Youth as the driver of change


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Youth Percpective in Pakistan and comparative analysis with the youth policies of different European, Australian and Asian Countries and How we can convert the youth as the Strength of Pakistan. Please comments how you find this presentation!

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Youth as the driver of change

  1. 1. •The World population is the total sum of all humans on the earth. • It is estimated to number of 7.015 billion by United States Census Bureau. •The number of youth between the ages of 15 and 24 is 1.1 billion. youth constitute 18 percent of the global population. • Youth and children together, including all those aged 24 years and younger, account for nearly 40 percent of the world's population. •Geographically speaking, Approximately 60 percent of youth live in Asia; 15 percent, in Africa; 10 percent, in Latin America and the Caribbean; and the remaining 15 percent, in developed countries and regions.
  2. 2. Time of life Between Childhood & Adulthood. Integration in Society as responsible citizen. Our Focus: Not a time of life but a state of Mind, a temper of will, a quality of imagination, a predominance of courage over timidity of the appetite for adventure over the life of ease.
  3. 3. Richard M. Lerner (2005) cited Petersen (1988); Who describes “youth as adolescence in biological term and describes it 2nd phase of life which involves biological, cognitive, psy chological and social changes.” •Period of storm & Stress •Phase of Mental & Physical development.
  4. 4. Diversityoccurs in the features of youth during the transition of change from child to adolescent because not all young people under goes these transitions in the same way, with the same speed. These differences of features like biological, psychological and social brought the diversity. Integrated & multilevel changes arises in this phase of human life.
  5. 5. Lerner (2005) describes adolescence as the product of relations between individual and their world. This has to be focused because the potential the individuals have for systematic change influenced by the factors in their homes, schools and community. This emergence views PYD as resources to be developed rather than problems to be managed.
  6. 6. Lerner (2005) introduced 5 C’s of PYD. 1. Competence 2. Confidence 3. Connection 4. Character 5. Caring Young People whose lives incorporated with these 5 C’s would be on a development path that demonstrates a 6th ‘C’ Contribution to self, Family, community and the institutions of civil society.
  7. 7. Positive view of one’s actions in specific areas including; • Social Competence refers to interpersonal skills e.g. Conflict Resolution. • Cognitive Competence refers to cognitive abilities e.g. decision making. • Academic Competence refers to school performance by school grades, attendance and test scores. •Health Competence involves exercise, using nutrition and rest to keep oneself fit. • Vocational Competence work habits and exploration of career choice.
  8. 8. An internal sense of overall positive self-worth and self-efficacy.
  9. 9. Positive bonds with people & institutes that reflected in exchange between the individual and his or her peers, family, school and community in which both parties contribute to the relationship.
  10. 10. •A sense of right and wrong. •Respect for societal and cultural norms. •Possession of standards for correct behavior.
  11. 11. A Sense of Sympathy and Empathy for others.
  12. 12. 1. Worldwide population structure change. 2. Political and administrative institutes are dominating with aged people. Are two key reasons for the nations on the globe to initiate and implement an effective Youth Policy.
  13. 13. •A National Youth Policy is an official draft from the Govt. of any country which allows the young countrymen to represent this proportion of population on national level. •It also gives opportunities to feel as an important person from young age.
  14. 14. Now we review the youth policies of different countries to understand the approach adopted by these countries to make and manage its “youth as the driver of a change”.
  15. 15. •Youth age group is b/w 15 – 19 years. •The Govt. and Local City Council identifies the education as the key area for transitioning young population. •That’s why its literacy rate is ……? •It is…………..99%.......
  16. 16. • Consider age group of 12 – 24 years as youth. Which is 20% of the total population. • The youth policy has especially focused disabled and indigenous youth for the attainment of education, employment and other social, health and substance use outcomes. • Youth of Australia is well diversified culturally and linguistically.
  17. 17. •Consider Youth as people ranging from “0 to 29” bearing in mind the characteristics and issues at each growth stage. • It aims to provide excellent health facilities to pre-school of youth and support morally, economically and socially to parents to raise their infants. • At elementary school stage physical strength, exercise skills are basis for future growth. • Diverse knowledge, experience and acquire sociability skills like awareness of one’s role in sense of solidarity in mutual relations with family and friends.
  18. 18. • In adolescence period it is important to acquire self identity and learn social norms, knowledge and skills to begin transition towards adolescence. • It is important for adolescents to break away from their parents and make a family of their own i.e. lead independent lives as member of the society and participate in and contribute to public affairs. • While in post young adult stage are continuing their efforts in universities. e.g. to foster the qualities and skills necessary to develop various social fields and the people who have difficulty in establishing social independence.
