Basics of Information Systems

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Slides for Estonian Entrepreneurship University of Applied Sciences, course "Information Systems"

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Basics of Information Systems

  1. 1. Information Systems Zahhar Kirillov, MSc zahhar.kirillov@eek.ee
  2. 2. Welcome to the course! ● Your name? ● Backgrounf in IS: – – ● Role (user, developer, tester, customer) Examples of IS you have used/seen? Expectations
  3. 3. Course aims ● ● ● Understand the definition, purpose and an abstract model of an IS; Get overwiev of different types of IS and their application areas, along with typical examples of IS (both opensource and commercial) Intriduce basics of system analysis with relevant methodologies, tools and techniques.
  4. 4. How we do it? ● ● Lectures (face-to-face and distant, over Google Hangouts) and teamwork Final exam, consists of – Hometask (40%) – Cross-evaluation (20%) – Moodle test (40%)
  5. 5. Additional reading ● ● Management Information Systems. (Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon) The Road Ahead (Bill Gates)
  6. 6. Let's start!
  7. 7. The purpose of IS ● ● Main purpose: to help manager make “right” decition in “right” time In addition: – Store and process data (data banks) – “Flatten” organizational structure – Simplify business processes – Save on time, money and workforce – Increase customer satisfaction ratio
  8. 8. Components of IS ● ● ● ● Data (or, information) Technology (hatrware&software) to manage data (gather, store, process, analyse, transmit, report) People (roles, competences, knowledge) Regulations (rules, business processes) anout applying technologies to data
  9. 9. IS defitition ● ● IS is a collection of hardware, software, data, people and procedures that work together to produce quality information. IS does not mean “piece of software” and can exist even without computers! – Examples, please!
  10. 10. Key definitions (1/3) ● Data: classified facts about everything in the world. – Format (number, text, image, voice) – Medium (paper, file, film) – Operations (cut-copy-paste, clone, delete)
  11. 11. Key definitions (2/3) ● Information: data with its semantics (meaning to recipient) – Decreses level of uncertainity – Extremely subjective (90-60-90 problem) – Has great value (compared to raw data)
  12. 12. Big data problem ● Twitter messages: 400M per day ● YouTube videos: 100h per minute ● Facebook likes: 30 000 per second ● E-mails: 1M per minute Who and how can find potential problems? Where to store it? Etc...
  13. 13. IS value ● Why IS costs 99999999999€? – Value of IS is proportional to a level of complexity of decisions, that can be made based on processed data; – One-time investment compared to the amount of money that can be saved, or earned, with help of IS
  14. 14. Before and After IS (1/2) Figure 1-9
  15. 15. Before and After IS (2/2) Figure 1-10
  16. 16. Digital firm ● ● ● ● Operates business continuously in a global workplace Adapts business strategies to meet market demands Creates business value from technology investments Drives efficiency improvements in customer relationship management, inventory and supply chain, sales, etc.
  17. 17. Figure 1-11
  18. 18. Computer-based IS evolution ● 1950/60 – basic processes automation ● 1960/70 – enterprise resource planning ● 1980/90 – analytics and expert advisory ● 2000/10 – ubiquitous information systems (social-integrated complex web-based enterprise-wide information systems 8-)
  19. 19. IS abstract model
  20. 20. Computer-based IS model
  21. 21. IS requirements ● ● ● Organization with its stakeholders, aimes, questions to be answered (who and which decision wants to make)? Data sources, permanent dat flow Well-described business processes (rules, limitations, standards) ● Relevant technology ● Team with a strong leader (CIO)
  22. 22. Components of a computer-based information system
  23. 23. Hardware ● Input-output devices ● Data storage ● Power, cooling, ventilation ● Telecommunications and networking ● Processing units ● Infrastructure objects (buildings, etc)
  24. 24. Software ● ● Operating systems Security assets (antivirus, VPN, firewall, IDS/IPS, identification) ● Monitoring ● Data backup ● Office applications
  25. 25. Peopleware ● Stakeholders, investors ● Product owner ● System architect, business analyst ● Software developers, designers, testers ● Technical writer, system administrator ● Customer support specialists ● Customers, partners, users, etc
  26. 26. IS technology priorities ● Cloud computing ● Virtualization ● Mobile technologies ● Business intelligence ● Big data, warehousing and data mining ● Unified communications ● Security management and risk mitigation ● Web and social integration
  27. 27. IS classification
  28. 28. (a) by interaction level ● Replaces people vs assists people – ● Examples, please Real-time vs batch-processing – Examples, please
  29. 29. (b) by management level ● Operational – ● Management – ● monitor and automate the day-to-day’s elementary activities and transactions, support workers with required knowledge support the monitoring, controlling, decision-making, and administrative activities of middle managers Strategic – support long-range planning activities of senior management
  30. 30. (c) by purpose ● Executive Support Systems (ESS) ● Management Information Systems (MIS) ● Decision Support Systems (DSS) ● Knowledge Work Systems (KWS) ● Office Automation Systems (OAS) ● Transaction Processing Systems (TPS)
  31. 31. (c) by functional area ● ● Accounting/finance Manufacturing (operations, production, supply chain management) ● Sales & marketing ● Human resources ● Customer relationships ● Enterprise resource planning

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