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Method Of Chaining On Sloping Ground


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Method Of Chaining On Sloping Ground

  1. 1. METHOD OF CHAINING ON SLOPING GROUNDS <ul><li>There are two methods of chaining on </li></ul><ul><li>sloping grounds </li></ul><ul><li>Direct method </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect method </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>Direct method </li></ul><ul><li>In this method the sloping ground is divided into a number of horizontal and vertical strips </li></ul><ul><li>The lengths of horizontal portions are measured and added to get the total horizontal distance </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Indirect method </li></ul><ul><li>There are further three types of indirect method </li></ul><ul><li>By using clinometer </li></ul><ul><li>By applying hypotenusal allowance </li></ul><ul><li>By knowing the difference of level between the points </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>By using clinometer </li></ul><ul><li>A clinometer is a graduated semicircular protractor </li></ul><ul><li>We measure the slope of the ground by using clinometer </li></ul><ul><li>We resolve the sloping distance into its horizontal component by using the formula </li></ul><ul><li>Horizontal component =(magnitude of sloping distance )(cos α ) </li></ul><ul><li>Horizontal component is the required distance </li></ul>
  5. 5. By applying hypotenusal allowance <ul><li>In this method the slope of the ground is found by clinometer </li></ul><ul><li>Hypotenusal allowance is made for each step </li></ul><ul><li>Then hypotenusal allowance is applied on each step until the end of line is reached </li></ul>
  6. 6. Knowing the difference of level <ul><li>In this method the difference of level of two points on the slope is measured by a levelling instrument </li></ul><ul><li>Then the sloping distances are measured </li></ul><ul><li>A triangle will form then by applying pathagorous theorem the horizontal distance is measured </li></ul>