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A large scale comparison of the position of countries in international collaboration and mobility according to their scientific capacities

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This work presents a preliminary large scale analysis of the relationship between collaboration and mobility indicators at the country level, taking into account the scientific capacities of countries.

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A large scale comparison of the position of countries in international collaboration and mobility according to their scientific capacities

  1. 1. A large scale comparison of the position of countries in international collaboration and mobility according to their scientific capacities STI 2017, 6-8 September, Paris, France Zaida Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Lili Miao, Dakota Murray, Nicolás Robinson- García, Rodrigo Costas and Cassidy R. Sugimoto
  2. 2. Research Agenda What is the Relationship between collaboration and mobility? How does this relate to a nation’s scientific and economic capacity? STI Conference 2017 2
  3. 3. Dimensions of Connectivity STI Conference 2017 3 Mobility…serves to both strengthen the scientific capacity of the countries and benefit the scientific careers of individual researchers (OECD 2008)
  4. 4. Dimensions of Connectivity STI Conference 2017 4 International collaboration plays an important role in fostering high-quality knowledge production (Royal Society 2011) Mobility…serves to both strengthen the scientific capacity of the countries and benefit the scientific careers of individual researchers (OECD 2008)
  5. 5. Dimensions of Connectivity STI Conference 2017 5 International collaboration plays an important role in fostering high-quality knowledge production (Royal Society 2011) Mobility…serves to both strengthen the scientific capacity of the countries and benefit the scientific careers of individual researchers (OECD 2008) …mobility has been advocated as key to increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of research (Van Noorden, 2012: Scellato et al. 2015)
  6. 6. Many Institutions Believe International partnerships are important Such partnerships improve science STI Conference 2017 6
  7. 7. International Partnership • Traditionally, large-scale analyses have examined only collaboration or mobility STI Conference 2017 7
  8. 8. Well-studied “elite” countries STI Conference 2017 8
  9. 9. Understudied Periphery STI Conference 2017 9
  10. 10. Moving away from the elite • To understand the global system of science, we must move away from the “elite” and towards a new comprehensive analysis of international scientific partnership STI Conference 2017 10
  11. 11. Our Goal Introduce new indicators and approaches STI Conference 2017 11
  12. 12. Our Goal Introduce new indicators and approaches Demonstrate how they can help to understand global system of science STI Conference 2017 12
  13. 13. ESTABLISH A TERMINOLOGY STI Conference 2017 13
  14. 14. International Partnerships Collaboration Co-Affiliation Migration STI Conference 2017 14
  15. 15. Collaboration STI Conference 2017 15
  16. 16. Example: this paper! STI Conference 2017 16
  17. 17. Other forms of mobility STI Conference 2017 17
  18. 18. International co-affiliation Holding more than one affiliation in two countries during a period of study STI Conference 2017 18
  19. 19. t0 STI Conference 2017 19
  20. 20. t1 STI Conference 2017 20
  21. 21. Linked by co-affiliation STI Conference 2017 21
  22. 22. International Migration More permanent movements between affiliations in 2 or more countries STI Conference 2017 22
  23. 23. t0 STI Conference 2017 23
  24. 24. t1 STI Conference 2017 24
  25. 25. t2 STI Conference 2017 25
  26. 26. Linked by migration STI Conference 2017 26
  27. 27. Scientific Mobility both co-affiliation and migration STI Conference 2017 27