  19. 19. • Consider the age group of 18 to 35 years as its youth which is almost 35% of its population. • The aim of youth policy is to make its youth most strong, self confident, creative and productive for the nation. • Youth Policy has defined its objective is to engage its youth in National Service oriented activities like vaccination, tree plantation, Preventive campaigns against AIDS & Drug Abuse, Sports Activities and Govt. owned IT facilities and utilizing local resources to provide credit to self employment. • But the current problem of youth are the lack of formal education, immoral activities , unemployment and backwardness in technology.
  20. 20. • The age group set out is between 13 to 35 years. However the Indian Govt. has divided this age bracket into three sub groups. 1. The first group covers 13 – 18 years adolescents whose needs and areas of concern are different from upper age group. • The right to formal education Act is until the age of 14. • And until the age of 18 is seeking skills training and vocational or secondary education is an effort to improve the quality of this age group.
  21. 21. 2. The second age group is of 19 – 25 years are those who are completing their education and getting into a career. • For this age group the Govt. promotes the gender equality & Justice, Sports and recreational activities and especially empowering youth by facilitating employment and entrepreneurship opportunities.
  22. 22. 3. The third group of 26 – 35 are those young women and men most of them have completed their education including professionals and more or less are settled in their jobs or personal life. • The Govt. persuading this age group to create awareness in HIV Aids and making their active participation in community services and issues related to environment conservation and preservation.
  23. 23. • Consider the age group of 14- 27 as its youth. • The local youth officers are obliged to deliver educational assistance to children and aged b/w 14 – 17. •The youngster who are unable to continue education are engaged by public authorities like life savers, fire brigades and music associates, etc. • Social Youth relates to connect young people in specific ways; 1. School. 2. Transition to Work. 3. Housing.
  24. 24. •According to Federal Youth Policy (2008), population in the age group of 15 – 29 years is taken as young population in Pakistan. • Reference to Population labor survey (2006) it represent 27% of the total population of 155.37 million which is approximately about 41.81 million comes under the definition of youth.
  25. 25. • Approx. 67% of young population live in rural areas. •About 63% of young population is literate (26.27 million). •Out of 37% illiterate (15.57 million) about 65% (10.13 million) are females. • About 49% (20.32 million) constitutes labor force. •51% (21.51 million)is out of labor force. Which consists of 6.89 million “Students” and 14.03 million (including 13.82 million females) are household.
  26. 26. • The labor force is engaged in a. Agriculture about 37%. b. Manufacturing about 17%. c. Wholesale, retail trade and Restaurants, etc about 15%. d. Community, Social & Personal Services about 11%. e. Construction about 7%. f. Transport storage and communication about 6%. 37% 17% 15% 11% 7% 6% Column1 Agriculture Manufactur ing Wholesale, Retail, etc Community services Constructi on
  27. 27. • Prepared by National Institute of Population Studies Islamabad shows that the population of youth in 2020 would be around 57.9 million, 50% of each male to female population out of 221 million which remains the same 27% proportion of the survey 2006. • There will be a net addition of 16 million young people in Pakistan.
  28. 28. 1. Groom & Guide the youth of Pakistan to live in peace & harmony. 2. Covert the demographic increase into an economic dividend. 3. Provide an environment to facilitate youth to exploit their full potential. 4. Address the gender imbalance and economic opportunities to male & female youth. 5. Provide education to those who have missed childhood education.
  29. 29. 1. Sense of Pride, Awareness and Motivation. 2. National Integration. 3. Enabling Employment. 4. Marginalized &Vulnerable Youth. 5. Character Building. 6. Promotion of Sports & Recreation. 7. Academic & Intellectual Development. 8. Youth Health. 9. Social Volunteerism. 10. Incentives for talented and High Performing Youth. 11. Youth Marriage, Family and Life Skills. 12. Youth Mentoring. 13. Special Youth. 14. Balancing the Gender Imbalance. 15. Youth in Prison.
  30. 30. • UNDP points out that the proportion of people under the age of 30 years is 68% of the total population. • The figure shows here the alarming situation of the Current youth which is not identified in the official document of Pakistan regarding youth challenges. 37% of youth is illetrate Less than 6% of youth acquired Technical Skills Only 2.5% of youth has recieved on job training 9.5 % of Youth is unemployed 8.3% of youth is self - employed
  31. 31. •Pakistan’s historical weakness in engaging its youth has resulted in unintended consequences. • The next generation stands on weak footing to deal with the challenges of the evolving competitive environment across the globe. 71% of Youth doesn’t receive career counseling at School. 28% finds curriculum irrelevant to the job market. 88% of youth want to learn occupational skills. 47% don’t have sports activities in their localities. 23% want to start their own business but not supported.
