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Networks of international collaboration and
mobility: a comparative study
ISSI 2017, 16-20 October, Wuhan, China
Zaida Chi...
Dimensions of conectivity
International collaboration
Scientific mobility
ISSI Conference 2017 2
Dimensions of conectivity
International collaboration plays an important role
in fostering high-quality knowledge producti...
Dimensions of Connectivity
• Mobility…serves to both
strengthen the
scientific capacity of
the countries and
benefit the s...
Dimensions of Connectivity
ISSI Conference 2017 5
…mobility has been advocated as key to increasing the efficiency
and eff...
Immigration ban
Some political leaders
are proposing and
implementing
nationalistic policies
that restrict global
mobility...
Science knows no border
Limiting mobility is likely to
have adverse effects on the
scientific system, which is
increasingl...
The idea
Comparing the two dimensions of connectivity
could improve the understanding of mobility
and identify opportuniti...
Our Goal
To understand whether mobility provides a
novel or a duplicative lens on the network
created through scientific c...
ESTABLISH A TERMINOLOGY
ISSI Conference 2017 10
International Parternships
• Scientific collaboration
• Scientific mobility
– Co-affiliation
– Migration
ISSI Conference 2...
Collaboration
ISSI Conference 2017 12
Example: this paper!
ISSI Conference 2017 13
International co-affiliation
Holding more than one affiliation in two
countries during a period of study
ISSI Conference 2...
t0
ISSI Conference 2017 15
t1
ISSI Conference 2017 16
Linked by co-affiliation
ISSI Conference 2017 17
International Migration
More permanent movements between
affiliations in 2 or more countries
ISSI Conference 2017 18
t0
ISSI Conference 2017 19
t1
ISSI Conference 2017 20
t2
ISSI Conference 2017 21
Linked by migration
ISSI Conference 2017 22
Scientific Mobility
both co-affiliation and migration
ISSI Conference 2017 23
DATA
ISSI Conference 2017 24
Web of Science
ISSI Conference 2017 25
2008 – 2015
First publication in 2008 – 2015
Disambiguation
Caron and van Eck (2014)
John Smith
ISSI Conference 2017 26
Caron, E., & Van Eck, N.J. (2014). Large scale ...
Final Dataset
ISSI Conference 2017 27
3,251,797 14,097,939 213 Countries
COUNTRY-LEVEL CLASSIFICATIONS
ISSI Conference 2017 28
Scientific capacity of nations
• Scientific Capacity is the
ability to use specialized
knowledge and exploit it
to conduct...
Income level
ISSI Conference 2017 30(World Bank, 2016)
METHODS
ISSI Conference 2017 31
Total number of publications
ISSI Conference 2017 32
+8
Number of international publications
ISSI Conference 2017 33
+3+1
Total number of active researchers
ISSI Conference 2017 34
+5
Number of mobile researchers
ISSI Conference 2017 35
+1+2
Matrices of collaboration and mobility
• Co-ocurrences
frequencies
• Pajek 64 4.10,
NetworkX 1.10
• Undirected
• Unweighte...
Structural indicators
• Density
• Average degree
• Average shortest distance
• Diameter
• Assortativity
• Closessneess
• B...
RESULTS (I)
Comparison of collaboration and mobility networks
ISSI Conference 2017 38
Summary of the properties of the collaboration and
mobility networks
Collaboration Mobility
Number of nodes 212 212
Number...
A summary of the properties of the collaboration and
mobility networks
Collaboration Mobility
Number of nodes 212 212
Numb...
RESULTS (II)
Comparison of the position in closeness, betweenness and
clustering coefficient in the four groups of countri...
How to interpret the following section
• For each indicator:
collaboration and
mobility
• The colours of lines
refer to th...
Closeness among the scientifically advanced countries
• Netherlands (8) (9): it
ranks in the eighth
position in the
collab...
Scientifically advanced countries
ISSI Conference 2017 44
Clossenes Betweenness Clustering coefficient
Scientifically advanced countries
ISSI Conference 2017 45
Clossenes Betweenness Clustering coefficient
Scientifically advanced countries
ISSI Conference 2017 46
Clossenes Betweenness Clustering coefficient
Scientifically proficient countries
Clossenes Betweenness Clustering coefficient
Scientifically developing countries
Legend: Legend: The colours refer to the income level: (green: high, blue: upper-middl...
Scientifically developing countries
Legend: Legend: The colours refer to the income level: (green: high, blue: upper-middl...
