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Unit 3: Research Techniques - LO3


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Unit 3: Research Techniques - LO3

  1. 1. LO3: Present DataZahra Ali
  2. 2. LO1:Nature and purpose ofresearch
  3. 3. Quantitative researchQualitative researchers aim to gather in-depth information, forexample from focus groups, interviews and questionnaires. Thistype of research is used mainly for market research. It is used tofind out personal information. It is a type of research that involvesseeking in depth information about a subject, often looking atattitudes, perceptions and usage behaviour, normally conductedwith small groups of people. An advantage is you can gather moreinformation and opinions. This type of research is suitable to theaudience you are catering for. A disadvantage is you get mixedopinions and this is not very reliable because you don’t get themost useful information from them.Types of research
  4. 4. Qualitative researchQuantitative research is research that involves numbers; the typeof documents that are relevant to this type of research is censuses,questionnaires, graphs and charts. Quantitative research can alsobe applied to database and the quantitative analysis of othermarketing data sets. An advantage is that it is a lot faster and a lotmore reliable. You can also gather more information and can bedisplayed well by diagrams. A disadvantage of this research is thatthe quality of information is not perfect as there is no depth to theinformation gained.Types of research
  5. 5. Secondary researchSecondary data is data that already exists and has been collected bysomeone else for another purpose. Secondary research involves theinvestigation of secondary sources of data. It involves processingdata that has already been collected by another party. This type ofresearch means finding information from third-party sources suchas marketing research reports, company websites, magazine articles,books, journals, newspapers, film archives and other sources.Archive materials are a good way of finding out statistics abouthistorical data. Newspapers are good way of keeping up to datewith the latest news on your research. Secondary information couldbe found by looking in libraries, the internet and also by doinginterviews. Secondary data is very easy to access and will not take alot of time.Methods and sources of research
  6. 6. Primary researchPrimary research involves getting original data directly about aproduct, a market or a subject. Primary research data is data that didnot exist before. It is designed to answer specific questions of interestto the topic. Primary research is when you carry out your ownresearch and investigations for your own personal use. Examples ofprimary research are carrying out questionnaires, focus groups,interviews and observations. An advantage for this type of researchis that the answers you receive are in great detail and are relevant toyour topic. A major disadvantage for this type of research is that ittakes too long to collect and also it can invade some people’s privacy,those who may not want to take part in your research. The best typeof primary research is gathering information from a focus groupbecause you get first-hand information from a range of people andget a range of views. You are also able to pick out the informationyou find relevant and put it towards your research report.Methods and sources of research
  7. 7. InterviewsA structured interview is an interview that is organised. Theinterviewer reads out the questions and records the all theinformation gathered by writing it down, using an audio tape orusing a portable device for example a laptop. Structured interviewsare straightforward and are used to collect information for exampleabout the respondent’s age, gender, educational qualifications andoccupation.Methods and sources of research
  8. 8. Face-to-face interviewsFace-to-face interviews are interviews when the interviewer and theperson being interviewed are present. Face-to-face interviews areused to gain information; this is also known as primary research asyou are gaining the information yourself. You are able to gain a lot ofinformation of good quality, as you are able to filter what you needand what you dont need. When having a face-to-face interview, theconversation can be partly spontaneous; you are able to ask extraquestions that may come into mind during the interview. You areable to find out exactly what your audiences opinions and interestsare.Methods and sources of research
  9. 9. ObservationsParticipant observation is a way of finding out about a person’s life. Away to find out is by joining the person or group with their dailyactivities. You would observe what they say and what they do.Conduction research involves looking and listening, asking questions,the key informant, hanging around, recording observations and in thefield. In participant observation it involves looking and listening,however, it is important to not influence people behaviour. Youshould observe what is in front of you. The main aim for observationis that it is important to observe someone in their natural setting,somewhere they feel comfortable. It is important to blend into tobackground and try not to be noticed. This way you would get thebest research.Methods and sources of research
  10. 10. QuestionnairesQuestionnaires are a list of questions. They used to gather informationabout a certain topic. They are used for social surveys. Questionnairesare sometimes handed out in first person to the respondent; however,they can also be posted out to reach its target audience. A self-completion questionnaire is when the respondent is asked to fill thequestionnaire in by themselves. Questionnaires produce research thatcan be compared, this is because you are able to gather different viewsbut the questions will still be the same.Methods and sources of research
  11. 11. Focus groupsFocus groups consist of a group of people usually between 4 and 14.The people in the group are brought together to discuss a certaintopic, a moderator is present. Focus groups include discussionsinstead of responses to formal questions. You are able to gain a widerange of views and opinions as each answer is different. Throughfocus groups you are able to generate ideas from the responses youhave gained. You can collate the data you have collected into graphsand tables.Methods and sources of research
