the sharing and exchanging of written
symbols between individuals or groups.
presentation of ideas in a coherent manner
in written form.
information can be stored and transferred
without relying on memory.
records can exist independently of the
an avenue not only for the sharing of ideas or
opinions but also for the presenting and
defending of viewpoints.
serve as a form of acknowledgement – proof
that something has been done in case
verification is needed later.
helps to clarify thoughts and thinking
processes “thinking made public.”
In academic writing,
you must give credit for all borrowed materials,
quotations, references, information from primary and
secondary sources, facts, data, statistics, opinions,
ideas and interpretations
Such material must be acknowledged and cited
When Others Fail to Respond
Their own poor writing skills (for example, language
Too much information in the text/message.
Too many grammatical errors and mistakes.
Barriers between the sender and receiver (cultural,
Message is not clear or precise.
Wrong choice of delivery channel/ format.
Past experiences (e.g. treatment received).
Documents not structured, messy or not laid out well.
Asking the Right Questions