SUMMARY
ISSI Conference 2017 50
Preliminary large-scale analysis in
establishing international relationships
ISSI Conference 2017 51STI Conference 2017
International Partnership
Traditionally, large-scale analyses have examined
only collaboration or mobility
ISSI Conference...
Well-studied “elite” countries
ISSI Conference 2017 53
Understudied Periphery
ISSI Conference 2017 54
Moving away from the elite
To understand the global
system of science, we
need to move away from
the “elite” and towards a...
Deviance from assumptions
• An small subset of countries such as India,
Malaysia, Turkey and Saudi Arabia builds
stronger ...
Collaboration related to mobility
• Both networks show a high level of local
clustering and a small average number of
step...
But not the same
• A country’s position is not always
consistent in both networks revealing
that roles of countries in ter...
Scientific relationships are highly
resource-dependent
• Where estability
between networks
exists, it is mostly
associated...
IMPLICATIONS
ISSI Conference 2017 60
≠
ISSI Conference 2017 61STI Conference 2017 61
Not all partnerships are equal
Discrepancy
• Some countries have high importance in one
dimension and low in the other one
dimension
• The discrepancy be...
Many perspectives needed
ISSI Conference 2017 63
• Evaluative
frameworks of
countries must
consider a variety
of indicators
LIMITATIONS AND FUTURE WORK
ISSI Conference 2017 64
Hetereogenity
• Preliminary, large-scale
analysis
• No consideration of
disciplinary context
• Positions in the worlwide
r...
Future Approaches
Network analysis:
- new indicators
- new approaches
ISSI Conference 2017 66
Future Approaches
Network analysis
Time dimension
ISSI Conference 2017 67
Future Approaches
Network analysis
Time dimension
More and diverse
Indicators
ISSI Conference 2017 68
Future Approaches
Network analysis
Time dimension
Diverse Indicators
Mobility Flows
ISSI Conference 2017 69
Networks of international collaboration and
mobility: a comparative study
ISSI 2017, 16-20 October, Wuhan, China
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Networks of international collaboration and mobility: a comparative study.  Slide 1 Networks of international collaboration and mobility: a comparative study.  Slide 2 Networks of international collaboration and mobility: a comparative study.  Slide 3 Networks of international collaboration and mobility: a comparative study.  Slide 4 Networks of international collaboration and mobility: a comparative study.  Slide 5 Networks of international collaboration and mobility: a comparative study.  Slide 6 Networks of international collaboration and mobility: a comparative study.  Slide 7 Networks of international collaboration and mobility: a comparative study.  Slide 8 Networks of international collaboration and mobility: a comparative study.  Slide 9 Networks of international collaboration and mobility: a comparative study.  Slide 10 Networks of international collaboration and mobility: a comparative study.  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Networks of international collaboration and mobility: a comparative study.

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This study presents a preliminary comparison of networks of international collaboration and mobility. Using affiliation data from scientific publications, we analyse the structural differences in the two networks and the role of countries. The results show that researchers collaborate internationally to a much higher degree than they become internationally mobile. The number of countries involved in the networks is three times higher in collaboration than in mobility, and the average degree demonstrates that mobility networks form tight structures with fewer links than collaboration networks. The role of countries differs between the collaboration and mobility network, predominately reflecting income level. Limitations and future research are described to further understand the dynamics of collaboration and mobility networks.

Networks of international collaboration and mobility: a comparative study.