  12. 12. Information trailAn information trail is when you keep log of everything you do forexample a library log.Collating and storing informationAfter gathering research you should organise your research by types ofresearch, age group or gender. Sift and select your information byselecting what you want to use.StorageSecurely store your data by taking into consideration about copyrightlaws and data protection. You should always store your research in asafe place and also back it up. It should be easily accessible by savingyour files in right folders.Methods and sources of research
  13. 13. OFCOMOfcom is an organization that regulates everything that is broadcastedto the general public such as media from TV and radio. Ofcom is forthe benefit of the public and is not for commercial purposes. Ofcomprotects the general public from scams and harm. All adverts have toadhere to the Ofcom rules and regulations.Data gathering agencies
  14. 14. Broadcasters’ Audience Research Board (BARB)BARB stands for Broadcasters’ Audience Research Board. BARB isan organisation that collates the viewing figures of television in theUK. The data shows the regional and national levels. The informationpresents how well channels, advertisers and campaigners haveperformed. People who have participated with the research have abox on top of their TV that tracks what they are watching. Data iscollected during the night and is presented to television stations andthe advertising industry around 9:30am the next day.Data gathering agencies
  15. 15. RAJARRAJAR stands for Radio Joint Audience Research. RAJAR is theofficial body in charge of measuring radio audiences in the UK. It isjointly owned by the BBC and the Radio Centre and was set up in1992. There are approximately 310 individual stations on the surveyand results are published every quarter. RAJAR is an organisation thatdoes not make any profit.Data gathering agencies
  16. 16. Audience researchAudience research is when you are finding out information that isstrictly about audience. This research can include demographic andpsychographic information about the audience. An example of whenaudience research is needed is when you are producing an advert.You need to know if your advert is suitable for your chosen audienceand if the advert would appeal to them. There are many ways to gainaudience information.Audience measurement panelsAudience measurement is when you measure how many people are inan audience. When looking at certain types of media for exampleradio and television, you focus on who is listening to the radio andwho is watching television. Audience measurement helpsbroadcasters find out who are watching/listening by looking at thedemographic and psychographic information.Purposes of research
  17. 17. RatingsIn media, ratings give broadcasters the information on what ispopular, whether it is television or radio. The information is gatheredby a poll, the results are then presented. The results can be based onthe how good the programme is or how many viewers the programmehas. Ratings define the amount of viewers a programme may have.You are also able to see what the mass audience are interested in.Purposes of research
  18. 18. Market researchMarket research is research about markets or customers. It is when youlook for what people want, need or believe. When producing a productyou need to look at other brands that may have similar products. Youhave to look at how you can make your product stand out from the rest;this can be due to pricing, labelling or reward power. Examples of marketresearch are audience research and product research.Production researchProduction research is when you research on the production of theproduct itself. You look at the pre-production and post-production. Whencreating a product, it can cost a lot of money, so careful planning andresearch can help minimize costs. You would need to research whatequipment you need and how much would it cost. You may also need asuitable location; you would need to see what locations are available andhow much it costs.Purposes of research
  19. 19. LO2: Apply range of researchmethods and techniques
  20. 20. The advert I have produced focuses on a body wash. It is an all-in-onebody wash called ‘Head, Shoulders, Knees and Toes’, it cleans bothyour body and your hair. It includes the popular fragrance ‘Hugo BossBottled’. The advert is targeted at an audience of men from the age of13 to 30.Men that are aged 13 to 30 are generally very active and interested insports. They also are very interested in looking good and smelling niceso that they can attract the opposite sex. For these reasons men of mytarget audience take regular showers. By producing an all-in-one bodywash with a popular fragrance will interest men aged 13 to 30 as theywould be able to get ready quick and all at once without having to usea separate shampoo and perfume. From what I researched with myproduction group; men want something convenient that they can usewithout having to make a fuss.Target audience research
  21. 21. My target consumers for my advert are most likely to watchtelevision during the evening and night. Programmes such as soaps,sitcoms, movies and chat shows appear on television during theevening and night. This is when my target consumers are more likelyto watch adverts. Adverts that are targeted at men such as men’s‘moisturising creams and shaving blades’ appear during the eveningand night as most men watch television at that time. Adverts for menappear on popular channels such as ITV 1, Channel Four, ChannelFive and Dave. Adverts are also appearing on YouTube videos andthe radio.My production group and I created a questionnaire to find outinformation about our target audience and whether our productwould sell to our target audience.Target audience research
  22. 22. Audience researchAll 12 of our respondents from ourquestionnaire have agreed that they likethe concept of our product. This provesthat our product will sell well.Out of the 12 people we asked, 8 peoplewere male. All 8 men said that they wouldbe happy to use our product. This was agreat response as our product is targeted atmen.
  23. 23. LynxOur competitorsRadox Dove Gillette
  24. 24. Daily Hire £49.17 (£59.00) Weekend Hire £75.00 (£90.00)Weekly Hire £147.50 (£177.00) 2 Weekly Hire £198.33 (£238.00)3 Weekly Hire £246.67 (£296.00) Deposit £163.00Our budget are going to use a NIKON D90Our camera cost would be £59
  25. 25. Feature FilmProductionsFrom £750 - £5,000+ per 12 hour dayTelevision Dramas From £500 - £3,000+ per 12 hour dayDocumentary filming From £400 - £1000+ per 12 hour dayPhotoshoots From £500 - £1500+ per 10 hour dayTelevision Commercials From £1000 - £3000+ per 12 hour dayMusic Videos From £500 - £3000+ per 12 hour dayOur budgetBelow is a fee guideline showing what your property might earnshould it be selected to work on a film, tv or photoshootproduction:Location Fees payable to the Location ownerWe need the location for three hours; therefore, the location fee would be£500.