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Correlation of alpha-fetoprotein & LFTs in liver diseases By Zahoor Ahmed B .S MLT 06
Alpha Fetoprotein <ul><li>A major fetal serum protein, resembles albumin. </li></ul><ul><li>Oncofetal antigens. </li></ul>...
Structure of AFP <ul><li>Albumin like Glycoprotein of 590 amino acids. </li></ul><ul><li>Linked by disulfide bridges. </li...
Sites of synthesis <ul><ul><ul><li>Embryonic Yolk  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gastrointestinal tract </li></ul></...
Physiological role of AFP:   <ul><ul><ul><li>A general transportation role. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Able to bi...
AFP TESTING <ul><li>Based on Electrochemiluminesce immunoassay “ ECLIA ” principle </li></ul><ul><li>Analyzer : </li></ul>...
Importance of AFP in lab diagnosis: <ul><li>As a tumor marker </li></ul><ul><li>As a pregnancy screening test </li></ul>
ELEVATED LEVEL <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cancer in  testes ,  ovaries ,  biliary (liver secretion) tract ,  stomach , or  pancre...
LFT’S <ul><li>Liver function tests measure various chemicals in the blood made by the liver. </li></ul><ul><li>An abnormal...
Tests involved in LFT’s <ul><li>Alkaline phosphatase  </li></ul><ul><li>Alanine transaminase (ALT) </li></ul><ul><li>Aspar...
Normal Range  =  20 - 125 U/L Bile duct obstruction, liver injury,  and  some cancers . An enzyme produced in the liver, b...
Normal Range  =   0 - 48 U/L Liver cell injury (as in hepatitis ) An enzyme produced in the liver that is released into th...
Normal Range  =  M  = 50 U/L  F  = 35 U/L Injury to liver, heart, muscles, or brain. An enzyme released into the blood whe...
Normal Range  M=< 32 U/L  F= < 49 U/L Organ damage, drug toxicity, alcohol abuse, disease of the pancreas . An enzyme prod...
NORMAL RANGE: TOTAL BILI  =  < 1.0 Mg/dl Direct bili  =  < 0. 3 Mg/dl   Obstruction to bile outflow, liver damage, excessi...
LIVER DISEASES <ul><li>LIVER CARCINOMAS  </li></ul><ul><li>HEPATITIS </li></ul><ul><li>LIVER CIRRHISIS </li></ul>
CORRELETION
LIVER CARCINOMAS <ul><li>Also called  Hepatocellular carcinoma. </li></ul><ul><li>It begins in the hepatocytes . </li></ul...
HEPATITIS <ul><li>Also called Viral hepatitis . </li></ul><ul><li>Hepatitis is a swelling of the liver . </li></ul><ul><li...
LIVER CIRRHISIS <ul><li>Also called  Hepatic fibrosis . </li></ul><ul><li>Cirrhosis is scarring of the liver  . </li></ul>...
CONCLUSION <ul><li>AFP Is helpful to diagnose certain liver disorders. </li></ul><ul><li>Higher levels of LFT’s also indic...
 
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Correlation Of Alpha Fetoprotein & Lf Ts In Liver

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Correlation Of Alpha Fetoprotein & Lf Ts In Liver

