Shalimar garden


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Shalimar garden

  1. 1. <ul><li>Martina Zahornacka </li></ul>Shalimar Garden in Jammu & Kashmir, India Lake Dal
  2. 2. Arial photo of Shalimar Bagh in Kashmir 1 Public Garden 2 Emperor’s Garden 3 Zenana Garden 4 Black Pavilion
  3. 4. Genius Loci <ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><li>Place of annual summer pilgrimage of Mughal emperors </li></ul><ul><li>Conquered by Akbar in 1586, who relaxed here after 6 weeks journey from Agra, went water-fowling on Lake Dal, watched shaffron harvest in autumn, called it his private garden </li></ul><ul><li>His son Salim (Jahangir) inherited an obsessive love for Kashmir and built no less than 700 superlative gardens around Lake Dal, made his permanent summer homes </li></ul><ul><li>Genius Loci </li></ul><ul><li>Mountains of Himalayas form a stunning, dramatic backdrop (Mahadeo with snowcap) </li></ul><ul><li>Height of 1,730 metres above sea level creates ideal climate to elevated Jahangir’s asthma in summer </li></ul><ul><li>Lake Dal is shallow, edged with thick beds of reeds, lotuses – floating gardens </li></ul><ul><li>Constant torrent of water from hills supplies channel, pools and powers fountain jets </li></ul>Lahore Agra
  4. 5. <ul><li>Genius Loci </li></ul><ul><li>Lush meadows, sound of water, rivers, springs, lakes and rice paddies dominated in the valley of Kashmir – Jahangir calls it a garden of eternal spring </li></ul><ul><li>Abundance of water inspired the layout of local gardens - narrow watercourses were widened to shallow canals and central axis elongated, the heart of garden shifted to the uphill end </li></ul>
  5. 6. Firmitas <ul><li>Zenana garden (Bagh-I-Faiz Bakhsh): </li></ul><ul><li>Upper terrace built by Jahangir in 1619-20 </li></ul><ul><li>Emperors garden (Bagh-I-Farah Bakhsh): </li></ul><ul><li>Middle terrace built by Shah Jahan around 1630 </li></ul>Black marble pavilion (built by Shah Jahan) Entrance to Zenana (ladies’) garden Hall of Private Audiance (Diwan- i- Khas) destroyed <ul><li>Public Garden: </li></ul><ul><li>The lowest terrace; now cut by road and shortened </li></ul>Hall of Public Audience (Diwan-i-Am) Canal leads to Lake Dal
  6. 7. <ul><li>Central channel: </li></ul><ul><li>Central axis of the garden </li></ul><ul><li>6 meters wide </li></ul><ul><li>Polished stone </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-axial channel on the uppermost terrace take on classical Persian chahar bagh form </li></ul><ul><li>Water from mountain stream dammed up </li></ul><ul><li>Square pools below pavilions recall the broadening of rivers into lakes </li></ul><ul><li>Water jets and cascades: </li></ul><ul><li>Gravitation </li></ul><ul><li>Jets used to have solid plumes of water </li></ul><ul><li>Cascades of smooth sheet of water falling from retaining walls </li></ul><ul><li>Black pavilion is sourrounded by 3 cascades </li></ul><ul><li>Now water runs only in spring (deforestation lowered water table) </li></ul>Firmitas
  7. 8. <ul><li>Pathways: </li></ul><ul><li>Slightly offset from channel on both sides </li></ul><ul><li>Stepping stones to reach Diwan-I-Am with a shaded marble throne of emperor in the center of canal above cascade </li></ul><ul><li>Causeways to reach Diwan-I-Khas </li></ul><ul><li>Narrow stones bridges among fountains reach Black Pavilion </li></ul>Firmitas
  8. 9. <ul><li>Now: </li></ul><ul><li>Regular avenues of chinar trees (Platanus orientalis) 25 meters tall shading the walks and 19 th century bedding plants </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigated meadows in charbaghs– grass, flowers, fruit trees in more informal way </li></ul>Firmitas - Planting design: <ul><li>Originally: </li></ul><ul><li>1665 Francois Bernier describes fruit trees, regular trellised walks, surrounded by the large-leafed aspen (Populus tremuloides) in interval of 2 feet </li></ul><ul><li>Cherry, apricot, apple, plum </li></ul><ul><li>Meadows were geometrical </li></ul>
