Technology Summit


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Technology Summit

  1. 1. The truth behind the veil Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  2. 2. Technology – Introduction, About the course, Q & A History of Computing Hardware Operating Systems / Programming Languages Databases Networks (includes introduction to Internet) Internet – What was, What is and What will (covering Wireless also) Security How Technology applies to You and Benefits of using it Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  3. 3. Best Friend Tool Catalyst Productivity Enhancer Shortcut to Goals Efficiency Improver Communication Channel and Enhancer Learning Enabler Interactive (some) Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  4. 4. I feel the need, the need for speed – Raise your adrenalin levels Your guide to the technology ocean Learn technology types and uses When we say technology – mostly in relation to Computing Although you will see that Computing is a subset of Technology Learn some terms, some concepts, some applications How is technology my best friend Understand technology landscape How to make use of Technology in my profession Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  5. 5. Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  6. 6. Abacus Difference Engine / Analytical Engine – Charles Babbage Lady Ada Lovelace – The first Programmer Mainframes – IBM Minicomputers – DEC Microcomputers The Hardware is the Computer The software is the Computer The network is the Computer Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  7. 7. <ul><li>beads on rods to count and calculate </li></ul><ul><li>still widely used in Asia! </li></ul>Abacus - 3000 BC Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  8. 8. <ul><li>Difference Engine c.1822 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>huge calculator, never finished </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Analytical Engine 1833 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>could store numbers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>calculating “mill” used punched metal cards for instructions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>powered by steam! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>accurate to six decimal places </li></ul></ul>Analytical Engine Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  9. 9. <ul><li>born on 10 December 1815. </li></ul><ul><li>named after Byron's half sister, Augusta, who had been his mistress. </li></ul><ul><li>After Byron had left for the Continent with a parting shot -- 'When shall we three meet again?' -- Ada was brought up by her mother. </li></ul>Courtesy : Tim Bergin. Computing History Museum, American University Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  10. 10. Mainframes Courtesy : Tim Bergin. Computing History Museum, American University Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  11. 11. Minicomputers – PDP 11 - 1970 Courtesy : Tim Bergin. Computing History Museum, American University Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  12. 12. Microcomputer - Altair 8800 Computer Courtesy : Tim Bergin. Computing History Museum, American University Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  13. 13. First Microprocessor – 1971 <ul><li>The 4004 had 2,250 transistors </li></ul><ul><li>four-bit chunks (four 1’s or 0’s) </li></ul><ul><li>108Khz </li></ul><ul><li>Called “Microchip” </li></ul>Intel 4004 Microprocessor Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  14. 14. Taken from Mugil Technologies Website Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  15. 15. Taken from Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  16. 16. Questions & Answers Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  17. 17. Vaccum Tubes Transistors Integrated Circuits Very Large Integrated Circuits (Chips) Microprocessors Support Chips Motherboard ChipSet Specialized Microprocessors (Graphics and Sound) Input Output Devices Input (Keyboard / Mouse and others) Output (Display, Printer and others) Wireless Devices Network Devices (Switches / Hubs / Bridges / Gateways) Thought Readers , Robots, Prosthetic Devices Microcode Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  18. 18. Vacuum Tubes - 1941 - 1956 <ul><li>First Generation Electronic Computers used Vacuum Tubes </li></ul><ul><li>Vacuum tubes are glass tubes with circuits inside. </li></ul><ul><li>Vacuum tubes have no air inside of them, which protects the circuitry. </li></ul>Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  19. 19. First Transistor <ul><li>Uses Silicon </li></ul><ul><li>developed in 1948 </li></ul><ul><li>won a Nobel prize </li></ul><ul><li>on-off switch </li></ul><ul><li>Second Generation Computers used Transistors, starting in 1956 </li></ul>Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  20. 20. Integrated Circuits <ul><li>Third Generation Computers used Integrated Circuits (chips). </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated Circuits are transistors, resistors, and capacitors integrated together into a single “chip” </li></ul>Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  21. 21. Very Large Integrated Circuits - CHIPS Taken from Wikipedia Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
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  26. 26. Taken from : Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
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  30. 30. Taken from : Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