  32. 32. • The roots of youth policy are founded in 1989, then in 1993, 2002 & 2004. • The draft of NYP 2008 was approved in February 2009 first time in Pakistan. • But after the approval of 18th amendment to constitution in 2010 the ministry of youth affairs abolished and thus the NYP 2008. • Now its responsibility of provinces to look after the youth.
  33. 33. • Punjab is the only province to introduce its first ever youth policy of Punjab. • The work on PYP started in August 2010 and was approved and forced by the provincial cabinet in December 2011. •05 months ago. •Next are the three main pillars of the PYP 2011.
  34. 34. • The guidelines set out here are the foundation of the action points and priorities of the PYP. 1. Social Empowerment of Youth. 2. Economic Empowerment of Youth. 3. Political Empowerment of Youth.
  35. 35. •Classification of youth social empowerment is as follows; 1. Youth Engagement & Participation to make better decision and political awareness. 2. Youth Volunteerism need volunteer services programs as compulsory part of education like NCC (National Cadet Corp.) 3. Ownership of state and institutions to refresh the sense of ownership and trust on the state. 4. Youth health & sports strategies would be facilitate to develop their energies. 5. Promotion of pluralism and peace to tackle the youth extremism in religio-political ideologies.
  36. 36. • While promoting self- employment to youth it would be to ensure that youth can get placed apt position according to their qualification and desirability. • Other domain of economic development include; 1. Education for youth development to initiate comprehensive programs of skills and vocational training. 2. Ensuring declining fertility rates in Punjab for higher investment in manageable population of the province.
  37. 37. • Encouraging youth participation in electoral and legislative process at District and provincial level to ensure an ownership on governance structure.
  38. 38. • We have reviewed the youth policies of different countries. Most of the youth policies we reviewed are from the well developed countries. • The youth of each country is playing vital role in the revolutionary developments of the country with context to economics, technology, politics and society. • We have also reviewed the policies of some developing countries like India and Bangladesh. • The policies of these developing nations are also much similar to those of the developed countries. We can say that they are following the good examples set by the developed countries for managing the youth. • Is Pakistan also on the right way to managing its youth? This is what we are going to elaborate in the coming section slides.
  39. 39.  In the start of this report we have shortly viewed youth policies of different countries. Every country has single youth policy developed at national level because the youth is considered as a national asset.  But in Pakistan the government has put the hands up from this critical national interest under the banner of provincial autonomy.  Pakistan now consists of five provinces i.e. Punjab, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Sindh, Baluchistan, Gilgit Baltistan and one state Azad Jammu & Kashmir but unfortunately only Punjab Province has considered it as an issue of interest and introduced the Punjab Youth Policy.
  40. 40. • Again with reference to the youth policies of other countries our youth policy is only focusing the support to the youth after they have finished with their education. • For example, all the pillars of the policy are relevant to the upper age group according to the definition of youth in Punjab.
  41. 41. • we are trying to realize the fact that our current youth policy is only garnishing the cake to make it look attractive. What about the taste and quality? • The society, economy and education system who nurtured this youth is being supplemented by our youth policies, whereas, in alliance to these efforts, there should policies to bring up the lower bottom age group of the youth from gross root.
  42. 42. • The youth policy is developed in cooperation between various departments of Punjab Government . • But there is no separate authority to implement this policy in the province and thus the policy is limited to the papers.
  43. 43. • Change is a process which doesn’t occur at once. It is the result of consistent efforts in finding the solution of different problems which may take decades. • The youth of any country are the resources of that nation to bring change for the new generations to come. • For this we have to mange the current youth and nurture the new generation to follow the steps.
  44. 44. • The ideal age group for youth is between 12 to 29 years of age because at the age of 12 children complete their primary education standards i.e. 5th grade. •Although the primary education plays vital role for the coming years in grooming of children • But at this early stage we cannot understand the aptitude of any child. •However, a comprehensive and uniform education standard till 5th grade is highly recommended.