  9. 10. Firmitas <ul><li>Pavilions: </li></ul><ul><li>Stone, marble, mortar </li></ul><ul><li>Used the talar and ivan (arched talar) </li></ul><ul><li>Originally flat-roofed </li></ul><ul><li>Native wooden Kashmiri roofs were added in later centuries </li></ul><ul><li>Recesses ( chini kanas ) under cascades are filled with flowers on special occasions or oil lamps at night </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Abode of Love – gift to Jahangir’s wife Nur-Jahan </li></ul><ul><li>One of many paradise or pleasure gardens </li></ul><ul><li>Ideal background for self-indulgent Jahangir suffering from alcoholism and opium dependancy </li></ul>Utilitas <ul><li>Place for contemplation, perfect peace , sitting cross-legged on carpets by the waterside or on a low stone bench astride one of cascades </li></ul>
  11. 12. Utilitas <ul><li>Function of each section of garden changes with ascending level from 1) public through 2) courtly to 3) private zone </li></ul><ul><li>The Zenana Garden could be accessed only by Emperor and used by his court ladies </li></ul>
  12. 13. Utilitas <ul><li>Shalimar Bagh recalls Mughal’s annual pilgrimage to Kashmir: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>approached from outside world by boat shikara from Lake Dal full of pink lotuses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the crossing into an enclosed domain of fields and flowers, fruit trees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the ascent to a cool refuge by the water and …the eventual return to the lowlands of their capitals </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Venustas & Belief <ul><li>Jahangir’s talents directed towards arts – inspired by Akbar and Babur and helped by wife Nur Jahan </li></ul><ul><li>Diaries illustrated by artists with pictures of plants, animals, natural world </li></ul><ul><li>Supported portraiture of Mughal school of painting </li></ul>
  14. 15. Venustas & Belief <ul><li>Garden designer from times as a prince, ordered to built over 700 gardens in Vale of Kashmir, </li></ul><ul><li>Nur Jahan continued to build her gardens and buried husband in one of them </li></ul><ul><li>His son Shah Jahan perfected Shalimar Bagh and showed his genius for architecture in Agra – back to Persian tradition of chahar bagh </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>Islam – way of life guided by Quran </li></ul><ul><li>Garden (Bagh) = Paradise </li></ul><ul><li>Citated 30-times; ‘Gardens underneath which rivers flow’ </li></ul><ul><li>Fruit trees, water and rich pavilions with a shade for friends to relax in private enclosure </li></ul><ul><li>Image of garden = a reflection of God ; used by poets </li></ul><ul><li>All artists used references to gardens </li></ul>Belief
  16. 17. Belief Persian chahar bagh transformed, adapted to local landscape and tradition with water as a unifying element <ul><li>Hinduism </li></ul><ul><li>Idealism, visionary, abstract, enclosed mystic temple with a secred chamber, irregular, symbiotic, social system </li></ul><ul><li>Islam </li></ul><ul><li>Realism, material, concrete, clarity of mosque, open-air courts, mathematical, continuous decoration, writing as an art </li></ul>Arches, pilasters, perforated marble screens, pavilions with arabesques, inscriptions, flowers in relief or inlay of Kashmir , turquoise, white marble of Gujarat, fonatains and expanded canals Mughal design Muslim ideology Hindu craftsmenship Indo-islamic art
  17. 18. Literature: <ul><li>Moore, Mitchell, Turnbull – The poetics of gardens, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1993. </li></ul><ul><li>Ruggles, F. – Islamic gardens and landscapes, University of pennsylvania Press, 2008. </li></ul><ul><li>Moynihan, E.B.- Paradise as a garden in Persia and Mughal India, Scolar Press, London, 1979. </li></ul><ul><li>Brooks, J. – Gardens of paradise, London, 1987. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>