4 Ppt Dengue By Maria Niaz


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4 Ppt Dengue By Maria Niaz

  2. 4. Introduction <ul><li>Dengue is a virus spread by Aedes mosquitoes that bite during the day. </li></ul><ul><li>Unfortunately, there’s no vaccine to prevent it. </li></ul><ul><li>The best you can do is avoid being bitten. </li></ul>
  3. 5. Pathogenecity <ul><li>Dengue is a virus serotypes DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, DEN-4, cause dengue (DEN) and dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) </li></ul><ul><li>These viruses are transmitted by Aedes mosquities </li></ul>
  4. 6. Dengue <ul><li>Characterized by; </li></ul><ul><li>* High fever </li></ul><ul><li>* Headache </li></ul><ul><li>* Pain behind the eyes </li></ul><ul><li>* Pain in muscles </li></ul><ul><li>* Joints pain </li></ul><ul><li>* Enlarged lymph glands </li></ul><ul><li>* Maculopapular rash </li></ul>
  5. 8. Contd……… <ul><li>Sometimes ; </li></ul><ul><li>* Abdominal pain </li></ul><ul><li>* Vomiting </li></ul><ul><li>Occasionaly ; </li></ul><ul><li>* Haemorrhagic symptoms </li></ul>
  6. 9. Contd………… <ul><li>Virus enter into the blood circulation by multiplicatoin of virus in the reticuloendothelial system </li></ul><ul><li>Leucopenia is the most infectious cause </li></ul>
  7. 11. Contd…………… <ul><li>Early infections are misdiagnosed by ; </li></ul><ul><li>* malaria </li></ul><ul><li>* hepatitis </li></ul><ul><li>* flu-like illness </li></ul><ul><li>High infectious rates occur in epidemics (70%-80%) of populations can de affected </li></ul>
  8. 12. Dengue haemorrhagic fever <ul><li>Serious life-threatening condition </li></ul><ul><li>Frequently children and others are affected whom previously infected with one serotype or strain of dengue virus and subsequently become reinfected with a different serotype or strain </li></ul><ul><li>The secondary immue response leads to the formation of virus-antibody immune complexes which activate complement </li></ul>
  9. 13. Contd……… <ul><li>These complements are causing vascular damage and dissaminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) with spontaneous bleeding </li></ul><ul><li>In some patients, DHF progresses to circulatory collapse, referred as dengue shock syndrome (DSS) </li></ul>
  10. 14. Contd……….. <ul><li>DHF is characterized by; </li></ul><ul><li>Raised haematocrit (PCV) due to plasma leakage </li></ul><ul><li>Redused platelet count </li></ul><ul><li>Hepatomegaly </li></ul><ul><li>Haemorrhagic symptoms with bleeding into the skin </li></ul>
  11. 15. Dengue strikes
  12. 16. Go for performing dengue tests in serology laboratory of Liaquat National Hospital
  13. 17. Dengue test <ul><li>Dengue test performe by the immunochromatographic method using the BIAS-3 (bi-directional immuno assay system) dengue IgG/IgM kit use in LNH microbiology lab </li></ul><ul><li>BIAS-3; two step assay for the differential detection of IgG or IgM antibodies to dengue virus in serum or whole blood </li></ul><ul><li>Use for in vitro diagnosis </li></ul>
  14. 18. Principle of the test <ul><li>This test is the membrane based screening test to differentialy detect the presence of antibodies to dengue virus </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral flow immunochromatographic type assay </li></ul><ul><li>Once the sample is added to the sample pad along with diluent the mixture passes bi-directionally through two antibody binding complexes which then binds the imunoglobulins in the sample </li></ul>
  15. 19. Contd……….. <ul><li>The complex passes over the immobilized antigens on the membrane, if any antibodies to dengue (IgG or IgM) are present the antigens capture them in turn </li></ul><ul><li>This produces a pink/purple band in the test-zone of the device </li></ul><ul><li>The remaining complex continues to migrate to a control area on the test device and produces a pink/purple band each control area </li></ul><ul><li>This control bands indicate that the test has been performed properly </li></ul>
  16. 20. Kit components <ul><li>BIAS-3 Dengue IgG/IgM test device </li></ul><ul><li>Diluent in dropper vial </li></ul><ul><li>Directions for use </li></ul>
  17. 21. Dengue rapid test device
  18. 22. Stability and Storage Conditions <ul><li>The BIAS-3 Dengue IgG/IgM test kit is stable at any room temperature between 8-30C when in the unopened pouches. </li></ul><ul><li>DO NOT FREEZE the kit or expose to temperature extremes. </li></ul><ul><li>Stability of the kit is 24 months from the date of manufacture - dating is indication on the kit label. </li></ul>
  19. 23. General Precautions <ul><li>The test is for In Vitro Diagnostic Use only </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate infection control and handling procedures should be followed - do not smoke, eat or drink in the area where the test is to be performed. Use suitable clothing and gloves when handling samples and when performing the test </li></ul>
  20. 24. Sample Collection <ul><li>The BIAS-3 Dengue IgG/IgM test can be run on serum or whole blood </li></ul><ul><li>The test works best on fresh samples. </li></ul><ul><li>If testing cannot be done immediately, they should be stored at 2-8C after collection for up to 3 days </li></ul><ul><li>If testing cannot be done within 3 days, serum can be stored frozen at -20C or colder </li></ul>
  21. 25. Test Procedure <ul><li>For WHOLE BLOOD - add 10 uls of sample to the center sample pad hole (S) of the test device using a measuring pipet. </li></ul><ul><li>For SERUM - add 5 uls of sample to the center sample pad hole of the test device using a measuring pipet. </li></ul>
  22. 26. Contd………… <ul><li>Follow sample addition with 6drops of the diluent provided in the dropper bottle by holding the bottle vertically over the hole in the center sample pad cover. SLOWLY add diluent 1-2 drops at a time waiting for the previous drops to absorb </li></ul><ul><li>Results are then read in as little as 5minutes for strong positives or upto 30minutes for weaker positives and to make sure negatives are confirmed </li></ul>
  23. 27. Reading the Test Results <ul><li>Negative Only one pink/purple band appears in the Control areas of the BIAS test device. </li></ul>
  24. 28. Contd……… <ul><li>Positive One or Two pink/purple bands appear in the Test area of the BIAS test device and one line each in the Control area of the test device </li></ul>
  25. 29. Quality Control <ul><li>It is recommended that a known positive and negative control be run to insure proper performance </li></ul><ul><li>All controls should be handled in the same manner as patient samples </li></ul>
  26. 31. T H A N K Y O U