  1. 1. Networks of international collaboration and mobility: a comparative study ISSI 2017, 16-20 October, Wuhan, China Zaida Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Lili Miao, Dakota Murray, Nicolás Robinson- García, Rodrigo Costas and Cassidy R. Sugimoto
  2. 2. Dimensions of conectivity International collaboration Scientific mobility ISSI Conference 2017 2
  3. 3. Dimensions of conectivity International collaboration plays an important role in fostering high-quality knowledge production ISSI Conference 2017 3
  4. 4. Dimensions of Connectivity • Mobility…serves to both strengthen the scientific capacity of the countries and benefit the scientific careers of individual researchers (OECD 2008) ISSI Conference 2017 4
  5. 5. Dimensions of Connectivity ISSI Conference 2017 5 …mobility has been advocated as key to increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of research (Van Noorden, 2012: Scellato et al. 2015)
  6. 6. Immigration ban Some political leaders are proposing and implementing nationalistic policies that restrict global mobility ISSI Conference 2017 6 + North Korea + Venezuela
  7. 7. Science knows no border Limiting mobility is likely to have adverse effects on the scientific system, which is increasingly dependent on international collaboration ISSI Conference 2017 7 Sugimoto, C.R., Robinson-García, N., Murray, D. R., Yegros-Yegros, A., Costas, R. & Lariviere, V. (2017). Scientists have most impact when they are free to move. Nature, 32(550), 29-31
  8. 8. The idea Comparing the two dimensions of connectivity could improve the understanding of mobility and identify opportunities for and risks of scientific collaboration and mobility ISSI Conference 2017 8
  9. 9. Our Goal To understand whether mobility provides a novel or a duplicative lens on the network created through scientific collaboration ISSI Conference 2017 9 Preliminary comparative analysis of networks and role of more than 200 countries considering economic and scientific capacities
  10. 10. ESTABLISH A TERMINOLOGY ISSI Conference 2017 10
  11. 11. International Parternships • Scientific collaboration • Scientific mobility – Co-affiliation – Migration ISSI Conference 2017 11
  12. 12. Collaboration ISSI Conference 2017 12
  13. 13. Example: this paper! ISSI Conference 2017 13
  14. 14. International co-affiliation Holding more than one affiliation in two countries during a period of study ISSI Conference 2017 14
  15. 15. t0 ISSI Conference 2017 15
  16. 16. t1 ISSI Conference 2017 16
  17. 17. Linked by co-affiliation ISSI Conference 2017 17
  18. 18. International Migration More permanent movements between affiliations in 2 or more countries ISSI Conference 2017 18
  19. 19. t0 ISSI Conference 2017 19
  20. 20. t1 ISSI Conference 2017 20
  21. 21. t2 ISSI Conference 2017 21
  22. 22. Linked by migration ISSI Conference 2017 22
  23. 23. Scientific Mobility both co-affiliation and migration ISSI Conference 2017 23
  24. 24. DATA ISSI Conference 2017 24
  25. 25. Web of Science ISSI Conference 2017 25 2008 – 2015 First publication in 2008 – 2015
  26. 26. Disambiguation Caron and van Eck (2014) John Smith ISSI Conference 2017 26 Caron, E., & Van Eck, N.J. (2014). Large scale author name disambiguation using rule-based scoring and clustering. In Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Science and Technology Indicators (pp. 79-86).
  27. 27. Final Dataset ISSI Conference 2017 27 3,251,797 14,097,939 213 Countries
  28. 28. COUNTRY-LEVEL CLASSIFICATIONS ISSI Conference 2017 28
  29. 29. Scientific capacity of nations • Scientific Capacity is the ability to use specialized knowledge and exploit it to conduct research (Wagner et al 2001). • Investment, infrastructure, and output • Four groups: advanced, proficient, developing and lagging ISSI Conference 2017 29
  30. 30. Income level ISSI Conference 2017 30(World Bank, 2016)
  31. 31. METHODS ISSI Conference 2017 31
  32. 32. Total number of publications ISSI Conference 2017 32 +8
  33. 33. Number of international publications ISSI Conference 2017 33 +3+1
  34. 34. Total number of active researchers ISSI Conference 2017 34 +5
  35. 35. Number of mobile researchers ISSI Conference 2017 35 +1+2
  36. 36. Matrices of collaboration and mobility • Co-ocurrences frequencies • Pajek 64 4.10, NetworkX 1.10 • Undirected • Unweighted • Derive statistical properties ISSI Conference 2017 36 MobilityCollaboration
  37. 37. Structural indicators • Density • Average degree • Average shortest distance • Diameter • Assortativity • Closessneess • Betweenness • Clustering coefficient ISSI Conference 2017 37
  38. 38. RESULTS (I) Comparison of collaboration and mobility networks ISSI Conference 2017 38
  39. 39. Summary of the properties of the collaboration and mobility networks Collaboration Mobility Number of nodes 212 212 Number of edges 12596 4788 Density 0.55 0.21 Average degree 118.27 44.95 Average shortest distance 1.44 1.84 Diameter 2 4 Cluster Coefficient 0.83 0.73 Assortativity -0.19 -0.34 ~ 3 +
  40. 40. A summary of the properties of the collaboration and mobility networks Collaboration Mobility Number of nodes 212 212 Number of edges 12596 4788 Density 0.55 0.21 Average degree 118.27 44.95 Average shortest distance 1.44 1.84 Diameter 2 4 Cluster Coefficient 0.83 0.73 Assortativity -0.19 -0.34