  45. 45. • The involvement of health department (ministry) is inevitable to ensure the excellent care of infants in Pakistan. •The role of mothers as nursing mothers is equally important to the health conditions of infants in Pakistan. •The efforts of govt. to eradicate polio and vaccination of infants against common child diseases are encouraging but it requires more dedicated efforts to vanish these diseases from our country. •The health department should not leave any stone unturned to gift Pakistan with healthy generations.
  46. 46. • Education is vital to change in any aspect. Either it is organizational change, technological change, political change, or an employee is switching to another organization. Before implementing the organizational change people are educated, before technological change people are provided training and similarly before political change, the campaigns of political parties are also the process of educating the people. •All these elements of educating and training the people are included to facilitate the change. •Thus for a revolution in any country the education is the key catalyst.
  47. 47. • By concerning the education ministry, the curriculum defined on integrated bases without any discrimination of the pre schools as defined by the government at all levels till the 5th grade age group involves from 5 years to 12 years. •Special education is a good initiative for disable children.
  48. 48. • Role of education department is to highlight the fields of interest in the education system from 6th grade to onward 8th grade age group involves from 13 years to 15 years. •In which there must be a strategy to develop an aptitude of the children towards the Islamic, social, ethical norms with addition to develop interest in the cultural heritage and respecting the other cultures to understand the multicultural societies.
  49. 49. • In coordination with the manpower department, industries department and various professional bodies (like Medical Associations, Engineering Associations, Bankers Associations, etc.) the guidance and selection of the specialized field of interest is assisted at this level of education which comprises both to • the technical education (for those who are dropouts for higher education) and •professional education age group involves from 16 years to 20 years.
  50. 50. • Education department involves to generate the masters of the field of interest focusing the age group from 21 years to 24 years by giving the service learning (involves practical aspects of the education). • Different approaches are to be used by the teachers to enhance and build the leadership qualities in the young people at this level so that they can address the problems in their own perspective to find the constructive solutions to the problems faced.
  51. 51. • After the above discussed seven steps from infants to the higher education we have the youth with diversified skills, abilities, knowledge and professions. •The planning of the manpower regarding demand and supply of labor force in every profession is almost according to the plans. •Thus the every person of youth is ready to be fitted in its role which he adopted for himself. There will be minimum unemployment in our country which will also be manageable by our government.
  52. 52. •Now it is the turn of government to get return from the youth for its investment in their development. •Every person of youth which is on job will be assigned additional responsibilities of society with volunteer services. • For example the community parks and sports grounds under the supervision of government with proper deployment of staff are governed by the youth of that specific community. •Once we engaged the youth in the specific manner discussed above, government will find itself in the phase of implementing the change.
  53. 53. Out of an electoral list of 83 million, 47 per cent of the registered voters are under 35 years of age. Will this youth bracket be the most important factor in the elections? And around 20 percent are even in the younger age bracket of 18 to 25 years. “It is the youth who want change and have chosen to rebel against the status quo.” It will happen if the youth is educated and be a decision maker for itself and pave a roadmap for the future generation and only the educated youth can be a driver of this change in Pakistan.
  54. 54. • 67% of young population lives in rural areas. • What we have to do to make it as a driver of change. It is necessary to compel them to generate the livelihood from the cultivation of crops by using different mechanical & Scientific approaches to reduce the manpower and maximizes the productivity. •We have to convert this rural youth including women as a leading youth in their communities by giving technical and professional education in different fields of interest which can bring the change to be a responsible citizen of the nation.
  55. 55. • The youth can discharge their duties faithfully. •They can help their country by not involving in college politics and studying hard to get knowledge and not just degree. That knowledge will automatically broaden their outlook and will help their country. •They can watch TV programs highlighting the problems facing their country and try to avoid those practices. •They can stop giving bribe for unfair benefits. •Lastly, they need to be careful about joining a political party as ironically many political parties in third world countries don't even give a damn to their citizens.
  56. 56. • It has been said that the pace of change in today’s youth culture is quickening. Yesterday’s cultural icons are on the ash heap today and what’s “in” today will be “out” tomorrow. •It is wise for parents to be students of youth culture, but practically speaking, how does one find time to keep up with all of the trends and changes that take place? •The realistic answer is, you won’t find the time. And I would add, don’t waste all of your energies trying! For instance, as a general rule, adolescents in rural towns often do not deal with some issues to the same extent that urban kids do – and vice versa.
  57. 57. 1. Establish, Maintain and Grow a Relationship with Your Kids; Take time to get to know them. Be involved in their lives. Learn their likes and their dislikes, their hopes and their dreams, their joys and their fears. This takes communication – and don’t forget – perhaps the most important communication skill is listening.