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  33. 33. Taken from Mugil Technologies Website Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  34. 34. Questions & Answers Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  35. 35. What is Operating System (OS) ? Why an OS ? Popular Operating Systems in the Market Strengths and Weakness Complimentary Programs New Trends – Network OS , Virtualization The future of OS What is a Programming Languages (PL) What does it do ? Generations of PL’s What PL’s are in vogue today ? The next generation PL Abstractions and Annihilation of PL’s Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  36. 36. An OS is a software program which has the following features It talks to hardware It manages the CPU It manages the Memory It manages all I/O It also talks to different Software Subsystems OS works in the background OS for different hardware is different It talks to other devices using internal knowledge or programs called device drivers Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  37. 37. We cannot understand binary language very well We cannot remember details of all devices We cannot manage memory efficiently We need a human understanding interface to machines We need somebody to co-ordinate all activities that take place inside the machine Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  38. 38. PC - OS Windows Linux MacOS Mobile OS Symbian PalmOS Windows CE Network OS Chrome OS Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  39. 39. Strengths Weakness Simplicity Is getting bulkier day by day Abstraction Too many choices User Friendly Vulnerable to threats Non intimidating If buggy, can erode some value Eye for detail Sometimes not trustworthy Device agnostic Too many API’s Communicator Collaborator Scheduler Multitasking and MultiProgramming Interrupt Handler Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  40. 40. Programming Languages Databases Utilities Extenders like Device Drivers Network Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  41. 41. Network OS A lightweight OS which acts as a interface to the internet E.g: Chrome OS Vitualization Software Program which makes use of the CPU efficiently. Complements the OS. E.g: VMWare Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  42. 42. Plug and play OS Configurable Lots of value adding components talking to multiple OS’s Universal hooks Faster and Intelligent Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  43. 43. A way for us to communicate with computers A Program is a set of instructions Programming is the art and science of writing good programs Language is like a protocol that is used to communicate with the machine Hence PL is nothing but the art and science of writing programs that adhere to a protocol Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  44. 44. A programming language (PL) is like any other language like say English It helps us to explain to the computer the problem that we are trying to solve It helps us achieve goals It makes us happy, when we see the goal achieved. It may contain bugs which have to be debugged in order to achieve the goal Hence debugging is a intrinsic part of writing a PL Creation, Preservation and Annihilation of a PL is similar to Life Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  45. 45. First Generation Machine Language Second Generation Assembly Language Third Generation Procedural Language Fourth Generation Non-Procedural Language Fifth Generation Object Oriented Language Sixth Generation AI languages Seventh Generation ???? Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  46. 46. C , C++ , C#, Java PHP, Python Lisp, Ruby on Rails Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  47. 47. Simple to use Intelligent Constructs Auto Correcting Self Modifying User FX Platform Agnostic Secure Constructs Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  48. 48. Abstraction Hiding details and exposing a very friendly interface to the user Human Like Predictive Analytical Qualitative, at times Annihilation Future is for non programming products Auto program writing programs Easy pick and choose interface End of Programming as we know it Ease of Programming – actually the term is value adding Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  49. 49. Questions & Answers Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  50. 50. What is a database Why a database is required Types of Databases Databases in the current Market What is an index OLTP, DSS, RealTime databases What is SQL What are different SQL Statements Standards Rollback Transactions (Undo) Locking Object Relational Databases DataTypes Relation between a database and a network The future of database Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  51. 51. A database is a repository of data Like the Ocean has water, the database has data Data means the smallest unit of information Base means foundation Thus database means a foundation made of data Databases can be classified functionally or in other ways for eg: locationwise Databases can also be compared to DNA Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  52. 52. Where else can you keep your data Without data there is nothing in this world Data needs to be stored somewhere Data needs to be classified in order to organize it better Sometimes data about data is also required (Description or Metadata) Data also needs to be retrieved in order to achieve some goal Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  53. 53. Hierarchical database Network database Relational Database Object Relational Database Pure Object Database Information Database (Abstraction 1) Knowledge Database (Abstraction 2) Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  54. 54. ORACLE, SQL Server, DB2 MySQL, PostGreSQL (Open Source) Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  55. 55. An index is a signpost To say it in a better way, it is a pointer Still better, it’s an efficient way of organizing data Indexes help to retrieve the required data in a flash (As compared to sequential access) There are different kinds of indexes like Binary Tree index, Hashes etc The downside of index is that it takes up some space in the database for its own existence Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  56. 56. OLTP – Online Transaction Processing Indicates a kind of a database on which Add/Modify/Delete operations are being performed DSS – Decision Support System Indicates a kind of a database on which a Query is being performed RealTime A database where the time difference between stimulus and response is very low. In short, a fast database. Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  57. 57. SQL stands for Structured Query Language It is based on relational theory in mathematics Actually it is not just a Query language, but offers other features also. SQL is a non procedural language Every statement itself is complete in itself There are languages like PL/SQL which extend the functionality of basic SQL In short, it adds a programming layer Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  58. 58. DDL : Data Definition Language. Eg: CREATE, DROP DML : Data Manipulation Language. Eg: INSERT,DELETE,UPDATE DCL : Data Control Language. Eg: GRANT, REVOKE DQL : Data Query Language. Eg: SELECT Transaction Processing Statements: Eg: ROLLBACK, COMMIT Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  59. 59. ISO/ANSI SQL-92 Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  60. 60. Are used to undo the earlier action(s) One way this is achieved using what are called Redo Log Files There are rollback segments internal to the database Rollback can be till a particular time or a particular point in code Rollback points can be specified Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  61. 61. Locking is used to give controlled access to data There are many kinds of locks Exclusive Locks Read Only Locks Part read only and Part Exclusive locks These locks can be at different levels Some locks are on entire database, some on Files, some on a set of data A deadlock or a deadly embrace is when 2 users have locked out each other Modern databases automatically resolve such situations Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  62. 62. A relational database that incorporates object oriented paradigm Certain statements within SQL now are having object level meanings Objects support concepts such as Abstraction, Inheritance, Polymorphism Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  63. 63. Are fundamental units which depict what the type of data is Some of the datatypes are NUMBER, STRING, XML etc. Data within a database is stored in columns of a specific datatype, as given above Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  64. 64. Database is nature And Network is nurture We are all born with a database and realize the network around us. As time passes by … Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  65. 65. Databases will become more complex in terms of type of content Songs, Videos etc will be embedded within a database – I mean new data types There will be programs which help disparate databases to talk to each other Information and Knowledge would be stored within a database Meta data will become very important Databases will grow in size Redundancy would be taken care by some programs, although the trend is to increase Code will also be interspersed with data in a database Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  66. 66. Questions & Answers Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  67. 67. What is a network Why a network is required OSI Network Layer Network Topologies Bridges, Hubs, Routers, Switches, Gateways LAN, WAN, MAN Networking Protocols Connecting Devices in a Network Intelligence in a Network The internet – The mother of all networks Why the internet ARPANET, MILNET, Internet Bulletin Boards, Archie , Veronica World Wide Web Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  68. 68. Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  69. 69. Two or more devices and/or people connected to each other forms a network Nature itself is synonymous to network We are connected to each other through a bond that is not visible In a peoples network, we just have six degrees of separation from one another There are networking sites on the internet Business Networks like LinkedIn Social Networks like Facebook Communities Forums Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  70. 70. Imagine how life would be without a network, all by yourself There will be nothing to share or show off There will be a feeling of loneliness We see ourselves through the senses of other people, when conscious Ditto with Computers The more devices connected the more is the value of the network Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  71. 71. Taken From: Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  72. 72. Bridge : Connects two networks Hub : Central Point for connecting all computers Router: An intelligent Switch Switch : Used to connect 2 or more networks Gateway: A Switch for dissimilar networks Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  73. 73. LAN : Local Area Network WAN : Wide Area Network MAN : Metropolitan Area Network Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  74. 74. TCP / IP Transmission Comtrol Protocol/Internet Protocol UDP User Datagram Protocol FTP File Transfer Protocol SMTP / POP3 Simple Mail Transfer Protocol / Post Office Protocol HTTP Hype Text Transfer Protocol NetBEIU NetBios Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  75. 75. The value of a network grows exponentially as more members are added to a network This is called MetCalfe’s Law The more devices you connect to each other, the more the value goes up Devices may require to be installed or may be plug and play The latter seems to be the trend for the future Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  76. 76. Intelligence resides in the devices on the network Not in the wire that transmits data Or the ether through which wireless signals flow Intelligence will move to the periphery and middle wherever there are devices Two or more devices may also have a collective intelligence Intelligence modules will be available as plug and play in the future Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  77. 77. Taken from: Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  78. 78. Like Sunlight is impartial, Knowledge should also be impartial The internet is the first attempt towards this noble goal The internet is evolving, it’s the mother of all networks on this blue planet It’s Ubiquitous, Net Neutral and Powerful Without internet, we would not be able to share so well Information will reach people late Some people may even not get the benefit of it We are all 1 big humanity connected thru networks like the Internet It accelerates change and provides us tools / info to be more productive Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  79. 