocol suite to identify each devic...
TCP/IP Protocol Suite The address space of IPv4 is 232 or 4,294,967,296.
TCP/IP Protocol Suite The binary, decimal, and hexadecimal number systems are reviewed in Appendix B.
TCP/IP Protocol Suite Figure 4.2   Occupation of the address space
TCP/IP Protocol Suite Table 4.1   Addresses per class
TCP/IP Protocol Suite Figure 4.3   Finding the class in binary notation
TCP/IP Protocol Suite Figure 4.4   Finding the address class
TCP/IP Protocol Suite Figure 4.5   Finding the class in decimal notation
TCP/IP Protocol Suite Figure 4.6   Netid and hostid
TCP/IP Protocol Suite Table 4.2 Default masks
Network Topologies
What is a Network Topology A network topology is the arrangement of elements (such as data links or nodes) in a network. E...
Ring Network A node in a ring network is always connected to two other nodes where it sends and receives data. Messages ar...
Star Network In a star network, every node is connected to a central computer. If data needs to be sent from one node to t...
Bus Network A bus network connects all nodes through a single cable which is called the bus. If a node sends data along th...
Linear Bus Network A linear bus network consists of many nodes connecting onto one cable. Nodes are extremely easy to conn...
Domain Name
 
.ac Ascension Island .ad Andorra .ae United Arab Emirates .af Afghanistan .ag Antigua and Barbuda .ai Anguilla .al Albania...
<ul><ul><li>.ca Canada </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.cc Cocos (Keeling) Islands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.cd Congo, Democr...
<ul><ul><li>.fi Finland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.fj Fiji </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.fk Falkland Islands </li></ul></ul...
<ul><ul><li>.hk Hong Kong </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.hm Heard and McDonald Islands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.hn Hondura...
<ul><ul><li>.je Jersey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.jm Jamaica </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.jo Jordan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
<ul><ul><li>.la Lao People's Democratic Republic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.lb Lebanon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.lc Sai...
<ul><ul><li>.na Namibia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.nc New Caledonia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.ne Niger </li></ul></ul><...
<ul><ul><li>.qa Qatar  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.re Reunion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.ro Romania </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
<ul><ul><li>.tc The Turks and Caicos Islands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.td Chad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.tf French Sou...
<ul><ul><li>.va Holy See (Vatican City State) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.vc Saint Vincent and the Grenadines </li></ul></...
TCP/IP Protocol Suite
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Assignment