  1. 1. Correlation of alpha-fetoprotein & LFTs in liver diseases By Zahoor Ahmed B .S MLT 06
  2. 2. Alpha Fetoprotein <ul><li>A major fetal serum protein, resembles albumin. </li></ul><ul><li>Oncofetal antigens. </li></ul><ul><li>Half-life:4~6 days. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Structure of AFP <ul><li>Albumin like Glycoprotein of 590 amino acids. </li></ul><ul><li>Linked by disulfide bridges. </li></ul><ul><li>Gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 4. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Sites of synthesis <ul><ul><ul><li>Embryonic Yolk </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gastrointestinal tract </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Liver cells </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Physiological role of AFP: <ul><ul><ul><li>A general transportation role. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Able to bind estrogen. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As an immunosuppressant to prevent a </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>maternal antibody response to paternally derived fetal antigen . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AFP has no normal function in Adults. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. AFP TESTING <ul><li>Based on Electrochemiluminesce immunoassay “ ECLIA ” principle </li></ul><ul><li>Analyzer : </li></ul><ul><li>Elecsys 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Normal Range: </li></ul><ul><li><5.8 IU/ml (adult) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Importance of AFP in lab diagnosis: <ul><li>As a tumor marker </li></ul><ul><li>As a pregnancy screening test </li></ul>
  8. 8. ELEVATED LEVEL <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cancer in testes , ovaries , biliary (liver secretion) tract , stomach , or pancreas </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cirrhosis of the liver </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Liver cancer </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Malignant teratoma </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Viral hepatitis </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. LFT’S <ul><li>Liver function tests measure various chemicals in the blood made by the liver. </li></ul><ul><li>An abnormal result indicates a problem with the liver, and may help to identify the cause. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Tests involved in LFT’s <ul><li>Alkaline phosphatase </li></ul><ul><li>Alanine transaminase (ALT) </li></ul><ul><li>Aspartate transaminase (AST) </li></ul><ul><li>Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase . </li></ul><ul><li>Bilirubin </li></ul>
  11. 11. Normal Range = 20 - 125 U/L Bile duct obstruction, liver injury, and some cancers . An enzyme produced in the liver, bone, and placenta that is released into the blood during injury or during such normal activities as bone growth or pregnancy . Alkaline phosphatase What it Tells Us? What is it ? TEST
  12. 12. Normal Range = 0 - 48 U/L Liver cell injury (as in hepatitis ) An enzyme produced in the liver that is released into the blood when liver cells are injured. Alanine transaminase (ALT) What it Tells Us? What is it ? TEST
  13. 13. Normal Range = M = 50 U/L F = 35 U/L Injury to liver, heart, muscles, or brain. An enzyme released into the blood when the liver, heart, muscle, or brain is injured. Aspartate transaminase (AST) What it Tells Us? What is it ? TEST
  14. 14. Normal Range M=< 32 U/L F= < 49 U/L Organ damage, drug toxicity, alcohol abuse, disease of the pancreas . An enzyme produced by the liver, pancreas, and kidneys and released into the blood when these organs are injured . Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase What it Tells Us? What is it? TEST
  15. 15. NORMAL RANGE: TOTAL BILI = < 1.0 Mg/dl Direct bili = < 0. 3 Mg/dl Obstruction to bile outflow, liver damage, excessive breakdown of red blood cells (from which bilirubin is made) . A component of the digestive juice (bile) produced by the liver. Bilirubin What it Tells Us? What is it ? TEST
  16. 16. LIVER DISEASES <ul><li>LIVER CARCINOMAS </li></ul><ul><li>HEPATITIS </li></ul><ul><li>LIVER CIRRHISIS </li></ul>
  17. 17. CORRELETION
  18. 18. LIVER CARCINOMAS <ul><li>Also called Hepatocellular carcinoma. </li></ul><ul><li>It begins in the hepatocytes . </li></ul>NORMAL BILI: GGT ALP ALT AST AFP
  19. 19. HEPATITIS <ul><li>Also called Viral hepatitis . </li></ul><ul><li>Hepatitis is a swelling of the liver . </li></ul><ul><li>It can lead to cirrhosis or cancer . </li></ul>BILI: GGT ALP ALT AST AFP
  20. 20. LIVER CIRRHISIS <ul><li>Also called Hepatic fibrosis . </li></ul><ul><li>Cirrhosis is scarring of the liver . </li></ul>BILI: GGT ALP ALT AST AFP
  21. 21. CONCLUSION <ul><li>AFP Is helpful to diagnose certain liver disorders. </li></ul><ul><li>Higher levels of LFT’s also indicates liver disorders. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a good correlation of alpha fetoprotein & liver function test. </li></ul><ul><li>In most cases higher levels of AFP indicates higher levels of LFT’s . </li></ul>

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