79. ARPANET : Is the predecessor of the internet MILNET: The military network on the internet Internet: Grew from the two above and now embraces most of the networks Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  80. 80. Earlier Websites were called Bulletin Boards Except that they were exclusive (not talking to other websites) Eg: Compuserve, AOL etc Archie and Veronica were tools to access the internet earlier before 1993 There were many other tools also Till the time, the World Wide Web was not invented Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  81. 81. The internet as most of us know today is called World Wide Web A term coined and invented by Tim Berners Lee Web Browsers were made available and they could access the Web The underlying language of the Web was HTML The father of the Internet is Vint Cerf. Thanks to efforts of all these people, that we get to access the internet Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  82. 82. Questions & Answers Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  83. 83. Building a Website Choosing your Service Provider Choosing the Platform (Microsoft or LAMP) Choosing the right plan Payment details Hosting your Blog Blogger or WordPress Paid Blogs Permalinks / Comments / Share Fun with Wikis Wikipedia – Jimmy Wales Adding / Modifying Wiki Pages Social Networking Facebook & LinkedIn Getting Paid thru AdSense and AdWords Consulting Sites (GLG / Nitron) Freelancing with eLance and Guru Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  84. 84. Building a Website Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  85. 85. Your Service Provider is your middleman to the internet Learn more about the type of service provided by them Go to their website Read about them on blogs, forums, discussions etc. Check if there are Service Level Agreements (SLA’s) Narrate your expectations to the Service Provider Contact See if they can fulfill it Preferably in writing Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  86. 86. Select a platform that is suitable for your website For e.g: If your website has been developed on Microsoft Technologies, choose it Else if say PHP, Python or other Linux Open Source is used, Choose that If you have a plain brochureware, choose any one of the platforms By this we mean a set of HTML pages Once you select a platform, most of the service providers will not allow you to switch Mostly, the decision for you is a technical one Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  87. 87. The plan typically has the following parameters What do you plan to do with an internet connection Size your requirement Look for a corresponding plan with the service provider Sizing involves bandwidth, which is the quantum of data flowing up and down through your computer You can switch plans, as and when your requirement changes Please check with Service Provider for this Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  88. 88. Normally you have to pay before you use a service For a new connection, there is going to be an additional charge (for modems, cables etc) Unless some scheme which waives off all charges is being offered Mostly people choose to pay monthly You can make payment by cheque / creditcard / Net Banking (depends on Service Provider) The less risky is cheque, but it involves a clearing process Choose the payment plan most suitable to you Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  89. 89. Hosting your Blog Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  90. 90. Both Bloggger and Wordpress are Blogging Sites Blogger is Google owned WordPress is independent To start blogging, Blogger is good WordPress gives more control over the blog and is slightly more complex You can Blog from wherever there is a blog button to your blog site Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  91. 91. Some sites pay you for blogging Typically they need you to Blog on a subject that you like Or Blog on a subject that they want It can be a product review or a topic You can also activate AdSense on your Blog (More about this later) The more the traffic the more popular your Blog and the more they pay you That roughly is the equation Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  92. 92. Permalinks : Permanent Link to your Blog Address Comments: Feedback from people who have read your blog Share: You can share the blog with others on your network Besides the above you will be able to mark them or click a ‘I like it’ icon Depends on the blog Remember to submit your blog to blog search engines to get a higher ranking The more the traffic the better Use a third party tool like Google Analytics to understand and predict traffic to your blog Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  93. 93. Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  94. 94. WikiPedia is a collabortaive knowledge guide Founded by Jimmy Wales It is a reference guide It has a map counterpart called WikiMapia Similar to Google Earth Anyone can edit Wikipedia articles Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  95. 95. Wikipedia is available in many languages Choose your language and article You can Edit any page. Moderation is carried out and the page you edited or added becomes part of the Wikipedia knowledge base Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  96. 96. Social Networks are built with one aim : Share Content can be anything – pictures, text, videos The idea is to form a network of friends and share useful things with them Facebook : Is the most popular Social Networking Sites Others like Facebook : MySpace, Orkut LinkedIn: Is a Social Networking Site for Business People Others like LinkedIn: Ryze Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  97. 