  58. 58. 2. Know Your Kids Friends The rule of friendship among adolescents operates in such a way that your kids will conform to the interests, behaviors and values of their closest friends. A parent who, for example, knows their child hangs out with friends who use drugs, but believes their child doesn’t use drugs – is most likely a parent in denial. Learning about kids’ closest friends means learning much about them.
  59. 59. 3. Ask Local School Officials, Teachers and youth Workers About Local Culture Trends Ask about what new youth culture trends they see emerging as well as those that are disappearing.
  60. 60. 4. Use your Influence With Your Kids! Don’t waste this tremendous influence. Use it! Set the tone for your kids by establishing and providing consistency in boundaries. Build morals and values into their lives.
  61. 61. • Creating a sense of leadership in youth is essential to derive change. For this purpose Youth Parliament is a project that is initiated by FES – Pakistan, (Friedrich Ebert Foundation). Only the leadership can bring change via youth of the country. e.g. Leadership of Quaid - e - Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. (1876 – 1948) • Leadership of Mao Zedong for Republic of China. (1893 – 1976)
  62. 62. Youth Parliament Pakistan The specific objectives of this project are to educate Pakistani youth about politics and democracy and to demonstrate to them how Parliaments are able to: •Make legislation, •Debate matters of national and international concern, •Demand accountability from those in government, •Discuss legislation in committees, •Change government without recourse to civil disorder and •Make and enforce their own rules of conduct.
  63. 63. Youth Parliament Pakistan •It is expected that the Youth Parliament Pakistan will become a useful forum to voice views of youth about a range of national and international issues. •Sixty Pakistani youth aged between 18- 29 years were selected for membership from all across the country. •The seats have been divided among provinces of the country on the basis of population criteria used by the National Assembly of Pakistan. •The time period for each term of the Youth Parliament is ‘one year’. It meets for 30 days in the year. •The first 'Youth Parliament Pakistan' shall complete its tenure in December 2007.
  64. 64. Youth Parliament Pakistan Activities include; 1. Plenary sessions which have debated important issues such as the state of youth, youth policy, federalism and provincial autonomy, state of education and the new education policy, state of democracy and the way forward, law and order situation in Pakistan, etc. 2. Visits and meetings with influential figures like the Prime Minister of Pakistan have been arranged for the members of Youth Parliament focusing on enhancing youth’s leadership development and understanding of crucial policy issues.
  65. 65. Youth Parliament Pakistan Areas of Improvement: This project is not known to majority of the youth. There must be well demonstrative campaigns for the youth parliament in the universities and college levels to enhance the abilities of the selected youth and their interaction with the youth across the country.
  66. 66. A term generally related to starting a company, entrepreneurship encompasses a lot more than the act of business creation. • Entrepreneurship is a set of attitudes and skills, as well as a need to take charge of one’s own future by creating meaning through a sustained effort that brings change to the world and meets a given need in society. •Even when working for someone else, individuals who put their creativity and devotion to use help the company to grow and give themselves a chance to fulfill their potential.
  67. 67. 1. Getting Motivated • To managing the Youth Entrepreneurship Challenge, the provincial government must lead a strategy to promote entrepreneurship and support entrepreneurial initiatives. • For this local centers are need to be build to promote and counsel the youth to take an initiative and build their entrepreneurial skills by testing their aptitude and ideas to motivate them as a youth entrepreneur.
  68. 68. 2. Getting Support If you’re excited about entrepreneurship, you’re three- quarters of the way there! Where can you find financing, mentorship, workspace and other supports to turn your idea into a business? Incubators are the one stop shop needed for supporting the premature entrepreneurships. Incubators help entrepreneurs with things like business plans, accounting, marketing, busin ess training and legal services until they have the revenue and organizational structure to run on their own.
  69. 69. 3. Getting Entrepreneurial • Given that youth do show an interest in starting a business and that support is available, there is a need to rethink and rebuild Pakistan’s entrepreneurial base and youth have a role to play. • Government, colleges and universities, education boards and the private sector can all help to shape and encourage Pakistan’s next generation of entrepreneurs. • Even at the elementary and high school levels, we have to create more practice-based learning environments so that youth can explore their skills and build their entrepreneurial potential.
  70. 70. • We find that Youth is a very effective tool which can bring changes in the country by utilizing their enthusiasm, initiatives only if we gave them opportunity to rise and provide them platform to bring out their healthy skills and hidden abilities to play their vital role for the development. •But in Pakistan we are not managing our youth. We take it as a problem rather than a resource to be developed.