  41. 41. RESULTS (II) Comparison of the position in closeness, betweenness and clustering coefficient in the four groups of countries according to their scientific and economic capacities ISSI Conference 2017 41
  42. 42. How to interpret the following section • For each indicator: collaboration and mobility • The colours of lines refer to the income level: (green: high, blue: upper-middle, orange: low-middle and red: low)
  43. 43. Closeness among the scientifically advanced countries • Netherlands (8) (9): it ranks in the eighth position in the collaboration network and in the ninth position in the mobility network • Lines only show variations into the group
  44. 44. Scientifically advanced countries ISSI Conference 2017 44 Clossenes Betweenness Clustering coefficient
  45. 45. Scientifically advanced countries ISSI Conference 2017 45 Clossenes Betweenness Clustering coefficient
  46. 46. Scientifically advanced countries ISSI Conference 2017 46 Clossenes Betweenness Clustering coefficient
  47. 47. Scientifically proficient countries Clossenes Betweenness Clustering coefficient
  48. 48. Scientifically developing countries Legend: Legend: The colours refer to the income level: (green: high, blue: upper-middle, orange: low-middle and red: low) Clossenes Betweenness Clustering coefficient
  49. 49. Scientifically developing countries Legend: Legend: The colours refer to the income level: (green: high, blue: upper-middle, orange: low-middle and red: low) Clossenes Betweenness Clustering coefficient
  50. 50. SUMMARY ISSI Conference 2017 50
  51. 51. Preliminary large-scale analysis in establishing international relationships ISSI Conference 2017 51STI Conference 2017
  52. 52. International Partnership Traditionally, large-scale analyses have examined only collaboration or mobility ISSI Conference 2017 52
  53. 53. Well-studied “elite” countries ISSI Conference 2017 53
  54. 54. Understudied Periphery ISSI Conference 2017 54
  55. 55. Moving away from the elite To understand the global system of science, we need to move away from the “elite” and towards a comprehensive analysis of international scientific partnership ISSI Conference 2017 55
  56. 56. Deviance from assumptions • An small subset of countries such as India, Malaysia, Turkey and Saudi Arabia builds stronger connections in the mobility network. • We also highlight the important role of South Africa, Kenya and Nigeria in collaboration network ISSI Conference 2017 56
  57. 57. Collaboration related to mobility • Both networks show a high level of local clustering and a small average number of steps between actors ISSI Conference 2017 57
  58. 58. But not the same • A country’s position is not always consistent in both networks revealing that roles of countries in terms of capacities to be accessible to other nodes, in transfer knowledge, or to be cohesive with their neighbours may differ. ISSI Conference 2017 58
  59. 59. Scientific relationships are highly resource-dependent • Where estability between networks exists, it is mostly associated wiht high- income countries ISSI Conference 2017 59
  60. 60. IMPLICATIONS ISSI Conference 2017 60
  61. 61. ≠ ISSI Conference 2017 61STI Conference 2017 61 Not all partnerships are equal
  62. 62. Discrepancy • Some countries have high importance in one dimension and low in the other one dimension • The discrepancy between two dimensions could be an indicator of potential opportunities for scientific collaboration and mobility programs ISSI Conference 2017 62
  63. 63. Many perspectives needed ISSI Conference 2017 63 • Evaluative frameworks of countries must consider a variety of indicators
  64. 64. LIMITATIONS AND FUTURE WORK ISSI Conference 2017 64
  65. 65. Hetereogenity • Preliminary, large-scale analysis • No consideration of disciplinary context • Positions in the worlwide ranking • Re-visiting classifications ISSI Conference 2017 65
  66. 66. Future Approaches Network analysis: - new indicators - new approaches ISSI Conference 2017 66
  67. 67. Future Approaches Network analysis Time dimension ISSI Conference 2017 67
  68. 68. Future Approaches Network analysis Time dimension More and diverse Indicators ISSI Conference 2017 68
  69. 69. Future Approaches Network analysis Time dimension Diverse Indicators Mobility Flows ISSI Conference 2017 69
  70. 70. Networks of international collaboration and mobility: a comparative study ISSI 2017, 16-20 October, Wuhan, China Thanks for your attention! Questions? zaida.chinchilla@csic.es
  • HollyJackson44

    Nov. 30, 2021

This study presents a preliminary comparison of networks of international collaboration and mobility. Using affiliation data from scientific publications, we analyse the structural differences in the two networks and the role of countries. The results show that researchers collaborate internationally to a much higher degree than they become internationally mobile. The number of countries involved in the networks is three times higher in collaboration than in mobility, and the average degree demonstrates that mobility networks form tight structures with fewer links than collaboration networks. The role of countries differs between the collaboration and mobility network, predominately reflecting income level. Limitations and future research are described to further understand the dynamics of collaboration and mobility networks.

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