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Intestinal atresia

Intestinal atresia

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Intestinal atresia

  1. 1. Intestinal atresia
  2. 2. Atresia • The word atresia etymologically comes from the Greek a, which means no or without, and tresis, which means orifice.
  3. 3. Atresia Intestinal atresia is a broad term used to describe a complete blockage anywhere in the intestine.
  4. 4. • These conditions may involve any portion of the gastrointestinal tract, the small bowel is the most commonly affected portion.
  5. 5. Pyloric Atresia • Pyloric atresia involves an obstruction at the pylorus, which is the passage linking the stomach and the first portion of the duodenum.
  6. 6. • This is quite rare, and tends to run in families. Children vomit stomach contents, and due to the accumulation of intestinal contents and gas, develop a distended upper abdomen.
  7. 7. • Abdominal X-rays reveal an air-filled stomach but no air in the remaining intestinal tract.
  8. 8. Duodenal Atresia • The duodenum is the first portion of the small intestine that receives contents emptied from the stomach. • Duodenal atresia occurs in one out of every 2,500 live births.
  9. 9. • Half of the infants with this condition are born prematurely • Approximately two-thirds have associated abnormalities of the heart, genitourinary or intestinal tract. • Nearly 40 percent have Down syndrome.
  10. 10. • Infants with duodenal atresia usually vomit within hours after birth, and may develop a distended upper abdomen.
  11. 11. • Abdominal X-rays show a large dilated stomach and duodenum without gas in the remaining intestinal tract.
  12. 12. Contrst radiography
  13. 13. Jejunoileal Atresia • Jejunoileal atresia involves an obstruction of the jejunum or ileum of the small intestine. • The segment of intestine just before the obstruction becomes massively dilated, thus hindering its ability to absorb nutrients and peristaalsis through the digestive tract.
  14. 14. • In 10-15% of infants with jejunoileal atresia, part of the intestine is necrosed during fetal development. • A significant percentage of infants with this condition also has abnormalities of intestinal rotation and fixation.
  15. 15. • Cystic fibrosis is also an associated disorder and may seriously complicate the management of jejunoileal atresia. Infants with jejunoileal atresia should be screened for cystic fibrosis.
  16. 16. Types • Type I atresia (23%) is a transluminal septum with proximal dilated bowel in continuity with collapsed distal bowel. The bowel is usually of normal length.
  17. 17. • Type II atresia (10%) involves two blind-ending atretic ends separated by a fibrous cord along the edge of the mesentery with mesentery intact.
  18. 18. • Type IIIa atresia (15%) is similar to type II, but there is a mesenteric defect and the bowel length may be foreshortened.
  19. 19. • Type IIIb atresia (19%) (“apple peel”) consists of a proximal jejunal atresia, often with malrotation with absence of most of the mesentery and a varying length of ileum surviving on perfusion from retrograde flow along a single artery of supply.
  20. 20. • Type IV atresia is a multiple atresia of types I, II, and III, like a string of sausages. Bowel length is always reduced. The terminal ileum, as in type III, is usually spared.
  21. 21. • Stenosis occurs in 11%.
  22. 22. Presentation • Infants with jejunoileal atresia, regardless of the subtype, usually vomit green bile within the first 24 hours of life. However, those with obstructions farther down in the intestine may not vomit until two to three days later.
  23. 23. • Infants often develop a distended abdomen and may not have a bowel movement during the first day of life. • Given the age of the patient and the symptoms, an abdominal X-ray is usually sufficient to establish a diagnosis.
  24. 24. Colonic Atresia • This rare form of intestinal atresia accounts for less than 15% of all intestinal atresias. The bowel becomes massively enlarged (dilated), and patients develop signs and symptoms similar to those associated with jejunoileal atresia. Colonic atresia may occur in conjunction with small bowel atresia, Hirschsprung's disease or gastroschisis. • The diagnosis is confirmed by an abdominal X-ray along with an X-ray contrast enema.
  25. 25. Diagnosis • prenatal ultrasounds. Intestinal obstructions are increasingly being identified through prenatal ultrasounds. This imaging technique may indicate excess amniotic fluid (polyhydramnios), which is caused by the failure of the intestine to properly absorb amniotic fluid.
  26. 26. •Abdominal X-ray: In most cases, this can establish a diagnosis.
  27. 27. Treatment • Pyloric Atresia: The pyloric obstruction is opened and the stomach passageway is repaired. The success of this operation is excellent. Length of hospital stay is generally one to three weeks. However, as in all types of intestinal atresia, the hospital stay is substantially longer for premature infants.
  28. 28. •Duodenal Atresia: diamond shaped anastomosis
  29. 29. • Jejuno-ileal atresia: With jejunoileal atresia, the type of surgery depends on the type of atresia, the amount of intestine present and the degree of intestinal dilation. • The most common operation involves removal of the blind intestinal segments, and the remaining ends are anastomosed. Similarly, a narrowed (stenosed) segment of the intestine can be removed and the bowel sutured together, thus establishing anastomosis.
  30. 30. • Colonic Atresia: Babies with colonic atresia may undergo removal of the dilated colon in addition to a temporary colostomy. Less frequently, the ETE anastomosis.
  31. 31. Thanks

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