  1. 1. IP Classes of IP
  2. 2. TCP/IP Protocol Suite INTRODUCTION The identifier used in the IP layer of the TCP/IP protocol suite to identify each device connected to the Internet is called the Internet address or IP address. An IP address is a 32-bit address that uniquely and universally defines the connection of a host or a router to the Internet. IP addresses are unique. They are unique in the sense that each address defines one, and only one, connection to the Internet. Two devices on the Internet can never have the same address.
  3. 3. TCP/IP Protocol Suite The address space of IPv4 is 232 or 4,294,967,296.
  4. 4. TCP/IP Protocol Suite The binary, decimal, and hexadecimal number systems are reviewed in Appendix B.
  5. 5. TCP/IP Protocol Suite Figure 4.2 Occupation of the address space
  6. 6. TCP/IP Protocol Suite Table 4.1 Addresses per class
  7. 7. TCP/IP Protocol Suite Figure 4.3 Finding the class in binary notation
  8. 8. TCP/IP Protocol Suite Figure 4.4 Finding the address class
  9. 9. TCP/IP Protocol Suite Figure 4.5 Finding the class in decimal notation
  10. 10. TCP/IP Protocol Suite Figure 4.6 Netid and hostid
  11. 11. TCP/IP Protocol Suite Table 4.2 Default masks
  12. 12. Network Topologies
  13. 13. What is a Network Topology A network topology is the arrangement of elements (such as data links or nodes) in a network. Examples include:
  14. 14. Ring Network A node in a ring network is always connected to two other nodes where it sends and receives data. Messages are sent around the network with each node transmitting the message to the next if required. If a node breaks down, the entire network will not work.
  15. 15. Star Network In a star network, every node is connected to a central computer. If data needs to be sent from one node to the other it must pass through the central computer. This network is used where speed is most important.
  16. 16. Bus Network A bus network connects all nodes through a single cable which is called the bus. If a node sends data along the bus every other node checks or retreives the data. This network is much more reliable but alot slower as only one computer can transmit a message at a time.
  17. 17. Linear Bus Network A linear bus network consists of many nodes connecting onto one cable. Nodes are extremely easy to connect onto this network but the entire network would shutdown if a single node breaks down and it would be quite slow.
  18. 18. Domain Name
  19. 19.  
  20. 20. .ac Ascension Island .ad Andorra .ae United Arab Emirates .af Afghanistan .ag Antigua and Barbuda .ai Anguilla .al Albania .am Armenia .an Netherlands Antilles .ao Angola .aq Antarctica .ar Argentina .as American Samoa .at Austria .au Australia .aw Aruba .ax Åland Islands .az Azerbaijan <ul><ul><li>.ba Bosnia and Herzegovina </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.bb Barbados </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.bd Bangladesh </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.be Belgium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.bf Burkina Faso </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.bg Bulgaria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.bh Bahrain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.bi Burundi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.bj Benin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.bm Bermuda </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.bn Brunei Darussalam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.bo Bolivia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.br Brazil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.bs Bahamas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.bt Bhutan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.bv Bouvet Island </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.bw Botswana </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.by Belarus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.bz Belize </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><ul><li>.ca Canada </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.cc Cocos (Keeling) Islands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.cd Congo, Democratic republic of the (former Zaire) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.cf Central African Republic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.cg Congo, Republic of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.ch Switzerland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.ci Côte d'Ivoire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.ck Cook Islands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.cl Chile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.cm Cameroon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.cn China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.co Colombia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.cr Costa Rica </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.cs Czechoslovakia (former – non-existing) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.cu Cuba </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.cv Cape Verde </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.cx Christmas Island </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.cy Cyprus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.cz Czech Republic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.de Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.dj Djibouti </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.dk Denmark </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.dm Dominica </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.do Dominican Republic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.dz Algeria </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><ul><li>.fi Finland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.fj Fiji </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.fk Falkland Islands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.fm Micronesia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.fo Faroe Islands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.fr France </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.ga Gabon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.gb United Kingdom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.gd Grenada </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.ge Georgia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.gf French Guiana </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.gg Guernsey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.gh Ghana </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.gi Gibraltar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.gl Greenland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.gm Gambia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.gn Guinea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.gp Guadeloupe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.gq Equatorial Guinea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.gr Greece </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.gs South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.gt Guatemala </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.gu Guam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.gw Guinea-Bissau </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.gy Guyana </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><ul><li>.hk Hong Kong </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.hm Heard and McDonald Islands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.hn Honduras </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.hr Croatia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.ht Haiti </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.hu Hungary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.id Indonesia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.ie Ireland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.il Israel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.im Isle of Man </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.in India </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.io British Indian Ocean Territory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.iq Iraq </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.ir Iran </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.is Iceland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.it Italia </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><ul><li>.je Jersey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.jm Jamaica </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.jo Jordan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.jp Japan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.ke Kenya </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.kg Kyrgyzstan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.kh Cambodia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.ki Kiribati </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.km Comoros </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.kn Saint Kitts and Nevis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.kp Korea, Democratic Peoples Republic of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.kr Korea, Republic of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.kw Kuwait </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.ky Cayman Islands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.kz Kazakhstan </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><ul><li>.la Lao People's Democratic Republic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.lb Lebanon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.lc Saint Lucia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.li Liechtenstein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.lk Sri Lanka </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.lr Liberia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.ls Lesotho </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.lt Lithuania </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.lu Luxembourg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.lv Latvia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.ly Libyan Arab Jamahiriya </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.ma Morocco </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.mc Monaco </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.md Moldova </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.me Montenegro </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.mg Madagascar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.mh Marshall Islands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.mk Macedonia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.ml Mali </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.mm Myanmar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.mn Mongolia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.mo Macau </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.mp Northern Mariana Islands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.mq Martinique </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.mr Mauritania </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.ms Montserrat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.mt Malta </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.mu Mauritius </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.mv Maldives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.mw Malawi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.mx Mexico </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.my Malaysia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.mz Mozambique </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><ul><li>.na Namibia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.nc New Caledonia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.ne Niger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.nf Norfolk Island </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.ng Nigeria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.ni Nicaragua </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.nl The Netherlands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.no Norway </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.np Nepal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.nr Nauru </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.nu Niue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.nz New Zealand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.om Oman </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.pa Panama </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.pe Peru </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.pf French Polynesia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.pg Papua New Guinea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.ph Philippines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.pk Pakistan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.pl Poland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.pm St. Pierre and Miquelon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.pn Pitcairn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.pr Puerto Rico </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.ps Palestine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.pt Portugal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.pw Palau </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.py Paraguay </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><ul><li>.qa Qatar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.re Reunion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.ro Romania </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.rs Serbia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.ru Russia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.rw Rwanda </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.sa Saudi Arabia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.sb Solomon Islands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.sc Seychelles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.sd Sudan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.se Sweden </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.sg Singapore </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.sh St. Helena </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.si Slovenia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.sj Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.sk Slovakia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.sl Sierra Leone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.sm San Marino </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.sn Senegal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.so Somalia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.sr Surinam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.st Sao Tome and Principe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.su USSR (former) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.sv El Salvador </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.sy Syrian Arab Republic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.sz Swaziland </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><ul><li>.tc The Turks and Caicos Islands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.td Chad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.tf French Southern Territories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.tg Togo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.th Thailand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.tj Tajikistan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.tk Tokelau </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.tl Timor-Leste </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.tm Turkmenistan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.tn Tunisia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.to Tonga </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.tp East Timor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.tr Turkey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.tt Trinidad and Tobago </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.tv Tuvalu </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.tw Taiwan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.tz Tanzania </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.ua Ukraine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.ug Uganda </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.uk United Kingdom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.um United States Minor Outlying Islands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.us United States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.uy Uruguay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.uz Uzbekistan </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><ul><li>.va Holy See (Vatican City State) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.vc Saint Vincent and the Grenadines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.ve Venezuela </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.vg Virgin Islands British </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.vi Virgin Islands U.S </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.vn Vietnam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.vu Vanuatu </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.wf Wallis and Futuna Islands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.ws Samoa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.ye Yemen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.yt Mayotte </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.yu Yugoslavia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.za South Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.zm Zambia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.zr Zaire (non-existent, see Congo) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.zw Zimbabwe </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. TCP/IP Protocol Suite

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