  28. 28. For a more thorough treatment • Careers & Mobility (2) • Thursday 7 Sept. 11:30 – 13:00 – Session 222 – Room 2 • Unveiling the multiple faces of mobility: Towards a taxonomy of scientific mobility types based on bibliometric data • Nicolas Robinson-Garcia, Cassidy R. Sugimoto, Dakota Murray, Alfredo Yegros-Yegros, Vincent Larivière and Rodrigo Costas. STI Conference 2017 28
  29. 29. COUNTRY-LEVEL CLASSIFICATIONS STI Conference 2017 29
  30. 30. Scientific capacity of nations • Scientific Capacity is the ability to use specialized knowledge and exploit it to conduct research, (Wagner et al 2001). • Investment, infrastructure, and output STI Conference 2017 30
  31. 31. Income level STI Conference 2017 31(World Bank, 2016)
  32. 32. Research Questions • What is the relationship between the international mobility and collaboration of a country? • What is the relationship between the number of collaborative and mobility links between countries? • To what extent do these relationships vary by the scientific and economic capacity of the country? STI Conference 2017 32
  33. 33. DATA STI Conference 2017 33
  34. 34. Web of Science STI Conference 2017 34 2008 – 2015
  35. 35. Web of Science STI Conference 2017 35 2008 – 2015 First publication in 2008 – 2015
  36. 36. Web of Science STI Conference 2017 36 2008 – 2015 First publication in 2008 – 2015
  37. 37. Disambiguation Caron and van Eck (2014) John Smith STI Conference 2017 37
  38. 38. Disambiguation Caron and van Eck (2014) WoS includes emails during starting 2008 John Smith STI Conference 2017 38
  39. 39. Final Dataset STI Conference 2017 39 3,251,797
  40. 40. Final Dataset STI Conference 2017 3,251,797 14,097,939
  41. 41. Final Dataset STI Conference 2017 41 3,251,797 14,097,939 213 Countries
  42. 42. METHODS AND RESULTS Lili Miao STI Conference 2017 42
  43. 43. Total number of publications STI Conference 2017 43 +8
  44. 44. Number of international publications STI Conference 2017 44 +3+1
  45. 45. Total number of active researchers STI Conference 2017 45 +5
  46. 46. Number of mobile researchers STI Conference 2017 46 +1+2
  47. 47. Percentage of international collaboration STI Conference 2017 47STI Conference 2017 47 #international pubs #all pubs
  48. 48. Percentage of mobile researchers linked to other counties STI Conference 2017 48 #mobile researchers #all researchers
  49. 49. Number of countries linked in collaboration STI Conference 2017 49 +1+1
  50. 50. Number of countries linked in mobility STI Conference 2017 50 +1+1
  51. 51. An overview of collaboration and mobility patterns Results (I)
  52. 52. Correlation between percent of mobile authors and percent of internationally co-authored publications for (a) all countries, (c) more prolific countries and (d) less prolific countries Size matters. Strong size-dependence relationship
  53. 53. Correlation between percent of mobile authors and percent of internationally co-authored publications for (a) all countries, (c) more prolific countries and (d) less prolific countries Size matters. Strong size-dependence relationship
  54. 54. Correlation between percent of mobile authors and percent of internationally co-authored publications for (a) all countries, and (b) number of countries with which a country has established mobility links by the number of countries with which that country has collaboration co-authored publications Higher collaboration shares reach the fewer number of countries
  55. 55. Mean average of mobile authors and international publications by group. The smaller the country, the more dependence on connectivity Scientific relationships are highly resource-dependent
  56. 56. Mean average of mobile authors and international publications by group. The smaller the country, the more dependence on connectivity Scientific relationships are highly resource-dependent
  57. 57. Mean average of countries with mobile authors and international publications by group. Mobile researchers in advanced countries reach 68 % of collaborative partners, whereas in lagging countries, they hardly reach 29% The number of countries with mobility is fe wer than collaborative partners
  58. 58. Distributions of mobility and international collaboration by group. Partnerships, preferences, or possibilities?