97. Adsense : is an advertising program for end users AdWords: is an advertising program for advertisers AdSense helps you to make money by providing Google’s taregted Ads on your site or blog AdWords helps you to own certain keywords which will activiate your Ad on Adsense Pages With Adsense you make money whenever somebody clicks on the targetted Ads With Adwords, your Ad comes up first in the Advertisements on a Adsense Network. You have to Pay Google for this service. Advantage: Traffic Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  98. 98. You can also make money by offering your services on a time basis GLG and Nitron are websites which list services to be fulfilled And if you can take up a consulting assignment you get paid Payment depends on your relation with them and experience You can enlist in these sites and provide consulting assognments Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  99. 99. eLance and Guru are websites which advertise jobs These need to be done and payment received thereof There are many freelancing opportunities available. You have to bid for them and once awarded, do the work and get paid. Normally the projects are short and of value less than 5000 USD Good Luck ! Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  100. 100. Questions & Answers Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  101. 101. The race between the good and the bad Privacy Encryption – Private and Public Key What happens when you boot up ? Malware – Adware, Spyware and Viruses (Trojans, Worms) Antivirus – what they can and what they cannot do Zero day exploits Phishing Firewalls, IDS Digital Signatures Hacking What next ? Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  102. 102. Since ages the cops have been chasing the criminals As light is to darkness, so is cops to criminals There are rules to follow – which is called dharma When people do not follow the dharma, they fall into disgrace The farther away from way of the dharma, the more they seem to have err-ed People do wrong actions because of ignorance The cops are our line of defence against the looming threat Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  103. 103. We treasure our privacy. There are some parts of our life,, which cannot be exposed as doing so will cause discomfort to ourselves What to hide and what to expose varies from individual to individual Privacy is a key attribute of modern computing systems One way to have privacy is to authenticate the set of data that we need to make private Authorization further restricts the access to required data Privacy can be compromised by not just computers, but also people who are unaware Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  104. 104. Encryption is a way of changing data into an unreadable format It works on the basis of keys that are the gatekeepers to data Private encryption is typically a dataset and 1 key to decode the same Public Key Encryption uses 2 keys (RSA) Encryption is also referred to as Secured mode For eg: https The key strength may be 40 bit, 128 bit etc. The bigger the key the more difficult it is to break the code. Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  105. 105. Here’’s a typical PC boot up sequence Start POST Load Boot Record Load Kernel of OS Load Shell of OS Load Applications on Startup Give control to application Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  106. 106. Adware is a program which typically shows ads on your system, without your permission Spyware is more advanced. It can log in your keys , act as a part of a botnet Viruses are nasty little programs that cause a lot of nuisance. Trojans are a type of virus. E.g: E-mail attachments Worms are runaway virus programs which multiply very fast There are many other types of viruses like boot sector / file viruses Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  107. 107. Antivirus detects viruses and eradicates them They work typically on virus signatures Some work on heuristics Most of the anti viruses are pretty good, but virus writers are one step ahead. Eg: McAfee, Norton, AVG etc. Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  108. 108. Are the exploits written with 24 hours of launch of a product Antivirus people are always on the lookout for these viruses The exploit can be a weakness in a operating system, a patch or something else Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  109. 109. Gathering info thru social engineering is called Phishing The data typically is used to do something harmful to the person who revealed this data It can also be an organization or group instead of a person The problem is human beings who are gullible to such attacks The only solution is to be alert Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  110. 110. A firewall is a block between the outside network and your computer IDS or intrusion detection system, detects suspicious activities A firewall can restrict access to your computer by closing some ports or restricting certain protocols Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  111. 111. Are electronic equivalent of paper signatures They are recognized to be legally binding in some countries Typically organizations like Verisign issue the same MS Word also has a provision for the same Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  112. 112. Hacking is the art of understanding a system in depth When the knowledge that is gathered is used for bad purpose it is called black hat hacking When the knowledge that is gathered is used for good purpose it is called white hat hacking (ethical hackers) Those in between are called grey hat hackers Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  113. 113. To block a black hat hacker, you have to think like them Prevention is better than cure Being proactive matters Take backup regularly Viruses have started proliferating thru all channels like device drivers As gadgets become more intelligent the chances of a virus infecting them is more Social Engineering is something that needs to be tackled with more awareness Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon
  114. 114. Questions & Answers Copyright, 2010 - Rajesh Menon