  59. 59. Group-specific analysis according to their scientific and technological capacities Results (II)
  60. 60. Percentages (left) and number of countries (right) in international mobility and in collaboration among the scientifically advanced countries Legend: The central axes show the mean average of percentages and number of countries in each group. The colours refer to the income level: (green: high, blue: upper-middle, orange: low-middle and red: low)
  61. 61. Percentages (left) and number of countries (right) in international mobility and in collaboration among the scientifically advanced countries Legend: The central axes show the mean average of percentages and number of countries in each group. The colours refer to the income level: (green: high, blue: upper-middle, orange: low-middle and red: low)
  62. 62. Percentages (left) and number of countries (right) in international mobility and in collaboration among the scientifically advanced countries Legend: The central axes show the mean average of percentages and number of countries in each group. The colours refer to the income level: (green: high, blue: upper-middle, orange: low-middle and red: low)
  63. 63. Percentages (left) and number of countries (right) in international mobility and in collaboration among the scientifically advanced countries Legend: The central axes show the mean average of percentages and number of countries in each group. The colours refer to the income level: (green: high, blue: upper-middle, orange: low-middle and red: low)
  64. 64. Percentages (left) and number of countries (right) in international mobility and in collaboration among the scientifically advanced countries Legend: The central axes show the mean average of percentages and number of countries in each group. The colours refer to the income level: (green: high, blue: upper-middle, orange: low-middle and red: low)
  65. 65. Percentages (left) and number of countries (right) in international mobility and in collaboration among the scientifically developing countries Legend: The central axes show the mean average of percentages and number of countries in each group. The colours refer to the income level: (green: high, blue: upper-middle, orange: low-middle and red: low)
  66. 66. Percentages (left) and number of countries (right) in international mobility and in collaboration among the scientifically developing countries Legend: The central axes show the mean average of percentages and number of countries in each group. The colours refer to the income level: (green: high, blue: upper-middle, orange: low-middle and red: low)
  67. 67. Percentages (left) and number of countries (right) in international mobility and in collaboration among the scientifically developing countries Legend: The central axes show the mean average of percentages and number of countries in each group. The colours refer to the income level: (green: high, blue: upper-middle, orange: low-middle and red: low)
  68. 68. Percentages (left) and number of countries (right) in international mobility and in collaboration among the scientifically developing countries Legend: The central axes show the mean average of percentages and number of countries in each group. The colours refer to the income level: (green: high, blue: upper-middle, orange: low-middle and red: low)
  69. 69. Percentages (left) and number of countries (right) in international mobility and in collaboration among the scientifically lagging countries Legend: The central axes show the mean average of percentages and number of countries in each group. The colours refer to the income level: (green: high, blue: upper-middle, orange: low-middle and red: low)
  70. 70. SUMMARY Dakota Murray STI Conference 2017 70
  71. 71. Introduced indicators STI Conference 2017 71STI Conference 2017
  72. 72. Collaboration related to mobility STI Conference 2017 72
  73. 73. But not the same STI Conference 2017 73
  74. 74. Partnership preferences STI Conference 2017 74
  75. 75. Heterogeneity of the “global brain” STI Conference 2017 75
  76. 76. IMPLICATIONS STI Conference 2017 76
  77. 77. ≠ STI Conference 2017 77STI Conference 2017 77 Not all partnerships are equal
  78. 78. Deviance from assumptions STI Conference 2017 78
  79. 79. Heterogeneity STI Conference 2017 79
  80. 80. Many perspectives needed STI Conference 2017 80
  81. 81. Revisiting classifications STI Conference 2017 81
  82. 82. LIMITATIONS AND FUTURE WORK STI Conference 2017 82
  83. 83. Heterogeneity • Preliminary, large-scale analysis • No consideration of disciplinary context • Size-dependent indicators STI Conference 2017 83
  84. 84. Causality • Mobility ≠ Collaboration, but they are related • does mobility cause collaboration, or vice versa? • Are the people who are mobile the same people who are collaborating? STI Conference 2017 84
  85. 85. Future Approaches STI Conference 2017 85
  86. 86. Future Approaches Network analysis STI Conference 2017 86
  87. 87. Future Approaches Network analysis Time dimension STI Conference 2017 87
  88. 88. Future Approaches Network analysis Time dimension Diverse Indicators STI Conference 2017 88
  89. 89. Future Approaches Network analysis Time dimension Diverse Indicators Mobility Flows STI Conference 2017 89
  90. 90. Future Approaches Network analysis Time dimension Diverse Indicators Mobility Flows Size-independent indicators • Affinity Indices STI Conference 2017 90
  91. 91. Acknowledgements • Zaida Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Nicolás Robinson- García, Rodrigo Costas and Cassidy R. Sugimoto • CWTS for insights and data • STI 2017 Paris STI Conference 2017 91
  92. 92. STI 2017, 6-8 September, Paris, France A large-scale comparison of the position of countries in international collaboration and mobility according to their scientific capacities Thanks for your attention! Questions?

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